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Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Combustion Process of Commercial and Reference Fuels on the CFR Laboratory Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2265
As in the standard American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedure which is used to evaluate the fuel Octane Number (ON), some signal properties are considered, while others are neglected, it happens that different pressure signals of the sensor, obtained from different fuels and operating conditions, can lead to the same Knock Intensity index (KI) value, even though the knock behavior is not the same. Therefore the aim of this work was to analyze the standard signal processing chain of the Cooperative Fuel Research engine (CFR) (from the pressure sensor to the knock-meter display) and its effects on the value of the KI, for different fuels and operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Pem Fuel Cell Performance Under Particular Operating Conditions Causing the Production of Liquid Water: A Morphing on Bipolar Plate's Channels Approach

2011-04-12
2011-01-1349
A fuel-cell-based system's performance is mainly identified in the overall efficiency, strongly depending on the amount of power losses due to auxiliary devices to supply. In such a situation, everything that causes either a decrease of the available power output or an increment of auxiliary losses would determine a sensible overall efficiency reduction.
Technical Paper

Fluid-Dynamic Modeling and Advanced Control Strategies for a Gaseous-Fuel Injection System

2014-04-01
2014-01-1096
Sustainable mobility has become a major issue for internal combustion engines and has led to increasing research efforts in the field of alternative fuels, such as bio-fuel, CNG and hydrogen addition, as well as into engine design and control optimization. To that end, a thorough control of the air-to-fuel ratio appears to be mandatory in SI engine in order to meet the even more stringent thresholds set by the current regulations. The accuracy of the air/fuel mixture highly depends on the injection system dynamic behavior and to its coupling to the engine fluid-dynamic. Thus, a sound investigation into the mixing process can only be achieved provided that a proper analysis of the injection rail and of the injectors is carried out. The present paper carries out a numerical investigation into the fluid dynamic behavior of a commercial CNG injection system by means of a 0D-1D code.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Time-Resolved Mass Injection Rates for a Multi-Hole and an Outward Opening Piezo GDI Injector

2015-04-14
2015-01-0929
Time-resolved mass injection rates of an outward opening piezo-actuated and a solenoid actuated multi-hole GDI injector were measured to investigate (1) the influence of both hardware and software settings and (2) the influence on the injection rates from a wide range of operational parameters and (3) discuss limitations and issues with this measurement technique. The varied operating parameters were fuel pressure, back-pressure, electrical pulse width, single/double injection and injection frequency. The varied hardware/software parameters were injector protrusion, upstream fuel pressure condition and the cut-off frequency of the software's low-pass filter. Signal quality was found to be dependent on both hardware and software settings, especially the cut-off frequency of the low-pass filter. Measurements with high signal quality were not possible for back-pressures lower than 0.5 MPa.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Predictive Capabilities of a Combustion Model for a Modern Common Rail Automotive Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0547
The predictive capabilities of an innovative multizone combustion model DIPulse, developed by Gamma Technologies, were assessed in this work for a last generation common rail automotive diesel engine. A detailed validation process, based on an extensive experimental data set, was carried out concerning the predicted heat release rate, the in-cylinder pressure trace, as well as NOx and soot emissions for several operating points including both part load and full load points. After a preliminary calibration of the model, the combustion model parameters were then optimized through a Latin Hypercube Design of Experiment (DoE), with the aim of minimizing the RMS error between the predicted and experimental burn rate of several engine operating points, thus achieving a satisfactory agreement between simulation and experimental engine combustion and emissions parameters.
Technical Paper

Modal Analysis as a Design Tool for Dynamical Optimization of Common Rail Fuel Injection Systems

2015-09-06
2015-24-2467
A challenging task that is required to modern injection systems is represented by the enhanced control of the injected quantities, especially when small injections are considered, such as, pilot and main shots in the context of multiple injections. The propagation of the pressure waves triggered by the nozzle opening and closure events through the high-pressure hydraulic circuit can influence and alter the performance of the injection apparatus. For this reason, an investigation of the injection system fluid dynamics in the frequency domain has been proposed. A complete lumped parameter model of the high-pressure hydraulic circuit has been applied to perform a modal analysis. The visualization of the main vibration modes of the apparatus allows a detailed and deep comprehension of the system dynamics. Furthermore, the possible resonances, which are induced by the action of the external forcing terms, have been identified.
Technical Paper

