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Technical Paper

A Deep Learning based Virtual Sensor for Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation: Experimental Results

Modern vehicles have several active systems on board such as the Electronic Stability Control. Many of these systems require knowledge of vehicle states such as sideslip angle and yaw rate for feedback control. Sideslip angle cannot be measured with the standard sensors present in a vehicle, but it can be measured by very expensive and large optical sensors. As a result, state observers have been used to estimate sideslip angle of vehicles. The current state of the art does not present an algorithm which can robustly estimate the sideslip angle for vehicles with all-wheel drive. A deep learning network based sideslip angle observer is presented in this article for robust estimation of vehicle sideslip angle. The observer takes in the inputs from all the on board sensors present in a vehicle and it gives out an estimate of the sideslip angle. The observer is tested extensively using data which are obtained from proving grounds in high tire-road friction coefficient conditions.
Technical Paper

Multi-body Versus Block-Oriented Approach in Suspension Dynamics of a Military Tracked Tank

The superior mobility of a military vehicle provides the combat crew with a tactical advantage through increased cross country speed. The suspension system plays a fundamental role in evaluating a vehicle mobility. A mathematical model that allows realistic simulations of vehicles operating in a wide spectrum of environmental conditions may help to lower costs and time required during their development. The paper concerns with vehicle-terrain interaction modeling, for a military tracked tank, through multi-body and block-oriented approaches. It is focused on the consequences that the suspension system has got on the comfort and on the performance. Thus through a multi-body software a realistic three dimensional model of a tracked fighting vehicle is developed. This virtual model confirms some experimental data available on its longitudinal dynamics. In order to simplify the multi-body simulations, a block-oriented approach is adopted to develop a model of the same vehicle.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Tire Brush Model for Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

The aim of this paper is the conception of a tire model which allows a good fit with the physical experimental behavior of the component. In the meanwhile, the model should be simple enough to permit real time vehicle dynamics simulation, in the same way as the diffused Pacejka's model. The paper discusses the influence of the model for the estimation of contact patch properties on the overall tire forces and moments. It demonstrates that unrealistic models of the contact patch can lead to a good fit with the experimental data (in terms of forces and self-aligning moment), even if the real physics of the tire is not reproduced. A realistic model implies a significant reduction of the stiffness of the brushes as a function of the vertical load between the tire and the road surface.
Technical Paper

Racing Simulation of a Formula 1 Vehicle with Kinetic Energy Recovery System

This paper deals with the development of a Lap Time Simulator in order to carry out a first approximate evaluation of the potential benefits related to the adoption of the Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS). KERS will be introduced in the 2009 Formula 1 Season. This system will be able to store energy during braking and then use it in order to supply an extra acceleration during traction. Different technologies (e.g. electrical, hydraulic and mechanical) could be applied in order to achieve this target. The lap time simulator developed by the authors permits to investigate the advantages both in terms of fuel consumption reduction and the improvement of the lap time.
Technical Paper

A Contribution to Engine and Vehicle Performance Prediction

The application of computational methods for the development of the whole engine-vehicle system has been evaluated in this paper, to highlight the potential of computer simulation techniques applied to the analysis of engine-vehicle matching. First, engine performance was simulated using a one-dimensional fluid dynamic code, and predicted data were compared to experimental results, to assess the accuracy of the engine computer model not only as far as gross engine performance parameters are concerned, but also for the prediction of pressure values at several locations inside the engine. The simulation was also extended to the whole engine operating range, including part-load operating conditions. Afterwards, a vehicle simulation code was employed, to predict vehicle performance and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Simulation to Develop an Active Roll Control System

Active Roll Control (ARC) is one of the most promising active systems to improve vehicle comfort and handling. This paper describes the simulation based procedure adopted to conceive a double-channel Active Roll Control system, characterized by the hydraulic actuation of the stabilizer bars of a sedan. The first part of the paper presents the vehicle model adopted for this activity. It is Base Model Simulator (BMS), the 14 Degrees-of-Freedom vehicle model by Politecnico di Torino. It was validated through road tests. Then the paper describes the development of the control algorithm adopted to improve the roll dynamics of the vehicle. The implemented control algorithm is characterized by a first subsystem, capable of obtaining the desired values of body roll angle as a function of lateral acceleration during semi-stationary maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Base Model Simulator (BMS) - A Vehicle Dynamics Model to Evaluate Chassis Control Systems Performance

