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Technical Paper

Influence of Both Catalyst Geometry and Fuel Sulfur Content on NOX Adsorber Poisoning

2001-05-07
2001-01-1934
NOx adsorbers are very sensitive to sulfur poisoning and future fuel standards are unlikely to be sufficient to prevent the system from requiring periodic desulfation procedures. The purpose of this paper is to present the effects of low fuel sulfur content such as 50 ppm and 10 ppm on the NOx adsorber efficiency for a diesel application. Through this study, the influence of the substrate cell geometry has also been assessed. The use of a 10 ppm sulfur fuel is not enough to maintain, at a high level, the NOx adsorber performance during a 40,000 km aging test. The desulfation criterion (efficiency loss of 30%) is reached after the first 16,000 km. However, the desulfation operation is not enough to recover the initial catalyst performance and the poisoning velocity increases as the catalyst ages. The hexagonal cell substrate catalyst is less sensitive to sulfur poisoning than a square cell substrate catalyst so that its desulfation frequency is much lower.
Technical Paper

Fuel Additive Performance Evaluation for Volume Production Application of a Diesel Particulate Filter

2001-03-05
2001-01-1286
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology is becoming increasingly established as a practical method for control of particulate emissions from diesel engines. In the year 2000, production vehicles with DPF systems, using metallic fuel additive to assist regeneration, became available in Europe. These early examples of first generation DPF technology are forerunners of more advanced systems likely to be needed by many light-duty vehicles to meet Euro IV emissions legislation scheduled for 2005. Aspects requiring attention in second generation DPF systems are a compromise between regeneration kinetics and ash accumulation. The DPF regeneration event is activated by fuel injection, either late in the combustion cycle (late injection), or after normal combustion (post injection), leading to increased fuel consumption. Therefore for optimum fuel economy, the duration of regeneration and/or the soot ignition temperature must be minimised.
Technical Paper

Maximum Electrical Energy Availability With Reasonable Components

2000-11-01
2000-01-C071
The electric power required in automotive systems is quickly reaching a level that significantly impacts costs and fuel consumption. This drives the need to reconsider an electric energy management function. Fast evolving factors such as increasing power usage, and stricter engine management and reliability requirements necessitate a global vehicle approach to energy management. Innovations such as new powernet concepts (42 volt or dual voltage systems), new component technologies (high-performance energy storage, high efficiency and controllable generators), and global electronic and software architecture concepts will enable this new energy management concept. This paper describes key issues to maximize energy availability with reasonable components.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gas Density and Temperature on Air Entrainment in a Transient Diesel Spray

1996-02-01
960862
The air entrainment in a transient diesel spray was studied using laser Doppler anemometry to provide information on the effect of gas density and temperature. The spray was injected vertically into a confined quiescent atmosphere and the entrained mass flow rate was evaluated by measuring the air velocity component normal to a cylindrical geometric surface surrounding the spray, and extending to about 200 nozzle diameters (50 mm). The experimental results, relative to a density range from 0.84 to 7.02 kg/m3 and a temperature range from 293 to 473 K, indicate that the non dimensional entrainment rate, averaged in time over the main injection period, depends on the distance from the nozzle and both gas density and temperature. A first analysis, based on the available data, allowed to quantify the dependence and provided a correlation with such variables.
Technical Paper

European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies - Objectives and Design

1996-05-01
961065
The quality of the environment is a continuing concern of the public in Europe and has been the driving force for much research, development and expenditure by the European Vehicle and Oil Industries. Legislation that has already been implemented and planned provides substantial improvements in air quality. Further improvements however are harder to achieve. Consequently, it has been accepted that a variety of measures, including vehicle/fuel changes need to be investigated together to make further air quality improvements. This paper describes the principles and organisational structure of a co-operative programme carried out by the European automobile industry (represented by ACEA), and the European oil industry (represented by EUROPIA). This programme, building on US AQIRP, is an important input into the process for developing environmental Legislation for the European Union (the European Auto/Oil process).
Technical Paper

Impact of Sulfur on NOx Trap Catalyst Activity - Study of the Regeneration Conditions

1998-10-19
982607
Laboratory and engine tests were carried out to describe the sulphur effect on the NOx adsorbers catalysts efficiency for gasoline lean burn engines. Two main aspects were studied. The first one deals with the NOx storage efficiency of the adsorber under laboratory conditions, especially regarding the SO2 gas phase concentration. The rate of sulfur storing is greatly affected by the SO2 gas concentration. While 6.5 hours are required to get from 70 % NOx reduction to only 35 % when the gas mixture contains 10 ppm SO2, it takes 20 hours with 5 ppm SO2 and more than 60 hours with the 2 ppm SO2 condition. The relationship between the loss in NOx trap performance and SO2 concentration appears to have an exponential shape. The same amount of sulphur (0.8 % mass) is deposited onto the catalyst within 10 hours with the feed gas containing 10 ppm of SO2 and within 50 hours with 2 ppm SO2. Nevertheless, It was shown that the loss in NOx-Trap efficiency is not the same in these two cases.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Influence of LPG (Autogas) Composition on the Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption of 3 Bi-Fuelled Renault Vehicles