Neural-Network Based Approach for Real-Time Control of BMEP and MFB50 in a Euro 6 Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0068
A real-time approach has been developed and assessed to control BMEP (brake mean effective pressure) and MFB50 (crank angle at which 50% of fuel mass has burnt) in a Euro 6 1.6L GM diesel engine. The approach is based on the use of feed-forward ANNs (artificial neural networks), which have been trained using virtual tests simulated by a previously developed low-throughput physical engine model. The latter is capable of predicting the heat release and the in-cylinder pressure, as well as the related metrics (MFB50, IMEP - indicated mean effective pressure) on the basis of an improved version of the accumulated fuel mass approach. BMEP is obtained from IMEP taking into account friction losses. The low-throughput physical model does not require high calibration effort and is also suitable for control-oriented applications. However, control tasks characterized by stricter demands in terms of computational time may require a modeling approach characterized by a further lower throughput.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Combustion Process of a High EGR, High Injection Pressure, Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0009
To comply with Stage IV emission standard for off-road engines, Kohler Engines has developed the 100kW rated KDI 3.4 liters diesel engine, equipped with DOC and SCR. Based on this engine, a research project in collaboration between Kohler Engines, Ricardo, Denso and Politecnico di Torino was carried out to exploit the potential of new technologies to meet the Stage IV and beyond emission standards. The prototype engine was equipped with a low pressure cooled EGR system, two stage turbocharger, high pressure fuel injection system capable of very high injection pressure and DOC+DPF aftertreatment system. Since the Stage IV emission standard sets a 0.4 g/kWh NOx limit for the steady state test cycle (NRSC), that includes full load operating conditions, the engine must be operated with very high EGR rates (above 30%) at very high load.
Technical Paper

A Fully Physical Correlation for Low Pressure EGR Control Linearization

2017-09-04
2017-24-0011
Nowadays stringent emission regulations are pushing towards new air management strategies like LP-EGR and HP/LP mix both for passenger car and heavy duty applications, increasing the engine control complexity. Within a project in collaboration between Kohler Engines EMEA, Politecnico di Torino, Ricardo and Denso to exploit the potential of EGR-Only technologies, a 3.4 liters KDI 3404 was equipped with a two stage turbocharging system, an extremely high pressure FIS and a low pressure EGR system. The LP-EGR system works in a closed loop control with an intake oxygen sensor actuating two valves: an EGR valve placed downstream of the EGR cooler that regulates the flow area of the bypass between the exhaust line and the intake line, and an exhaust flap to generate enough backpressure to recirculate the needed EGR rate to cut the NOx emission without a specific aftertreatment device.
Technical Paper

Delivery-Valve Effects on the Performance of an Automotive Diesel Fuel-Injection System

1999-03-01
1999-01-0914
An integrated theoretical and experimental investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the effects that the pump delivery-valve assembly can produce on the performance of a pump-line-nozzle fuel-injection system with a distributor-type pump for automotive diesel engines. Four distinct delivery valves, one constant-pressure valve, one reflux-hole and two relief-volume valves, were separately fitted to the pump and for each configuration of the delivery assembly the system behavior was analyzed under full-load steady-state operations in a wide pump angular-speed range. Fuel injection-rate as well as local pressure time-histories were investigated, paying specific attention to the occurrence and temporal evolution of cavitation phenomena in the pressure pipe and injector nozzle, after the valve closure. The flow across the delivery-valve assembly was theoretically examined in order to ascertain any instability sources as possible causes of cyclic fluctuations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Timing and Odd/Even Number of Teeth on Noise Generation of Gerotor Lubricating Pumps for IC Engines

2000-09-11
2000-01-2630
The paper presents experimental and theoretical investigations on a shaft mounted gerotor lubricating pump aimed at reducing radiated noise at high engine speed. Effects of noise generation identified as main sources are the fluid borne noise (FBN) that originates in unsteady flow and related pressure fluctuations and structure borne noise (SBN) as a result of pressure transients occurring internally, which cause vibrations of the pump case. To clarify the onset of large delivery pressure fluctuations detected at high pump speed (in excess of 4000 rpm), and validate simulation results (AMESim environment), experimental and theoretical studies have been performed.
Technical Paper

Common Rail without Accumulator: Development, Theoretical-Experimental Analysis and Performance Enhancement at DI-HCCI Level of a New Generation FIS

2007-04-16
2007-01-1258
An innovative hydraulic layout for Common Rail (C.R.) fuel injection systems was proposed and realized. The rail was replaced by a high-pressure pipe junction to have faster dynamic system response during engine transients, smaller pressure induced stresses and sensibly reduced production costs. Compared to a commercial rail, whose inside volume ranges from 20 to 40 cm3, such a junction provided a hydraulic capacitance of about 2 cm3 and had the main function of connecting the pump delivery to the electroinjector feeding pipes. In the design of the novel FIS layout, the choice of high-pressure pipe dimensions was critical for system performance optimization. Injector supplying pipes with length and inner diameter out of the actual production range were selected and applied, for stabilizing the system pressure level during an injection event and reduce pressure wave oscillations.
Technical Paper

Electro-Hydraulic Braking System Modelling and Simulation

2003-10-19
2003-01-3336
The first step toward a braking system ‘by wire’ is Electro-Hydraulic Braking System (EHB). The paper describes a method to evaluate through virtual experimentation the actual improvement in vehicle behaviour, from the point of view of both handling and comfort, including also pedal feeling, due to EHB. The first step consisted in modelling the hydraulic unit, comprehensive of sensors. Then it was conceived a control logic devoted to medium-low intensity braking manoeuvres, without ABS intervention, to determine an optimal braking force distribution and pedal feeling depending on the manoeuvre. A failsafe strategy, complete of on board diagnosis, to prevent dangerous system behaviour in the eventuality of a component failure was carried out and tested. Finally, EHB wheel pressure sensors were used to improve both ABS performance, increasing the adherence estimation, and Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) performance, through a more precise actuation.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Simulation of Variable Displacement Vane Pumps for IC Engine Lubrication

