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Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
Technical Paper

Influence of Late Intake-Valve Opening on the S.I. Engine-Performance in Idle Condition

This work has been carried out on a two-cylinder s.i. automotive engine and it investigates spark advance, air-fuel ratio and variable valve overlap for low emissions and low fuel consumption, with an acceptable cyclic irregularity under idle conditions. An original application of a variable valve timing system, based on a passive electro-hydraulic link, has been used for this purpose. The instantaneous engine speed and in-cylinder pressure have been measured and recorded by means of an acquisition data system that allows both the determination and the comparison of some cyclic irregularity indexes, under different engine settings, at idle. The optimum spark advance, air-fuel ratio and valve overlap, which yield the best compromise between fuel consumption and cyclic irregularity, under idle operating conditions, have therefore been pointed out.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Diluted Combustion in a Direct Injection CNG Engine Featuring Post- Euro-VI Fuel Consumption Targets

The present paper is concerned with part of the work performed by Renault, IFPEN and Politecnico di Torino within a research project founded by the European Commission. The project has been focused on the development of a dedicated CNG engine featuring a 25% decrease in fuel consumption with respect to an equivalent Diesel engine with the same performance targets. To that end, different technologies were implemented and optimized in the engine, namely, direct injection, variable valve timing, LP EGR with advanced turbocharging, and diluted combustion. With specific reference to diluted combustion, it is rather well established for gasoline engines whereas it still poses several critical issues for CNG ones, mainly due to the lower exhaust temperatures. Moreover, dilution is accompanied by a decrease in the laminar burning speed of the unburned mixture and this generally leads to a detriment in combustion efficiency and stability.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Different Hybrid Powertrain Solutions for an European Mid-Size Passenger Car

Different hybrid powertrains for a European mid-size passenger car were evaluated in this paper through numerical simulation. Different degrees of hybridizations, from micro to mild hybrids, and different architectures and power sources management strategies were taken into account, in order to obtain a preliminary assessment of the potentialities of different hybrid systems for the European passenger car market. Both diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines were considered: a 1.6 dm₃ Common Rail turbocharged diesel, and a 1.4 dm₃ spark ignition turbocharged engine, equipped with an innovative Variable Valve Actuation system. Diesel hybrid powertrains, although being subject to NOx emissions constraints that could jeopardize their benefits, offered substantial advantages in comparison with gasoline hybrid powertrains. Potentialities for fuel consumption reductions up to 25% over the NEDC were highlighted, approaching the 2020 EU 95 g/km CO₂ target.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of an In-Hub Motors Hybrid Vehicle for Military Applications

The paper focuses on the advantages of the diesel electric traction applied to military vehicles. In recent years electric cars developed mainly to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and cut down the emissions. The reduction of fuel consumption, important for civil vehicles above all to reduce emissions and to lower costs, is important also for the military in order to increase vehicle autonomy. In addition, the interest for hybrid electric military vehicles is linked with vehicle packaging flexibility, on board power generation and stealth potential related to their abilities of silent movement. Among many possible layouts the optimum is considered to be hub mounted drive motors in each wheel [ 1 ]. This study shows the development of a demonstrator of an hybrid electric 4×4 military vehicle. It was carried out for a future extension of the technology to a 8×8 armoured vehicle.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of a Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine Fuelled with CNG and CNG/Hydrogen Blends

An experimental investigation was performed on a turbocharged spark-ignition 4-cylinder production engine fuelled with natural gas and with two blends of natural gas and hydrogen (15% and 25% in volume of H₂). The engine was purposely designed to give optimal performance when running on CNG. The first part of the experimental campaign was carried out at MBT timing under stoichiometric conditions: load sweeps at constant engine speed and speed sweeps at constant load were performed. Afterwards, spark advance sweeps and relative air/fuel ratio sweeps were acquired at constant engine speed and load. The three fuels were compared in terms of performance (fuel conversion efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, brake specific energy consumption and indicated mean effective pressure) and brake specific emissions (THC, NOx, CO).
Technical Paper

Optimization of IDRApegasus: Fuel Cell Hydrogen Vehicle

Given the growing concern for environmental issues, the automotive industry is working more deeply on the development of innovative technologies that reduce gas emissions and fuel consumption. Many car manufacturers have identified hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and fuel cell vehicles as the most promising solutions alternatives. IDRApegasus is a fuel cell hydrogen vehicle developed at the Politecnico of Turin. It participated at the Shell Eco-marathon Europe in Rotterdam (Netherlands) from 17-19 May 2012, a competition for low energy consumption vehicles and also an educational project that joins the value of sustainable development with a vehicle that will use the smallest amount of fuel and produce the lowest emissions possible.
Technical Paper

