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Technical Paper

Promoting More Effective Communication of Maintenance Issues Between Pilots and Maintenance Technicians

The lack of effective and efficient communication between pilots and maintenance technicians has been recognized as a problem in general aviation by both members of the industry and academia. The goal of this paper is to provide an accounting of the impact that communication between maintenance technicians and pilots, or the lack thereof, can have upon both the bottom line and the experience of those who operate within the general aviation arena. The researchers interviewed and observed maintenance technicians and pilots in general aviation operations to identify what members on both sides of the communication process identified as being problematic and troubling. Several of the major barriers to communication, as well as several strategies to overcome those barriers, are discussed.
Technical Paper

Control of Interior Pressure Fluctuations Due to Flow Over Vehicle Openings

Grazing flows over open windows or sunroofs may result in “flow buffeting,” i.e. self-sustained flow oscillations at the Helmholtz acoustic resonance frequency of the vehicle. The associated pressure fluctuations may cause passenger fatigue and discomfort. Many solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, including for example leading edge spoilers, trailing edge deflectors, and leading edge flow diffusers. Most of these control devices are “passive” i.e. they do not involve dynamic control systems. Active control methods, which do require dynamic controls, have been implemented with success for different cases of flow instabilities. Previous investigations of the control of flow-excited cavity resonance have used mainly one or more loudspeakers located within the cavity wall. In this study, oscillated spoilers hinged near the leading edge of the cavity orifice were used. Experiments were performed using a cavity installed within the test section wall of a wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Dependence of NO and Soot Formation and Oxidation in Transient Combusting Jets on Injection and Chamber Conditions

NO and soot emissions from Diesel engines are dependent on several parameters related to the engine design and operating conditions. Multidimensional models are increasingly employed to study the effect of these parameters. In this paper, a multidimensional model for flows, sprays and combustion in engines is employed to study the dependence of NO and soot formation and oxidation on injection timing, injection pressure, chamber temperature, EGR and ignition delay, and compare the computed trends with those observed in experimental studies reported in the literature. Computations are carried out in a typical heavy-duty Diesel engine and additional computations in a constant volume chamber are used to clarify the engine results when appropriate. For several parametric changes, the experimentally observed trends are reproduced. However, several limitations are identified. The structure of the computed combusting jet has differences with those suggested from recent experiments.
Technical Paper

Automotive Suspension Models Using Component Mobility Methodology

The mobility modeling technique is applied to the structure-borne noise path through a vehicle suspension. The model is developed using measured FRF data taken on the isolated components of the suspension and body structure of a midsize sedan. Several important modeling issues of suspensions are resolved. It was determined that multiple degrees of freedom are required to model the coupling at joints between the suspension and body structure. The investigation also demonstrated that bushings should not be included in the measurements used to develop these models and should be added later using simplified bushing parameters. The importance of transfer mobility information between the various suspension attachments was also investigated. The agreement between the mobility model predictions and the measured FRF data for the overall system is better than similar data published in the literature to date.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Statistical Variation of Structural-Acoustic Characteristics of Automotive Vehicles

Two structure-borne and two airborne paths were measured on 99 “identical” Isuzu RODEOs and 57 “identical” Isuzu pickup trucks. Significant effort was made to control measurement variability but not environmental (climate) variations. A record was kept of the tests of a reference vehicle over the variation of environmental factors. The frequency response functions (FRFs) of the reference vehicle varied by approximately 2-4 dB over the frequency range 0-500 Hz for the structure-borne paths and over 0-1000 Hz for the airborne paths due to measurement and environmental variations. The FRFs of the fleet varied by as much as 5-10 dB over the same frequency range. In this paper, the vehicle tests are described. The reference and the fleet data are shown in raw form. Reduced data and implications of the results are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Slip Resistance Predictions for Various Metal Step Materials, Shoe Soles and Contaminant Conditions

The relationship of slip resistance (or coefficient of friction) to safe climbing system maneuvers on high profile vehicles has become an issue because of its possible connection to falls of drivers. To partially address this issue, coefficients of friction were measured for seven of the more popular fabricated metal step materials. Evaluated on these steps were four types of shoe materials (crepe, leather, ribbed-rubber, and oil-resistant-rubber) and three types of contaminant conditions (dry, wet-water, and diesel fuel). The final factor evaluated was the direction of sole force application. Results showed that COF varied primarily as a function of sole material and the presence of contaminants. Unexpectedly, few effects were attributible to the metal step materials. Numerous statistical interactions suggested that adequate levels of COF are more likely to be attained by targeting control on shoe soles and contaminants rather than the choice of a particular step material.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of Intercity Buses

An experimental program was conducted to verify the reduction in fuel consumption achievable with aerodynamic improvements to intercity buses. Wind tunnel model tests were used to develop effective aerodynamic improvements and full-scale road tests to validate the results. Greyhound Lines coach models MC-7 and MC-8 were tested with head- and crosswinds. Aerodynamic drag of the MC-7 was reduced 17 percent at zero yaw. Drag of the MC-8 initially was higher; it was reduced 27 percent at zero yaw by the best fairing. Both low-drag configurations were less sensitive to crosswinds than the original models; significant drag reduction was maintained to 15 degrees yaw angle. Fuel consumption measurements made with aerodynamic fairings installed on an MC-7 showed that the low-drag bus used 11.7 percent less fuel at a steady 55 mph. The cost of the full-scale modifications was estimated at $ 1,500 each for a retrofit kit and no added cost to produce on new vehicles.
Technical Paper