Chassis Control Systems development methodology is nowadays strongly based on analyzing performance by using PC vehicle dynamics simulation. Generally, the overall design, test bench and road validation process is continuously accompanied by simulation. The Base Model Simulator was developed by the Vehicle Dynamics Group at the Department of Mechanics of Politecnico di Torino both to satisfy this requirement and for educational purposes. It considers a complete vehicle dynamics mathematical model, including driver, powertrain, driveline, vehicle body, suspensions, steering system, brakes, tires. The Base Model Simulator takes in account the suspensions system elastokinematics, including, for example, automatic computation of camber variation during the vehicle roll motions. Tire model considered are either Pacejka's models or experimental data.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation to Improve Engine Control During Tip-In Manoeuvres

The potential of numerical simulation in the analysis of the dynamic transient response of a vehicle during tip-in manoeuvres has been evaluated. The dynamic behavior of the driveline of a typical European gasoline car was analyzed under a sharp throttle input. A one-dimensional fluid dynamic model of the engine was realized for the simulation of the input torque; afterwards, it was coupled with a driveline and vehicle model implemented in Matlab-Simulink environment. After a detailed validation process based on several sets of experimental data, the engine and vehicle coupled simulation was used to evaluate different control strategies during tip-in manoeuvres aiming to enhance the vehicle driveability.
Journal Article

Optimization of Electrified Powertrains for City Cars

Sustainable and energy-efficient consumption is a main concern in contemporary society. Driven by more stringent international requirements, automobile manufacturers have shifted the focus of development into new technologies such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). These powertrains offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system compared to conventional vehicles, but they also lead to higher complexities in the design process and in the control strategy. In order to obtain an optimum powertrain configuration, each component has to be laid out considering the best powertrain efficiency. With such a perspective, a simulation study was performed for the purpose of minimizing well-to-wheel CO2 emissions of a city car through electrification. Three different innovative systems, a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SHEV), a Mixed Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MHEV) and a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) were compared to a conventional one.
Journal Article

A New Approach for the Estimation of the Aerodynamic Damping Characteristics of the ETF Demonstrator

Nautilus S.p.A. and the Polytechnic of Turin, in cooperation with Blue Engineering, have developed a very versatile product, the ELETTRA Twin Flyers [6] (ETF), which consists in a very innovative remotely-piloted airship equipped with high precision sensors and communication devices. This multipurpose platform is particularly suitable for border and maritime surveillance missions and for telecommunication, both in military and civil area. To assess the actual maneuver capabilities of the airship [14], a prototype of reduced size and complexity has been assembled [16]. Before the flight tests a further assessment on the flight simulator is needed, because the first version of the software is tuned on the full scale prototype. Steady state performance and static stability of the demonstrator have been evaluated with CFD analysis.
Technical Paper

Gearbox Paradigm: a support for quick and effective gearbox design

The complexity of automotive market, the request of new gearbox layout able to improve the efficiency of a vehicle and the requirement of quick and effective design of gearboxes push the designers to seek new technologies, new layouts, new solutions. The typical development of a gearbox requires a lot of time and engineers' effort and it often implies a lot of time to define the right layout. The idea to develop a "paradigm" able to guide the designer through the design process seems to be effective. Starting from the experience of a code called "Engine Paradigm" where such idea was firstly implemented, the authors propose in the present paper the development of a code able to suggest a first attempt design of a gearbox. The "Gearbox Paradigm" code requires few data introduction, as torque, power, number of gears, some geometrical constraints such as the axes gap the gearbox layout, and the code elaborates a proposal of CAD design of a gearbox.
Technical Paper

Road to Virtual Tuning: New Physical Lump Model and Test Protocol to Support Damper Tuning in Hyundai Motor Europe Technical Center

Vehicle dynamics is a fundamental part of vehicle performance. It combines functional requirements (i.e. road safety) with emotional content (“fun to drive”, “comfort”): this balance is what characterizes the car manufacturer (OEM) driving DNA. To reach the customer requirements on Ride & Handling, integration of CAE and testing is mandatory. Beside of cutting costs and time, simulation helps to break down vehicle requirements to component level. On chassis, the damper is the most important component, contributing to define the character of the vehicle, and it is defined late, during tuning, mainly by experienced drivers. Usually 1D lookup tables Force vs. Velocity, generated from tests like the standard VDA, are not able to describe the full behavior of the damper: different dampers display the same Force vs. Velocity curve but they can give different feeling to the driver.