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Technical Paper

Human Factors Best Practices

1999-08-10
1999-01-2977
Throughout the industry, organizations struggle with the task of implementing effective human factors programs aimed at reducing maintenance errors. Almost universally, many barriers have frustrated these efforts. In 1998 and 1999, the National Transportation Safety Board sponsored two workshops designed at identifying barriers to the implementation of human factors programs and to explore what was working and what was not working among the many industry efforts. This paper explores the findings of these workshops. In addition, it will report findings of Purdue University studies that reveal a rapid deterioration of even the most successful human factors programs. The research findings disclose several “disconnects” within most organizations which rapidly negate the positive effects of successful human factors and error management training and nullify many proactive human factors programs.
Technical Paper

Critical Management Skills for Maintenance Managers

1999-08-10
1999-01-2976
Recognizing that technicians and managers need additional skills in order to compete for and successfully fill management positions, a major air carrier requested that Purdue University perform a study with employees in order to identify specific skills that are required to perform successfully in leadership positions. The study identified three core competencies (leadership, communication, and management processes) needed to be a successful leader in a major air carrier environment and outlined several related knowledge and skills within each area. Currently, many individuals in front line and mid-level management are lacking in several of these knowledge bases and skill sets. Consequently, the value of addressing current deficiencies through educational and experiential learning opportunities was proposed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Widespread Fatigue Damage in Lap Joints

1999-04-20
1999-01-1586
This paper describes research to analyze widespread fatigue damage in lap joints. The particular objective is to determine when large numbers of small cracks could degrade the joint strength to an unacceptable level. A deterministic model is described to compute fatigue crack growth and residual strength of riveted panels that contain multiple cracks. Fatigue crack growth tests conducted to evaluate the predictive model are summarized, and indicate good agreement between experimental and numerical results. Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to determine the influence of statistical variability on various analysis parameters.
Technical Paper

The Status of Error Management and Human Factors in Regional Airlines

1999-04-20
1999-01-1594
This paper explores the current status of error management strategies and human factors efforts within regional airlines. It briefly addresses the potential needs of the environment from a perspective of the market’s accident and incident history as well as anecdotal reports received from members of the regional airline community. It also raises questions concerning the applicability of human factors and error management strategies developed in other segments of aviation to the problems faced within regional airline environments.
Technical Paper

Is There a Need for Human Factors and Error Management in General and Corporate Aviation?

1999-04-20
1999-01-1595
This paper explores the need for human factors and error management within the context of the general and corporate aviation environments. It discusses strategies currently employed in other segments of the aviation industry and how they might be utilized in the corporate and general aviation arenas. It also relates research findings and program successes experienced within the airline industry and makes recommendations as to how a consortial effort by industry organizations might be utilized to employ these strategies in corporate and general aviation operations.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Measurement of Occupied Car Seats

1999-05-17
1999-01-1690
An overview of model development for seated occupants is presented. Two approaches have been investigated for modeling the vertical response of a seated dummy: finite element and simplified mass-spring-damper methods. The construction and implementation of these models are described, and the various successes and drawbacks of each modeling approach are discussed. To evaluate the performance of the models, emphasis was also placed on producing accurate, repeatable measurements of the static and dynamic characteristics of a seated dummy.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Procedure for Visualizing the Sound Field Radiated by Vehicles During Standardized Passby Tests

1999-05-17
1999-01-1741
Spherical beamforming was used to visualize sound radiation during a vehicle passby test. Forward and backward propagation procedures are compared in terms of computational expense. A spherical spreading correction factor is described, along with a maximum liklihood procedure for obtaining an optimal array weighting dependent on the relative distance between the microphones and the focus point. The de-Dopplerized microphone outputs are multiplied by the weighting factors and summed to yield the source strengths over a reconstruction plane “attached” to the vehicle. Results obtained using a 16 element sparse array during an actual passby are used to demonstrate the present approach.
Technical Paper

The Design and Evaluation of Microphone Arrays for the Visualization of Noise Sources on Moving Vehicles

