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Can Fuel Preparation Affect Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions during an FTP (75CVS) Cycle Test?

The effect of fuel preparation on time-resolved, engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions over a Federal Test Procedure cycle [FTP (75CVS)] for a ULEV vehicle equipped with a 6 cylinder engine has been investigated. Using a single-cone injector, the HC mole fraction in Bag 1 increased by a factor of 3-4 during each of the three accelerations in the first 100 sec after start. No such increases were observed in Bag 3 when the engine was fully warm. The increases during accelerations in Bag 1 were reduced by a factor of 3 when using a Dual-cone fuel injector as a drop-in substitute. The total, tailpipe FTP (75CVS) mass emissions were 25% smaller when using the Dual-cone injector. These results demonstrate that fuel preparation can affect HC emissions from a vehicle very significantly during cold start as has been deduced previously during cold-start tests using a dynamometer-controlled engine.