Racing Simulation of a Formula 1 Vehicle with Kinetic Energy Recovery System

This paper deals with the development of a Lap Time Simulator in order to carry out a first approximate evaluation of the potential benefits related to the adoption of the Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS). KERS will be introduced in the 2009 Formula 1 Season. This system will be able to store energy during braking and then use it in order to supply an extra acceleration during traction. Different technologies (e.g. electrical, hydraulic and mechanical) could be applied in order to achieve this target. The lap time simulator developed by the authors permits to investigate the advantages both in terms of fuel consumption reduction and the improvement of the lap time.
Technical Paper

Effects of Rapeseed and Jatropha Methyl Ester on Performance and Emissions of a Euro 5 Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine

The effects of using neat and blended (30% vol.) biodiesel, obtained from Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME), in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. The impact of biodiesel usage on engine performance at full load was analyzed for a specifically adjusted ECU calibration: the same torque levels measured under diesel operation could be obtained, with lower smoke levels, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance while achieving substantial emissions benefits. In addition, the effects of biodiesel blends on brake-specific fuel consumption and on engine-out exhaust emissions (CO₂, CO, HC, NOx and smoke) were also evaluated at 6 different part load operating conditions, representative of the New European Driving Cycle. Emissions were also measured at the DPF outlet, thus providing information about after-treatment devices efficiencies with biodiesel.
Technical Paper

Performance Optimization for the XAM Hybrid Electric Vehicle Prototype

Given the ever-increasing concern about environmental issues, the automotive industry is focusing on the development of innovative technologies that allow reduction of gas emissions and fuel consumption. Over the last few years, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) and Fuel Cell Vehicles have been developed as the most promising alternative solutions for many car manufacturers. Although fuel cells are considered as the best technology to have zero emission, the impact on infrastructure for a large-scale deployment is not yet solved. For this reason, HEV represent a valid shorter-term alternative that guarantees drastic emissions reduction and reduced fuel consumption with a much lower infrastructural impact. This paper reports the results obtained by the optimization of the emissions and fuel performances of a hybrid electric city vehicle for urban transportation named XAM (eXtreme Automotive Mobility). In order to optimize these performances, a 1D model of the vehicle has been created.
Technical Paper

Reduction in Pollutant Emissions in an “Off-Road” DI Diesel Engine by Means of Exhaust Gas Recirculation

The aim of this work was to obtain a reduction in pollutant emissions, in particular for NOx and Soot, in an “Off-Road” DI Diesel Engine, equipped with a common rail injection system, by means of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). First, an engine simulation was performed using a one-dimensional code, and the model was then calibrated with experimental results obtained from a previous research work conducted on bench tests. Thanks to the engine model, specific emissions were then determined in all conditions, that is, in “eight modes” pertaining to engine loads and speeds. Both the injection advance and EGR amount were changed for all of these conditions in order to obtain the best compromise between fuel consumption and emissions and to respect standard regulations. The investigation was performed using both the Wiebe and a more complex combustion models; this latter allows in fact to determine the soot emission through the Nagle-Strickland model.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Layout and Control Strategy for Parallel Through-the-Road Hybrid Electric Vehicles

This paper describes the optimization of the layout and of the control strategy of through-the-road (TTR) parallel hybrid electric vehicles equipped with two compression-ignition engines that feature different values of maximum output power. First, a tool has been developed to define the optimal layout of each TTR vehicle. This is based on the minimization of the powertrain and fuel cost over a 10-year time span, taking into account the fuel consumption. Several performance requirements are guaranteed during the optimization, namely maximum vehicle velocity, 0-100 km/h acceleration time, gradeability and the all-electric range. A benchmark optimizer that is based on the dynamic programming theory has been developed to identify the optimal working mode and the gear number, which are the control variables of the problem. A mathematical technique, based on the pre-processing of a configuration matrix, has been developed in order to speed up the calculation time.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Early and Late Intake Valve Closures for Knock Mitigation through Miller Cycle in a Downsized Turbocharged Engine

The application of Miller cycle through Late Intake Valve Closure (LIVC) or Early Intake Valve Closure (EIVC) for knock mitigation at high load on a turbocharged downsized spark ignition engine was experimentally investigated. By reducing the effective compression ratio due to a shorter compression stroke and hence achieving lower charge temperatures inside the cylinder, significant mitigation of knock tendency could be obtained. As a consequence, the spark advance retard could be substantially decreased and the enrichment of the mixture could significantly be reduced, thus obtaining impressive efficiency improvements. In this research, both EIVC and LIVC strategies have been examined aiming to achieve possible improvements for knock mitigation and after some preliminary investigations confirmed LIVC being more effective than EIVC for this goal, the latter was discarded and the research activities were focused on LIVC only.
Technical Paper

FMS and AFCS Interface for 4D Trajectory Operations

The future revolution of the air traffic system imposes the development of a new class of Flight Management Systems (FMS), capable of providing the aircraft with real-time reference flight parameters, necessary to fly the aircraft through a predefined sequence of waypoints, while minimizing fuel consumption, noise and pollution emissions. The main goal is to guarantee safety operations while reducing the aircraft environmental impact, according to the main international research programs. This policy is expected to affect also the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), as soon as they will be allowed to fly beyond the restricted portions of the aerospace where they are currently confined. In the future, in fact, UASs are expected to fly within the whole civilian airspace, under the same requirements deriving from the adoption of the Performance Based Navigation (PBN).
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Warm-Up of a Passenger Car Diesel Engine Equipped with an Advanced Cooling System