Biomass Productivity and Sustainability of a Bioregenerative Life-Support System

Energy budgets for future Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems (CELSS) must balance not only with respect to primary productivity (i.e., photosynthesis) vs. utilization steps (human maintenance plus preparative and recycling processes), but also with respect to necessary and desired nonlife-support activities of crews (e.g., exploration, research). Present objectives of the NSCORT program at Purdue University include identification of critical paths for biomass conversion to desired forms with energetics and rate-constant properties that are compatible with life-support sustainability within a CELSS. Physico-chemical recycling systems working in conjunction with bioregenerative ones likely will be required to keep time constants of critical processes within reasonable limits.
Technical Paper

Pressure Fluctuations in a Flow-Excited Door Gap Cavity Model

The flow-induced pressure fluctuations in a door gap cavity model were investigated experimentally using a quiet wind tunnel facility. The cavity cross-section dimensions were typical of road vehicle door cavities, but the span was only 25 cm. One cavity wall included a primary bulb rubber seal. A microphone array was used to measure the cavity pressure field over a range of flow velocities and cavity configurations. It was found that the primary excitation mechanism was an “edge tone” phenomenon. Cavity resonance caused amplification around discrete frequencies, but did not cause the flow disturbances to lock-on. Possible fluid-elastic coupling related to the presence of a compliant wall was not significant. A linear spectral decomposition method was then used to characterize the cavity pressure in the frequency domain, as the product of a source spectral distribution function and an acoustic frequency response function.
Technical Paper

Active Control of Wind Noise Using Robust Feedback Control

A feedback controller bas been developed using robust control techniques to control the sound radiated from turbulent flow driven plates. The control design methodology uses frequency domain loop shaping techniques. System uncertainty, sound pressure level reductions, and actuator constraints are included in the design process. For the wind noise problem, weighting factors have been included to distinguish between the importance of modes that radiate sound and those that do not radiate. The wind noise controller has been implemented in the quiet wind tunnel facility at the Ray W. Herrick Laboratories at Purdue University. A multiple-input, multiple-output controller using accelerometer feedback and shaker control was able to achieve control up to 1000 Hz. Sound pressure level reductions of as much as 15 dB were achieved at the frequencies of the plates modes. Overall reductions over the 100-1000 Hz band were approximately 5 dB.
Technical Paper

Sound Transmission Through Primary Bulb Rubber Sealing Systems

Structural sound transmission through primary bulb (PB) sealing systems was investigated. A two-degrees-of-freedom analytical model was developed to predict the sound transmission characteristics of a PB seal assembly. Detailed sound transmission measurements were made for two different random excitations: acoustic and aerodynamic. A reverberation room method was first used, whereby a seal sample installed within a test fixture was excited by a diffuse sound field. A quiet flow facility was then used to create aerodynamic pressure fluctuations which acted as the excitation. The space-averaged input pressure within the pseudo door gap cavity and the sound pressure transmitted on the quiescent side of the seal were obtained in each case for different cavity dimensions, seal compression, and seal designs. The sound transmission predictions obtained from the lumped element model were found to be in reasonable agreement with measured values.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for the Interior Pressure Oscillations from Flow Over Vehicle Openings

An analytical model based on “vortex sound” theory was investigated for predicting the frequency, the relative magnitude, the onset, and the offset of self-sustained interior pressure fluctuations inside a vehicle with an open sunroof. The “buffeting” phenomenon was found to be caused by the flow-excited resonance of the cavity. The model was applied to investigate the optimal sunroof length and width for a mid-size sedan. The input parameters are the cavity volume, the orifice dimensions, the flow velocity, and one coefficient characterizing vortex diffusion. The analytical predictions were compared with experimental results obtained for a system which geometry approximated the one-fifth scale model of a typical vehicle passenger compartment with a rectangular, open sunroof. Predicted and observed frequencies and relative interior pressure levels were in good agreement around the “critical” velocity, at which the cavity response is near resonance.
Technical Paper

Particle Image Velocimetry Characterization of a Turbocharger Turbine Inlet Flow

Modern diesel engines typically utilize pulse-turbocharging where an increase in exhaust gas transport efficiency is achieved at the expense of creating a highly unsteady flow through the turbine which may have a detrimental effect on turbine performance. As the turbocharger plays a major role in the performance and emissions of the engine system, the characterization of on-engine turbocharger aerodynamics is critical. Thus, this paper is directed at the investigation of the turbocharger turbine volute inlet flowfield on an in-line, six cylinder, diesel engine. Specifically, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), a quantitative non-intrusive whole flowfield measurement technique, is used to perform a detailed study of the on-engine pulsating flowfield at the volute inlet of the twin-entry turbocharger turbine.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Tire Intensity Levels and Passby Sound Pressure Levels