1999-05-17
1999-01-1742
The present work was directed towards the design of a sideline microphone array specifically adapted to the visualization of automotive noise sources in the 500 Hz to 2000 Hz range. The particular design philosophy followed here involved the minimization of the array redundancy: i.e., the minimization of the number of pairs of microphones that are separated by the same distance in the same directions. The performance of sixty-four element microphone arrays designed according to this principle will be illustrated through the use of simulated motor vehicle passbys. In addition, their performance will be compared with more conventional array designs: e.g., elliptical, and spiral arrays.
Technical Paper

Fracture Mechanics Based Approach for Quantifying Corrosion Damage

1999-04-20
1999-01-1589
The objective of this project is to quantify structural degradation due to corrosion through a fracture mechanics based approach. The metric parameters employed are Equivalent Initial Flaw Size and general material loss. Another objective is to correlate a measurable property to the amount of structural durability damage from corrosion, ideally through current NDE technology, with eddy-current as the primary choice. The approach is comprised by the following areas: corroding aluminum alloys, evaluation of the corrosion through techniques such as surface roughness and eddy current, cyclic testing, calculation of corrosion metric, and, correlation between corrosion metric and physically measurable properties.
Technical Paper

Characterization of a Vibration Damping Mount

1999-09-13
1999-01-2816
Several available mathematical models for vibration dampers were compared to dynamic test results. The comparison results in a simple model that agrees well with both the magnitude and phase characteristics of experimentally obtained frequency response functions. The resulting model can be used as a correct boundary condition for finite element models of the structure to which the dampers are attached.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation of a Position-Controlled Electrohydraulic System Using EASY5

1999-09-14
1999-01-2855
A servovalve - controlled hydraulic motor - driven positioning system was built. The hydraulic system was modeled and simulated using EASY5 software which had predefined hydraulic components models in addition to the ability of defining new ones. EASY5 model made it possible to study the dynamic behavior of the system under varied conditions of entrained air, motor displacement, motor leakage, and mass changes. Different systems components were tested in order to have the required data needed to build the final model. Pump flow rate, motor leakage, servovalve leakage, and slide table friction were experimentally measured. The slide table dynamic model was proposed and the performance data was measured. Eigenvalue sensitivity analysis showed that fluid line between the hydraulic motor and the servovalve is the most influential factor on system stability.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Simulation Model for Analyzing the Performance of a Steel-Tracked Feller Buncher

1999-09-13
1999-01-2785
A parametric simulation model of a steel-tracked feller buncher was developed1. This model can be used to predict the lift capacity, side tipping angles, grade-ability, and joint forces during a cutting cycle. The feller buncher is defined parametrically, allowing the user to quickly analyze different machine configurations simply by changing the value of a variable. Several simulations were performed to illustrate the application of the model.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation Techniques for Steering of Tracked Agricultural and Forestry Vehicles

1999-09-13
1999-01-2786
A procedure for simulating the dynamics of agricultural and forestry machines using mechanical system simulation software is presented. A soil/track interface model including rubber-track and steel-track was introduced as well as equations that can be used to model mechanical and hydraulic power trains commonly found in tracked vehicles. Two rubber-tracked vehicles (agricultural tractors) and two steel-tracked machines (forestry vehicles) were simulated to illustrate the technique, and some analysis results are presented. The examples given in this paper are based on the author’s research over the past several years.
Technical Paper

Conditions In Which Vaporizing Fuel Drops Reach A Critical State In A Diesel Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0511
It has been shown recently that the maximum penetration of the liquid phase in a vaporizing Diesel spray is relatively short compared to the overall jet penetration and that this maximum is reached in 2 - 4°CA after start of injection. This implies that the drops that are formed by atomization vaporize in a short characteristic time and length relative to other physical processes. This paper addresses an important question related to this observation: Are the vaporizing fuel drops disappearing because they reach a critical state? Related to this question is another: Under what conditions will vaporizing fuel drops reach a critical state in a Diesel engine? Single drops of pure component liquid hydrocarbons and their mixtures vaporizing in quiescent nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas environments with ambient pressures and temperatures at values typically found in Diesel engines are examined.
Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Analysis of Automotive Exhaust Structures