2004-03-08
2004-01-1601
The paper presents geometric, kinematic and fluid-dynamic modelling of variable displacement vane pumps for low pressure applications in internal combustion engines lubrication. All these fundamental aspects are integrated in a simulation environment and form the core of a design tool leading to the assessment of performance, critical issues, related influences and possible solutions in a well grounded engineering support to decision.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption Measurement in I.C. Reciprocating Engines Utilizing Manifold Pressure and Engine RPM

2002-04-16
2002-01-1511
An electronic instrument for the measurement of fuel consumption in reciprocating internal combustion engines for light aircraft has been designed, manufactured and tested. The operating principle of the measuring device is based on the simple, theoretically supported and experimentally verified observation that the fuel mass flow rate is almost exactly proportional to the product of the intake manifold air pressure “pc” and the engine revolution speed “n”. Therefore, only two sensors are needed, and no fuel pipe cutting is required for installation and operation. This feature represents a major point in favor of simplicity, reliability and safety. The aim of the instrument is to provide a fuel consumption indication which can be used during cruising. The instrument is not intended as a replacement for the usual on-board fuel level gauge, but can be used to integrate the flight information with the overall and instantaneous fuel consumption data.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Model of a Load-Following Fuel Cell Vehicle: Impact of the Air System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0100
Fuel cell vehicles promise to become, in near future, competitive with conventional cars in terms of performance, efficiency and compliance with emission reduction schedules. However, many steps still have to be done, and a series of fundamental choices, such as high vs. low air pressure system options remain unresolved. Modeling can be a powerful instrument to evaluate different components or plant layout, and to predict the dynamic behavior of a fuel cell system. The first part of this paper illustrates the implementation of a direct engineering dynamic model of a load-following fuel cell vehicle. The modeling techniques, assumptions and basic equations are explained for each subsystem, with special attention to the air supply system, whose dynamic simulation was one of the primary targets of this work. Some of the simulation results are presented in the second part.
Technical Paper

Effect of Compression Ratio and Injection Pressure on Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a Small Displacement Common Rail Diesel Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0379
The effect of variations of compression ratio (CR) and injection pressure (IP) on the emissions and performance of a small displacement common rail off-road diesel engine was evaluated. The operating point corresponding to the 5th mode of the ISO 8178 - C1 test cycle (intermediate speed / full load) was considered, since it represents one of the most critical operating conditions as far as exhaust emissions are concerned. The main effect of a reduction of the compression ratio, for a fixed injection timing, was found to be, as expected, an increase in NOx emissions along with a decrease of PM emissions, with a substantial redefinition of the PM-NOx trade-off curve; the choice of a proper value for the start of injection can therefore lead to a better compromise among pollutant emissions, although remarkable variations in BSFC and combustion noise must be taken into account.
Journal Article

Modelling and Simulation of Brake Booster Vacuum Pumps

2013-05-15
2013-01-9016
Aim of this work is the development of a lumped parameters simulation model of single-vane vacuum pumps for pneumatically actuated brake boosters. Kinematic and fluid-dynamic models are integrated in a simulation environment to create a tool aimed at evaluating the vacuum pump performance and at guiding the designer during the prototype development. The paper describes extensively the mathematical model, the time domain simulation and experimental analyses performed on a camshaft mounted unit. Great emphasis is placed on the evaluation of the geometric quantities of the control volumes into which the vacuum pump has been divided. For each control volume the mass and energy conservation equations lead to the determination of the instantaneous pressure. The volume of each variable chamber and the respective angular derivative are calculated as function of the shaft position starting from the stator track profile supplied as a generic closed polyline.
Journal Article

Cfd Diagnostic Methodology for the Assessment of Mixture Formation Quality in GDI Engines

2011-09-11
2011-24-0151
The fuel injection plays a crucial role in determining the mixture formation process in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines. Pollutant emissions, and soot emissions in particular, as well as phenomena affecting engine reliability, such as oil dilution and injector coking, are deeply influenced by the injection system features, such as injector geometric characteristics (such as injector type, injector position and targeting within the combustion chamber) and operating characteristics (such as injection pressure, injection phasing, etc.). In this paper, a new CFD methodology is presented, allowing a preliminary assessment of the mixture formation quality in terms of expected soot emissions, oil dilution and injector coking risks for different injection systems (such as for instance multihole or swirl injectors) and different injection strategies, from the early stages of a new engine design.
Journal Article

Model-Based Control of BMEP and NOx Emissions in a Euro VI 3.0L Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0057
A model-based approach to control BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and NOx emissions has been developed and assessed on a FPT F1C 3.0L Euro VI diesel engine for heavy-duty applications. The controller is based on a zero-dimensional real-time combustion model, which is capable of simulating the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, BMEP and NOx engine-out levels. The real-time combustion model has been realized by integrating and improving previously developed simulation tools. A new discretization scheme has been developed for the model equations, in order to reduce the accuracy loss when the computational step is increased. This has allowed the required computational time to be reduced to a great extent.
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