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Technical Paper

Gerotor Lubricating Oil Pump for IC Engines

This paper documents an extensive study aimed at a better understanding of the peculiarities and performance of crankshaft mounted gerotor pumps for IC engines lubrication. At different extents, the modelling, simulation and testing of a specific unit are all considered. More emphasis, at the modelling phase, is dedicated to the physical and mathematical description of the flow losses mechanisms; the often intricate aspects of kinematics being deliberately left aside. The pressure relief valve is analysed at a considerable extent as is the modelling of the working fluid, a typically aerated subsystem in such applications. Simulation is grounded on AMESim, a relatively novel tool in the fluid power domain, that proves effective and compliant with user deeds and objectives. Testing, at steady-state conditions, forms the basis for the pro!gressive tuning of the simulation model and provides significant insight into this type of volumetric pump.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of an Advanced Numerical Model for CR Piezo Indirect Acting Injection Systems

A numerical model for simulating a Common Rail Piezo Indirect Acting fuel injection-system under steady state as well as transient operating conditions was developed using a commercial code. A 1D flow model of the main hydraulic system components, including the rail, the rail to injector connecting pipe and the injector, was applied in order to predict the influence of the injector layout and of each part of the hydraulic circuit on the injection system performance. The numerical code was validated through the comparison of the numerical results with experimental data obtained on a high performance test bench of the Moehwald-Bosch MEP2000/ CA4000 type. The developed injection-system mathematical model was applied to the analysis of transient flows in the hydraulic circuit paying specific attention to the fluid dynamics internal to the injector.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption in ICE Lubricating Gear Pumps

Scope of this work is the analysis of the energy consumed by lubricating gear pumps for automotive applications during a driving cycle. This paper presents the lumped parameter simulation model of gerotor lubricating pumps and the comparison between numerical outcomes and experimental results. The model evaluates the power required to drive the pump and the cumulative energy consumed in the driving cycle. The influence of temperature variations on leakage flows, viscous friction torque and lubricating circuit permeability is taken into account. The simulation model has been validated by means of a test rig for hydraulic pumps able to reproduce the typical speed, temperature and load profiles during a NEDC driving cycle. Experimental tests, performed on a crankshaft mounted pump for diesel engines, have confirmed a good matching with the simulation model predictions in terms of instantaneous quantities and overall energy consumption.
Technical Paper

Gearbox Design by means of Genetic Algorithm and CAD/CAE Methodologies

The paper discusses a gearbox design method based on an optimization algorithm coupled to a fully integrated tool to draw 3D virtual models, in order to verify both functionality and design. The aim of this activity is to explain how the state of the art of the gear design may be implemented through an optimization software for the geometrical parameters selection of helical gears of a manual transmission, starting from torque and speed time histories, the required set of gear ratios and the material properties. This approach can be useful in order to use either the experimental acquisitions or the simulation results to verify or design all of the single gear pairs that compose a gearbox. Genetic algorithm methods are applied to solve the optimization problems of gears design, due to their capabilities of managing objective functions discontinuous, non-differentiable, stochastic, or highly non-linear.
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell Size and Weight Reduction Due to Innovative Metallic Bipolar Plates: Technical Process Details and Improvements

In the automotive field the application of electric propulsion systems based on fuel cells requires a constant and continuing research of several optimized solutions, especially in terms of weight and size reduction. These key-factors tend to influence significantly the performance of the vehicle where the system is installed on. The main objective of the paper is to obtain breakthroughs in designing, manufacturing and assembling a fuel cell stack through the development of innovative metallic bipolar plates, that allows to set up high power density stacks, by lowering sensibly weight and size. The research activity carried out by the aforementioned authors is focused on the choice of suitable materials and the development of optimized tools, processes and techniques, in order to be able to move rapidly towards thinner bipolar plates, with new compact geometries that ensure the required stack output power.
Technical Paper

A Commercial Excavator: Analysis, Modelling and Simulation of the Hydraulic Circuit

The paper addresses some aspects of an ongoing research on a commercial compact excavator. The interest is focused on the analysis and modelling of the whole hydraulic circuit that, beside a load sensing variable displacement pump, features a stack of nine proportional directional control valves modules of which seven are of the load sensing type. Loads being sensed are the boom swing, boom, stick and bucket, right and left track motors and work tools; instead, the blade and the turret swing users do not contribute to the load sensing signal. Of specific interest are the peculiarities that were observed in the stack. In fact, to develop an accurate AMESim modelling, the stack was dismantled and all modules analysed and represented in a CAD environment as 3D parts. The load sensing flow generation unit was replaced on the vehicle by another one whose analysis and modelling have been developed using available design and experimental data.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Time-Resolved Mass Injection Rates for a Multi-Hole and an Outward Opening Piezo GDI Injector