The object of the work reported here was to relate the acoustic intensity level measured near the contact patch of a driven tire on a passenger vehicle with the passby noise levels measured at a sideline microphone during coast and cruise conditions. Based on those measurements it was then possible to estimate the tire noise contribution to the passby level measured when the vehicle under test was accelerating. As part of this testing program, data was collected using five vehicles at fourteen passby sites in the United States: in excess of 800 data sets were obtained.
Technical Paper

Controlling the Water Availability from a Ceramic Tube System Subjected to Non-Standard Gravities

The Porous Ceramic Tube - Nutrient Delivery System (PCT-NDS) offers means to control water availability to plants under non-standard gravities. It is hypothesized that control can be obtained by applying suction pressure within the ceramic tubes. The research objectives include verifying the presented control equation for the PCT-NDS under micro-(less than 1 g) and hyper- (greater than 1 g) gravities. Experiments were conducted on a KC-135 subjecting the system to near-zero to 2 g's and to sustained hyper-gravities upto 10 g's using a centrifuge. Results indicated that the water availability can be controlled through applied suction pressure.
Technical Paper

A Fuel Economy Evaluation of a Safety Compliant Single Passenger Vehicle

The Nexus vehicle was designed and built for Transport Canada at the University of Saskatchewan to demonstrate that a safety compliant single passenger commuter vehicle could attain extremely low fuel consumption rates at modest highway speeds. Experimentally determined steady state fuel consumption rates of the Nexus prototype ranged from 1.6 L/100 km at 61 km/hr up to 2.8 L/100 km at 121 km/hr. Fuel consumption rates for the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) driving cycle tests were 4.5 L/100 km for the SAE Urban cycle and 2.0 L/100 km for the SAE Interstate 55 cycle. The efficiency of the power train was determined using a laboratory dynamometer, enabling the road test results to be compared to the results from an energy and performance simulation program. Predicted fuel economy was in good agreement with that determined experimentally. Widespread use of single passenger commuter vehicles would substantially reduce current transportation energy consumption.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulations of Noise Induced by Flow in HVAC Ventilation Ducts

Numerical simulations are performed to investigate noise generated by flow in automotive HVAC ducts. A hybrid computational method for analyzing flow noise is applied: Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for predicting flow fields and Multi-domain boundary element method for predicting acoustic propagation. LES gives time-resolved solutions of flow velocity and pressure fields. By applying the acoustic analogy theory, the unsteady flow parameters are translated into sound source in evaluating the acoustic propagation. The computational result shows the noise caused by the HVAC ducts is strong. The noise is of broadband with a peak value at 370Hz. A major contribution of the noise generation is from the center ducts. Two design modifications of the center ducts are explored to regulate the flow structures with the ducts for reducing noise generation. Test results demonstrate the effectiveness of the modifications.
Journal Article

Control Strategy for the Excitation of a Complete Vehicle Test Rig with Terrain Constraints

A unique concept for a multi-body test rig enabling the simulation of longitudinal, steering and vertical dynamics was developed at the Institute for Mechatronic Systems (IMS) at TU Darmstadt. A prototype of this IMS test rig is currently being built. In conjunction with the IMS test rig, the Vehicle Terrain Performance Laboratory (VTPL) at Virginia Tech further developed a full car, seven degree of freedom (7 DOF) simulation model capable of accurately reproducing measured displacement, pitch, and roll of the vehicle body due to terrain excitation. The results of the 7 DOF car model were used as the reference input to the multi-body IMS test rig model. The goal of the IMS/VTPL joint effort was to determine whether or not a controller for the IMS test rig vertical actuator could accurately reproduce wheel displacements due to different measured terrain constraints.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Noise Source in a Ducted Fan Using a Generalized Nearfield Acoustical Holography

The identification of the propulsion noise of turbofan engines plays an important role in the design of low-noise aircraft. The noise generation mechanisms of a typical turbofan engine are very complicated and it is not practical, if not impossible, to identify these noise sources efficiently and accurately using numerical or experimental techniques alone. In addition, a major practical concern for the measurement of acoustic pressure inside the duct of a turbofan is the placement of microphones and their supporting frames which will change the flow conditions under normal operational conditions. The measurement of acoustic pressures on the surface of the duct using surface-mounted microphones eliminates this undesirable effect. In this paper, a generalized acoustical holography (GAH) method that is capable of estimating aeroacoustic sources using surface sound pressure is developed.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain Controller Development Using Hardware in the Loop Simulation

It is a time and cost consuming way to physically develop Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) supervisor controller due to the increasing complexity of powertrain system. This study aims to investigate the HEV supervisor controller development process using dSPACE midsize Hardware in the Loop simulation system (HIL) for HEV powertrain control. The prototyping controller was developed on basis of MircoAutoBox II, and an HIL test bench was built on midsize HIL machine for the purpose of verification. The feasibility and capability of HIL were attested by the prototyping control strategy and fault modes simulation. The proposed approach was demonstrated its effectiveness and applicability to HEV supervisor controller development.