2001-03-05
2001-01-0662
Experimental modal analysis (EMA) provides many parameters that are required in numerical modeling of dynamic and vibratory behavior of structures. This paper discusses EMA on an exhaust system of an off-road car. The exhaust structure is tested under three boundary conditions: free-free, supported with two elastomeric mounts, and mounted to the car. The free-free modal parameters are compared to finite element results. The two-mount tests are done with the mounts fixed to a rigid and heavy frame. The rigidity of the frame is verified experimentally. The on-car test is done with realistic boundary conditions, where the exhaust structure is fixed to the engine manifold as well as the two elastomeric mounts. The two-mount and the on-car tests result in highly complex mode shapes.
Technical Paper

Sound Transmission Through Elastomeric Sealing Systems

2001-04-30
2001-01-1411
The sound barrier performance of elastomeric vehicle weather seals was investigated. Experiments were performed for one bulb seal specimen following a reverberation room method. The seal wall vibration was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer. The acoustic pressure near the seal surface was measured simultaneously, allowing the sound intensities on both side of the seal, and the sound transmission loss to be evaluated. The vibration response of the bulb seal and its sound transmission loss were then computed using the finite element method. Model predictions for the same seal geometry were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data within the frequency range of interest, comprised between 500 Hz and 4000 Hz.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Damping Effect of Fibrous Acoustical Treatments

2001-04-30
2001-01-1462
The damping effect that is observed when a fibrous acoustical treatment is applied to a thin metal panel typical of automotive structures has been modeled by using three independent techniques. In the first two methods the fibrous treatment was modeled by using the limp frame formulation proposed by Bolton et al., while the third method makes use of a general poro-elastic model based on the Biot theory. All three methods have been found to provide consistent predictions that are in excellent agreement with one another. An examination of the numerical results shows that the structural damping effect results primarily from the suppression of the nearfield acoustical motion within the fibrous treatment, that motion being closely coupled with the vibration of the base panel. The observed damping effect is similar in magnitude to that provided by constrained layer dampers having the same mass per unit area as the fibrous layer.
Technical Paper

Predictions of On-Engine Efficiency for the Radial Turbine of a Pulse Turbocharged Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1238
Modern pulse-turbocharged systems produce a turbine operating environment that is dominated by unsteady flow. Effective utilization of the unsteady exhaust gas energy content at the turbine inlet is critical to achieving optimum system efficiency. This work presents predictions for turbocharger unsteady performance from a model based on the Euler equations with source terms (EEST). This approach allows the time-accurate performance of the turbine to be determined, allowing comparisons of actual energy utilization and that estimated from steady flow performance maps.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Nonlinear Elastomeric Mounts. Part 1: Dynamic Testing and Parameter Identification

2001-03-05
2001-01-0042
A methodology for modeling elastomeric mounts as nonlinear lumped parameter models is discussed. A key feature of this methodology is that it integrates dynamic test results under different conditions into the model. The first step is to model the mount as a linear model that is simple but reproduces accurately results from dynamic tests under small excitations. Frequency Response Functions (FRF) enables systematic calculation of the parameters for the model. Under more realistic excitation, the mount exhibits non-linearity, which is investigated in the next step. For nonlinear structures, a simple and intuitive method is to use time-domain force-displacement (F-x) curves. Experiments to obtain the F-x curves involve controlling the displacement excitation and measuring the induced forces. From the F-x curves, stiffness and damping parameters are obtained with an optimization technique.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Nonlinear Elastomeric Mounts. Part 2: Comparing Numerical Model and Test Results

2001-03-05
2001-01-0043
This paper presents the continuation of the modeling work described in a companion paper “Modeling of Nonlinear Elastomeric Mounts. Part 1: Dynamic Testing and Parameter Identification” by the same authors. That paper discussed a dynamic test procedure and an optimization methodology to identify and model an elastomeric mount as a non-linear lumped parameter structure. This paper discusses a numerical modeling methodology to confirm or improve the agreement between the dynamic test results and the input-output relationship of the analytical model generated in the companion paper. In this paper, the model developed in the companion paper and the model parameters are input into a dynamic simulation model using a commercial simulation package. The model is then run to produce the numerical force-versus-displacement (F-x) curves of the mount. The numerical F-x curves are compared with the F-x curves obtained from the experiments.
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