Time-resolved mass injection rates of an outward opening piezo-actuated and a solenoid actuated multi-hole GDI injector were measured to investigate (1) the influence of both hardware and software settings and (2) the influence on the injection rates from a wide range of operational parameters and (3) discuss limitations and issues with this measurement technique. The varied operating parameters were fuel pressure, back-pressure, electrical pulse width, single/double injection and injection frequency. The varied hardware/software parameters were injector protrusion, upstream fuel pressure condition and the cut-off frequency of the software's low-pass filter. Signal quality was found to be dependent on both hardware and software settings, especially the cut-off frequency of the low-pass filter. Measurements with high signal quality were not possible for back-pressures lower than 0.5 MPa.
Technical Paper

A Possible Adaptive Wing Apparatus for New UAV Configurations

The problem of wing shape modification under loads in order to enhance the aircraft performance and control is continuously improving by researchers. This requirement is in contrast to the airworthiness regulations that constraint stiffness and stress of the structure in order to maintain structural integrity under operative flight conditions. The lifting surface modification is more stringent in those cases, such as UAV configurations, where the installed power is limited but the variety of operative scenario is wider than in conventional aircraft. A possible solution for adaptive wing configuration can be found in the VENTURAS Project idea. The VENTURAS Project is a funded project with the aim of improve the wind turbine efficiency by means of introducing a twisting capability for the blade sections according to the best situation in any wind condition. The blade structure is composed by two parts: 1) internal supporting element, 2) external deformable envelope.
Technical Paper

Modal Analysis as a Design Tool for Dynamical Optimization of Common Rail Fuel Injection Systems

A challenging task that is required to modern injection systems is represented by the enhanced control of the injected quantities, especially when small injections are considered, such as, pilot and main shots in the context of multiple injections. The propagation of the pressure waves triggered by the nozzle opening and closure events through the high-pressure hydraulic circuit can influence and alter the performance of the injection apparatus. For this reason, an investigation of the injection system fluid dynamics in the frequency domain has been proposed. A complete lumped parameter model of the high-pressure hydraulic circuit has been applied to perform a modal analysis. The visualization of the main vibration modes of the apparatus allows a detailed and deep comprehension of the system dynamics. Furthermore, the possible resonances, which are induced by the action of the external forcing terms, have been identified.
Technical Paper

Common Feeding Injection System Equipped with Reduced-Leakage Solenoid Injectors

A numerical-experimental analysis of a new generation Common Feeding (CF) fuel injection system, equipped with last generation solenoid injectors that feature pressure-balanced pilot-valves, has been developed. The main feature of the CF system is that it removes the accumulator from the high-pressure layout of the standard Common Rail (CR). In the CF apparatus, the high-pressure pump is connected directly to the injectors, and a small accumulation volume is integrated in the pump high-pressure circuit. The hydraulic performance of the CF system, including the injectors with the pressure-balanced pilot-valve, has been compared with that of the standard CR system in terms of injected masses, fuel leakages, high-pressure and injected flow-rate time histories. A previously developed advanced one-dimensional code for CR type systems has been adapted for the simulation of the CF high-pressure layout.
Technical Paper

Multi-objective Optimization of a Multifunctional Structure through a MOGA and SOM based Methodology

A Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) problem concerning the thermal control problem of Multifunctional Structures (MFSs) is here addressed. In particular the use of Multi-Objective algorithms from an optimization tool and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) is proposed for the identification of the optimal topological distribution of the heating components for a multifunctional test panel, the Advanced Bread Board (ABB). MFSs are components that conduct many functions within a single piece of hardware, shading the clearly defined boundaries that identify traditional subsystems. Generally speaking, MFSs have already proved to be a disrupting technology, especially in aeronautics and space application fields. The case study exploited in this paper refers to a demonstrator breadboard called ABB. ABB belongs to a particular subset of an extensive family of MFS, that is, of thermo-structural panels with distributed electronics and a health monitoring network.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Geometries of the Cylinder Head on the Combustion Characteristics of a VVA Gasoline Engine

Two different modifications of the baseline cylinder head configuration have been designed and experimentally tested on a MultiAir turbocharged gasoline engine, in order to address the issue of the poor in-cylinder turbulence levels which are typical of the Early-Intake-Valve-Closing (EIVC) strategies which are adopted in Variable Valve Actuation systems at part load to reduce pumping losses. The first layout promotes turbulence by increasing the tumble motion at low valve lifts, while the second one allows the addition of a swirl vortex to the main tumble structure. The aim for both designs was to achieve a proper flame propagation speed at both part and full load. The experimental activity was initially focused on the part load analysis under high dilution of the mixture with internal EGR, which can allow significant further reductions in terms of pumping losses but, on the other hand, tends to adversely affect combustion stability and to increase cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Light Aircraft Spark-Ignition Engine

The aim of this study was to find a convenient set-up for an innovative engine dedicated to light aircraft through a numerical one-dimensional simulation. Six different engine layouts were analyzed in order to find the highest power/weight ratio and the least voluminous configuration. The first was a four cylinder, four stroke, horizontally opposed, naturally aspirated, water cooled engine with 16 valves that delivered 75 kW (∼100 bhp) at 2400 rpm for an estimated weight of 65 kg. A gearbox was also used in the naturally aspirated model to decrease the displacement, the weight and the overall dimensions. The other solutions involved these two engines in a turbocharged layout in order to gain a further downsizing. The supercharging was obtained through a centrifugal compressor driven by an exhaust-gas driven turbine, which also allows the power to be restored at cruising altitude.
Technical Paper

