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Technical Paper

A Possible Adaptive Wing Apparatus for New UAV Configurations

2015-09-15
2015-01-2463
The problem of wing shape modification under loads in order to enhance the aircraft performance and control is continuously improving by researchers. This requirement is in contrast to the airworthiness regulations that constraint stiffness and stress of the structure in order to maintain structural integrity under operative flight conditions. The lifting surface modification is more stringent in those cases, such as UAV configurations, where the installed power is limited but the variety of operative scenario is wider than in conventional aircraft. A possible solution for adaptive wing configuration can be found in the VENTURAS Project idea. The VENTURAS Project is a funded project with the aim of improve the wind turbine efficiency by means of introducing a twisting capability for the blade sections according to the best situation in any wind condition. The blade structure is composed by two parts: 1) internal supporting element, 2) external deformable envelope.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Slender Beam-Wise Schemes for Structural Behavior of Flexible UAS Wings

2015-09-15
2015-01-2462
The innovative highly flexible wings made of extremely light structures, yet still capable of carrying a considerable amount of non- structural weights, requires significant effort in structural simulations. The complexity involved in such design demands for simplified mathematical tools based on appropriate nonlinear structural schemes combined with reduced order models capable of predicting accurately their aero-structural behaviour. The model presented in this paper is based on a consistent nonlinear beam-wise scheme, capable of simulating the unconventional aeroelastic behaviour of flexible composite wings. The partial differential equations describing the wing dynamics are expanded up to the third order and can be used to explore the effect of static deflection imposed by external trim, the effect of gust loads and the one of nonlinear aerodynamic stall.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on a 3D Wing Section Hosting Multiple SJAs for Stall Control Purpose

2015-09-15
2015-01-2453
Flow control over aerodynamic shapes in order to achieve performance enhancements has been a lively research area for last two decades. Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs) are devices able to interact actively with the flow around their hosting structure by providing ejection and suction of fluid from the enclosed cavity containing a piezo-electric oscillating membrane through dedicated orifices. The research presented in this paper concerns the implementation of zero-net-mass-flux SJAs airflow control system on a NACA0015, low aspect ratio wing section prototype. Two arrays with each 10 custom-made SJAs, installed at 10% and 65% of the chord length, make up the actuation system. The sensing system consists of eleven acoustic pressure transducers distributed in the wing upper surface and on the flap, an accelerometer placed in proximity of the wing c.g. and a six-axis force balance for integral load measurement.
Technical Paper

Design the City Vehicle XAM using CFD Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-1533
XAM is a two-seat city vehicle prototype developed at the Politecnico di Torino, equipped with a hybrid propulsion system to obtain low consumptions and reduced environmental impact. The design of this vehicle was guided by the requirements of weight reduction and aerodynamic optimization of the body, aimed at obtaining a reduction of resistance while guarantying roominess. The basic shape of the vehicle corresponding to the requirements of style, ergonomics and structure were deeply studied through CFD simulation in order to assess its aerodynamic performance (considering the vehicle as a whole or the influence of the various details and of their changes separately). The most critical areas of the body (underfloor, tail, spoiler, mirrors, A-pillar) were analyzed creating dedicated refinement volumes.
Technical Paper

Improved Multibody Model of Flexible Wing

2013-09-17
2013-01-2265
In the development of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAVs and their control the flexibility of the wing must be taken into account. The wing of this type of UAVs, usually made of highly flexible composite materials, has high aspect ratio with significant bending-torsional deformation during flight. The NASA Helios, as an example, has tragically shown that wing deformation coupled with control and power operation can cause serious problem in flight, instability can suddenly occur and can be quite difficult to foresee. In this paper the mathematical description of a flexible wing multibody model is presented. It is suitable to simulate the effect of both structural flexibility and flight dynamics and maneuvering on the wing deformation, and can be used to help developing control strategies for air vehicles with highly deformable wings.
Technical Paper

Aeroelastic Behaviour of Flexible Wings Carrying Distributed Electric Propulsion Systems

2017-09-19
2017-01-2061
An accurate aeroelastic assessment of powered HALE aircraft is of paramount importance considering that their behaviour contrasts the one of conventional aircraft mainly due to the use of high aspect-ratio wings with distributed propulsion systems. This particular configuration shows strong dependency of the wing natural frequencies to the propulsion distribution and operating conditions. Numerical and experimental investigations are carried out to better understand the behaviour of flexible wings, focusing on the effect of distributed electric propulsion systems. Several configurations are investigated, including a single propulsion system using an engine pod (a weight with embedded electric motor, a propeller, and the wing-attached structure) installed at selected spanwise positions, and configurations with two and three propellers.
Journal Article

A Reduced Order Model for the Aeroelastic Analysis of Flexible Wings

2013-09-17
2013-01-2158
The aeroelastic design of highly flexible wings, made of extremely light structures yet still capable of carrying a considerable amount of non-structural weights, requires significant effort. The complexity involved in such design demands for simplified mathematical tools based on appropriate reduced order models capable of predicting the accurate aeroelastic behaviour. The model presented in this paper is based on a consistent nonlinear beam model, capable of simulating the unconventional aeroelastic behaviour of flexible composite wings. The partial differential equations describing the wing dynamics are reduced to a dimensionless form in terms of three ordinary differential equations using a discretization technique, along with Galerkin's method. Within this approach the nonlinear structural model an unsteady indicial based aerodynamic model with dynamic stall are coupled.
Journal Article

ℒ1 Adaptive Flutter Suppression Control Strategy for Highly Flexible Structure

2013-09-17
2013-01-2263
The aim of this work is to apply an innovative adaptive ℒ1 techniques to control flutter phenomena affecting highly flexible wings and to evaluate the efficiency of this control algorithm and architecture by performing the following tasks: i) adaptation and analysis of an existing simplified nonlinear plunging/pitching 2D aeroelastic model accounting for structural nonlinearities and a quasi-steady aerodynamics capable of describing flutter and post-flutter limit cycle oscillations, ii) implement the ℒ1 adaptive control on the developed aeroelastic system to perform initial control testing and evaluate the sensitivity to system parameters, and iii) perform model validation and calibration by comparing the performance of the proposed control strategy with an adaptive back-stepping algorithm. The effectiveness and robustness of the ℒ1 adaptive control in flutter and post-flutter suppression is demonstrated.
Journal Article

Potentialities of Boot Injection Combined with After Shot for the Optimization of Pollutant Emissions, Fuel Consumption and Combustion Noise in Passenger Car Diesel Engines

2017-03-14
2017-01-9277
The present paper illustrates an investigation about the potentialities of injection rate shaping coupled with an after injection. A pilot shot can either be absent or present before the rate-shaped boot injection. The experimental tests have been performed on a partial PCCI Euro 5 diesel engine endowed with direct-acting piezoelectric injectors. Starting from optimized triple pilot-main-after injection strategies, boot injection was implemented by maintaining the direct-acting piezo injector needle open at part lift. The results of two steady state working conditions have been presented in terms of engine-out emissions, combustion noise and brake specific fuel consumption. In addition, in-cylinder analyses of the pressure, heat-release rate, temperature and emissions have been evaluated. Considering the in-cylinder pressure traces and the heat release rate curves, the injection rate shaping proved to influence combustion in the absence of a pilot injection to a great extent.
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