1996-05-01
961170
Studies using a bi-fuelled (autogas/gasoline) Renault Laguna vehicle meeting °the 1996 European exhaust emission legislation has demonstrated that over the European test cycle at 25°C the LPG operated vehicle provides substantial benefits of reduced emissions compared to unleaded reference gasoline. At lower test temperatures (i.e. 5°C) even larger reduction in emissions have been observed. Lower CO (up to 95% at -5°C and 65% at 25°C), HC (90% at -5°C and 40% at 25°C) emissions and lower ozone HC reactivity have been observed and could all offer significant environmental air-quality benefits for LPG. Various autogas mixtures have been tested including 70/30, 30/70 and 49/30/21 (% mass propane / butane / propene). Results show that NOx emissions for this vehicle appear dependent on autogas composition. The two gas mixtures containing only 30% butane gave about 50% more NOx at +25°C than the 70% butane autogas mixture.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flow Distribution on Emissions Performance of Catalytic Converters

1998-02-23
980936
The emissions performance of catalytic converters under different conditions of flow distribution was investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics methods were utilised to model the maldistribution effects of different inlet cones. The effects of maldistribution on ageing, light-off and conversion were investigated using steady state tests on an engine bench. Emission testing was also conducted on a vehicle throughout ECE and EUDC test cycles. Maldistribution was found to have a significant effect on the efficiency of the catalyst during the early stages of the ECE cycle for both fresh and aged catalysts. The effects were less significant over later stages of the ECE cycle and throughout the EUDC except NOx where maldistribution did have an effect on the conversion at higher flow rates during the later stages of the test.
Technical Paper

Air Quality and Odors Evaluation for Passengers Compartment

1995-02-01
950016
The paper presents the VALEO and RENAULT approach to study odor problems for passengers compartment. The first part describes the method chosen to form a panel, and the second part presents a vehicle application.
Technical Paper

Torso Improvements in Child Dummies Used for Certification Tests in Europe

1997-11-12
973315
Child dummies used in certification dynamic tests have not been improved since their marketing and their approval as European regulation dummies. Their main shortcoming lies in a too high and therefore unrealistic stiffness of the torso front part. The paper addresses a study carried out in the aim of solving this problem. It includes two parts: in a first section, the changes brought to the dummy torso and intended to improve its biofidelity and to reduce stiffness drastically are described. In order to reach such an objective, the lower part of the upper torso was remodelled; the pelvis profile was redefined and the geometrical and mechanical characteristics of the foam used for the abdominal insert were changed. The results obtained using two transducers installed in the abdominal section are then presented. The measurement principle of the first transducer consists in a pressure measurement, and the principle of the second one in a load measurement.
Technical Paper

Fleet Management of the Future

1998-10-19
98C059
This paper deals with fleet management systems and the means to integrate new communication and computer technologies to improve transportation companies efficiency. It focuses on the integration of embedded electronic systems for communication and data management through the use of on-board computers, taking the point of view of the truck manufacturer. It introduces the idea of making the vehicle a nod of a complete communication network. After briefly presenting fleet management problematic and some of the major existing solutions, it analyzes how new technologies can be integrated and what major advantages they would bring.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Tests of Racing Seats and Simulation with Vedyac Code

1998-11-16
983059
Dynamic tests have been performed on carbon fiber racing seats following the FIA regulations. The tests have shown, in rear impact tests, a relatively strong rebound leading to large forward bending of neck, and, in side impact tests, very large lateral displacement of the head, the latter protruding dangerously towards hard portions of the car structure. Stiffening the seat back by steel struts results in reducing strongly both the motion and the acceleration of the head. Simulations of the dynamics of the tests have been done with multi-body models, including the Hybrid III dummy and seat deflection, by means of the program VEDYAC. It has been found that computer simulation can predict very accurately the result of a test, provided the numerical models have been carefully calibrated to match the dummy tolerance bands. Once they have been calibrated and validated with a number of tests, the computer models can be very useful to extend the test results to different test conditions.
Technical Paper

Toothed Couplings for Diesel Engines: An Example of Steel Substitution With Fiber Reinforced Plastics

1996-04-01
91A100
The replacement with plastic of an important component, formerly in steel, in the timing drive of a heavily duty diesel engine has been studied and realized. The substituted part is the toothed coupling connecting the injection pump to the timing drive. Torque that stresses the coupling has been measured with laboratory tests. The tooth stresses have been calculated with FEM analysis. Finally, fatigue tests have been carried out directly on the engine at different loadings. The test results are consistent with the predicted behavior of this component.
Technical Paper

Van - The Optimized Industrial Solution for Vehicle Multiplexing (Vehicle Area Network)

1992-02-01
920223
This paper presents the following VAN concept led by a vehicle analysis: electrical architecture must not be basically changed in order to be cost effective; efficiency, interoperability and safety aspects must be rigorously respected to avoid lack of quality. As a consequence VAN solutions meet the requirement set concerning wiring, transceivers, protocol controllers and software services. Each of these solutions is optimized to assure safety and easy use. VAN transceivers support multiplexed applications - even high speed application - with conventional wiring. VAN controllers offer a large diversity of services, so allow the minimization of network load, of CPU load, with a high Real Time efficiency. Moreover their structure is very open to diagnosis requirements. VAN softwares provide simple, reliable, reusable mechanisms of sharing, exchange and synchronization. Such mechanisms minimize cost development and guarantee safety proofs in the liability context.
Technical Paper

Considerations in Designing a Recovery Steam Generator for Incineration Plants

1992-08-03
929266
The design of recovery steam generators for incineration plants encounters certain specific problems, related to the nature of the exhausted gases, which, if not properly faced, can strongly condition the conduction of the whole system. Two problems, namely, demand for particular attention: the corrosion at high temperature and the formation of organochlorine compounds, in presence of ashes and/or deposits for definite temperature intervals. These phenomena can be controlled and minimized, whenever possible, by limiting to the greatest extent the regions where the temperatures of the metallic walls and of the ashes and/or deposits are within the critical interval.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spray-Wall Interaction on Air Entrainment in a Transient Diesel Spray

1993-03-01
930920
The influence of spray-wall interaction on air entrainment in an unsteady non-evaporating diesel spray was studied using laser Doppler anemometry. The spray was injected into confined quiescent air at ambient pressure and temperature and made to impact on a flat wall. The air velocity component normal to a cylindrical surface surrounding the spray was measured during the entire injection period, allowing to evaluate the time history of the entrained air mass flow rate. The influence of wall distance and spray impingement angle on air entrainment characteristics has been investigated and the results indicate that the presence of a wall increases the entrained mass flow rate in the region close to the surface, during the main injection period. Normal impingement appears to produce stronger effects than oblique incidence at 30 and 45 deg. A qualitative explanation of the results is also proposed, based on the drop-gas momentum exchange mechanism.
Technical Paper

Integration and Validation of Sheet Metal Forming Simulation Computer Programs Into the Design Process

1996-04-01
91A121
In order to improve the design of drawn parts and to reduce the number of trial and error tests, Renault has undertaken the development and the validation of various finite element procedures and codes. This paper describes the function of each software and its level of integration into the design process. One of them is already an operational tool used be planners whilst the others are still in the validation phase. Selected examples show typical applications of the computer programs on automotive parts.
Technical Paper

Crash Performance of Rtm Composites for Automotive Applications

1996-04-01
91A120
This paper describes the experimental activity carried out at Aerospace Engineering Department of Politecnico di Milano about energy absorption capability of glass-epoxy RTM specimens, representative of automotive crash front structure sub-components. After the analysis of some automotive crashworthiness aspects, especially relevant to the structural adoption of composite materials, the specimen used and the technological route to produce them are described. Then experimental arrangements, test procedure and measurement technique, relevant to static and crash test are presented. Finally test results, reported in the form of numerical values, diagrams and high-velocity films are shown and critically commented.
Technical Paper

Solar Prototype for Shell-Eco Marathon Race

2017-03-28
2017-01-1260
Apollo is the name of a solar prototype vehicle of Politecnico di Milano (Technical University of Milan) that has been conceived and employed for the Shell Eco-marathon® Europe competition (SEM). The paper introduces the concept design, the detailed design, the construction, the indoor tests, the successful employment at SEM and the end-of-life of the prototype. Apollo is a three-wheeler with a single driving and steering wheel at the rear. A wing with solar cells provides part of the electric energy required for running. The conceptual design started from the accommodation of the driver inside the vehicle. A number of iterations focusing on CFD (computation fluid dynamics) and wind-tunnel tests allowed to refine the total drag to less than 2N at 35 km/h. The tyre characteristic was measured on a drum. The camber of front wheels was set to 4 deg which provided the least rolling resistance.
Technical Paper

Evolution of the Ride Comfort of Alfa Romeo Cars since 1955 until 2005

2017-03-28
2017-01-1484
The ride comfort of three Alfa Romeo cars, namely Giulietta (1955), Alfetta (1972) and 159 (2005) has been assessed both objectively and subjectively. The three cars belong to the same market segment. The aim is to let young engineers or graduate students understand how technology has evolved and eventually learn a lesson from the assessed trend. A number of cleats have been fixed at the ground and the three cars have traversed such uneven surface. The objective assessment of the ride comfort has been performed by means of accelerometers fixed at the seat rails, additionally a special dummy developed at Politecnico di Milano has been employed. The subjective assessment has been performed by a panel of passengers. The match between objective and subjective ratings is very good. Simple mathematical models have been employed to establish a (successful) comparison between experimental and computational results. The ride comfort differs substantially among the cars.
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