Delivery-Valve Effects on the Performance of an Automotive Diesel Fuel-Injection System

An integrated theoretical and experimental investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the effects that the pump delivery-valve assembly can produce on the performance of a pump-line-nozzle fuel-injection system with a distributor-type pump for automotive diesel engines. Four distinct delivery valves, one constant-pressure valve, one reflux-hole and two relief-volume valves, were separately fitted to the pump and for each configuration of the delivery assembly the system behavior was analyzed under full-load steady-state operations in a wide pump angular-speed range. Fuel injection-rate as well as local pressure time-histories were investigated, paying specific attention to the occurrence and temporal evolution of cavitation phenomena in the pressure pipe and injector nozzle, after the valve closure. The flow across the delivery-valve assembly was theoretically examined in order to ascertain any instability sources as possible causes of cyclic fluctuations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Timing and Odd/Even Number of Teeth on Noise Generation of Gerotor Lubricating Pumps for IC Engines

The paper presents experimental and theoretical investigations on a shaft mounted gerotor lubricating pump aimed at reducing radiated noise at high engine speed. Effects of noise generation identified as main sources are the fluid borne noise (FBN) that originates in unsteady flow and related pressure fluctuations and structure borne noise (SBN) as a result of pressure transients occurring internally, which cause vibrations of the pump case. To clarify the onset of large delivery pressure fluctuations detected at high pump speed (in excess of 4000 rpm), and validate simulation results (AMESim environment), experimental and theoretical studies have been performed.
Technical Paper

An Objective Evaluation of the Comfort During the Gear Change Process

This paper presents the methodology adopted by Politecnico di Torino Vehicle Dynamics Research Team to obtain objective indices for the evaluation of the comfort during the gear change process. Some test drivers and different passengers traveled on a test vehicle and assigned marks on the basis of their subjective feeling of comfort during the gearshifts. The comparison between the most significant subjective evaluations and the experimental values obtained by the instruments located on the vehicle is presented. As a consequence, some indices (based on physical parameters) to evaluate the efficiency and the comfort of the gearshift process are obtained. They are in good agreement with the subjective evaluations of the drivers and the passengers. The second part of the paper presents a driveline and vehicle model which was conceived to reproduce the phenomena experimented on the vehicle. The experimental validation of the model is presented.
Technical Paper

Linear Approach to ESP Control Logic Design

An Electronic Stability Program (ESP) control logic is designed. It is devoted to stabilize vehicle during cornering maneuvers. The aim of the activity is to obtain a feed forward (FF) control structure, capable of better performance than a previously developed closed loop one. The efficiency of ESP intervention is determined observing yaw rate peak reduction and oscillation damping time during step steer maneuver, together with vehicle side slip angle containment and longitudinal speed loss. A single track vehicle model is used to obtain two transfer functions describing vehicle and active system behavior. A third transfer function is derived from active vehicle frequency response that is the designer's target. The interaction between the transfer functions permits to design a feed forward control logic, which is then merged in a closed loop control structure in order to ensure fail safe conditions and control robustness.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Exhaust Manifold Gasket

The paper presents experimental investigation and numerical simulation of a commercial exhaust manifold gasket. Non-linearities in geometric and material behavior make exhaust manifold gasket modeling quite complicated. In the paper, two different FE modeling techniques are compared in order to suggest the best modeling way. Experimental data are collected in order to validate the numerical models. Differences between the two modeling techniques are emphasized and a choice criterion is suggested.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Investigate the Dynamic Characteristics of ESP and EHB Hydraulic Units

The paper deals with the Hardware-In-the-Loop based methodology which was adopted to evaluate the dynamic characteristics of Electronic Stability Program (ESP) and Electro-Hydraulic Brake (EHB) components. Firstly, it permits the identification of the time delays due to the hardware of the actuation system. Secondly, the link between the hardware of the hydraulic unit and a vehicle model running in real time permits the objective evaluation of the performance induced by the single components of different hydraulic units in terms of vehicle dynamics. The paper suggests the main parameters and tests which can help the car manufacturer in evaluating ESP hydraulic units, without expensive road tests.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Simulation of Gerotor Gearing in Lubricating Oil Pumps

The paper presents geometric and kinematic aspects that constitute a premise to the modelling and simulation of gerotor lubricating oil pumps. With reference to a commercial oil pump two different modelling approaches of the pumping elements are addressed: the classical integral-derivative approach and the new derivative-integral approach. The latter, based on volumes swept by vector rays, is easier to implement and requires less computer time at equal accuracy. Two approaches to modelling are also detailed that feature different reticulations of the pump and consequently involve a different number of ordinary differential equations (ODE). Depending on the extent and detail of expected informations, either 4 or N+2 ODE must be solved, N being the number of variable volume chambers in the pump. Finally, numerical results of the simulation code, developed in the AMESim environment, have been compared with experimental results presented elsewhere [4].