The target for future cooling systems is to control the fluid temperatures and flows through a demand oriented control of the engine cooling to minimize energy demand and to achieve comfort, emissions, or service life advantages. The scope of this work is to create a complete engine thermal model (including both cooling and lubrication circuits) able to reproduce engine warm up along the New European Driving Cycle in order to assess the impact of different thermal management concepts on fuel consumption. The engine cylinder structure was modeled through a finite element representation of cylinder liner, piston and head in order to simulate the cylinder heat exchange to coolant or oil flow circuits and to predict heat distribution during transient conditions. Heat exchanges with other components (EGR cooler, turbo cooler, oil cooler) were also taken into account.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Three Different Ceramic Substrate Materials for a Diesel Particulate Filter

Three different ceramic substrate materials (Silicon Carbide, Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate) for a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for a European passenger car diesel engine have been experimentally investigated in this work. The filters were soot loaded under real world operating conditions on the road and then regenerated in two different ways that simulate the urban driving conditions, which are the most severe for DPF regeneration, since the low exhaust flow has a limited capability to absorb the heat generated by the soot combustion. The tests showed higher temperature peaks, at the same soot loading, for Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate compared to the Silicon Carbide, thus leading to a lower soot mass limit, which in turn required for these components a higher regeneration frequency with draw backs in terms of fuel consumption and lube oil dilution.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Comparison between a Conventional Euro VI Diesel Engine and an Optimized PCCI Version and Effect of EGR Cooler Fouling on PCCI Combustion

Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) is an advanced combustion mode that has the aim of simultaneously reducing particulate matter and nitrogen oxide exhaust emissions, compared with conventional diesel combustion, thanks to a partially premixed charge and low temperature combustion. In this work, PCCI combustion has been implemented by means of an early single-injection strategy and large amounts of recirculated exhaust gas. Starting from a commercial Euro VI on-road engine, the engine hardware has been modified to optimize PCCI operations. This has involved adopting a smaller turbo group, a new combustion chamber and injectors, and a dedicated high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation system. The results, in terms of engine performance and exhaust emissions, under steady-state operation conditions, are presented in this work, where the original Euro VI calibration of the conventional engine has been compared with the PCCI calibration of the optimized hardware engine.
Technical Paper

Development through Simulation of a Turbocharged 2-Stroke G.D.I. Engine Focused on a Range-Extender Application

An original 2-stroke prototype engine, equipped with an electronically controlled gasoline direct-injection apparatus, has been tested over the last few years, and the performances of these tests have been compared with those obtained using a commercial crankcase-scavenged 2-stroke engine. Very satisfactory results have been obtained, as far as fuel consumption and unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas are concerned. Large reductions in fuel consumption and in unburned hydrocarbons have been made possible, because the injection timing causes all the injected gasoline to remain in the combustion chamber, and thus to take part in the combustion process. Moreover, a force-feed lubrication system, like those usually exploited in mass-produced 4-stroke engines, has been employed, because of the presence of an external pump. In fact, it is no longer necessary to add oil to the gasoline in the engine, as the gasoline does not pass through the crankcase volume.
Technical Paper

Digital Shaping and Optimization of Fuel Injection Pattern for a Common Rail Automotive Diesel Engine through Numerical Simulation

Development trends in modern Common Rail Fuel Injection System (FIS) show dramatically increasing capabilities in terms of optimization of the fuel injection pattern through a constantly increasing number of injection events per engine cycle along with a modulation and shaping of the injection rate. In order to fully exploit the potential of the abovementioned fuel injection pattern optimization, numerical simulation can play a fundamental role by allowing the creation of a kind of a virtual injection rate generator for the assessment of the corresponding engine outputs in terms of combustion characteristics such as burn rate, emission formation and combustion noise (CN). This paper is focused on the analysis of the effects of digitalization of pilot events in the injection pattern on Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), CN and emissions for a EURO 6 passenger car 4-cylinder diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis on the Potential of Different Variable Valve Actuation Strategies on a Light Duty Diesel Engine for Improving Exhaust System Warm Up

The need for achieving a fast warm up of the exhaust system has raised in the recent years a growing interest in the adoption of Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technology for automotive diesel engines. As a matter of fact, different measures can be adopted through VVA to accelerate the warm up of the exhaust system, such as using hot internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation (iEGR) to heat the intake charge, especially at part load, or adopting early Exhaust Valve Opening (eEVO) timing during the expansion stroke, so to increase the exhaust gas temperature during blowdown. In this paper a simulation study is presented evaluating the impact of VVA on the exhaust temperature of a modern light duty 4-cylinder diesel engine, 1.6 liters, equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT).