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Technical Paper

Simulation of Air Quality in ALS System with Biofiltration

2005-07-11
2005-01-3111
Most of the gaseous contaminants generated inside ALS (Advanced Life Support) cabins can be degraded to some degree by microbial degradation in a biofilter. The entry of biofiltration techniques into ALS will most likely involve integration with existing physico-chemical methods. However, in this study, cabin air quality treated by only biofiltration was predicted using the one-box and biofiltration models. Based on BVAD (Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) and SMAC (Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations), ammonia and carbon monoxide will be the critical compounds for biofilter design and control. Experimentation is needed to identify the pertinent microbial parameters and removal efficiency of carbon monoxide and to validate the results of this preliminary investigation.
Technical Paper

NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advance Life Support (ALS/NSCORT) Education and Outreach Program

2005-07-11
2005-01-3107
The ALS/NSCORT Education and Outreach provides an avenue to engage and educate higher education students and K-12 educators/students in the center's investigations of the synergistic concepts and principles required for regenerative life-support in extended-duration space exploration. The following K-12 Education programs will be addressed: 1) Key Learning Community Project provides exposure, mentoring and research opportunities for 9-12th grade students at Key Learning Community This program was expanded in 2004 to include an “Explore Mars” 3-day camp experience for 150 Key students. The overall goal of the collaborative project is to motivate students to pursue careers in science, technology, and engineering; 2) Mission to Mars Program introduces 5th-8th grade students to the complex issues involved with living on Mars, stressing the interdisciplinary fundamentals of science, technology and engineering that underlie Advanced Life Support research.
Technical Paper

A New Lab for Testing Biofiltration for Advanced Life Support

2005-07-11
2005-01-3060
Bioregenerative systems for removal of gaseous contaminants are desired for long-term space missions to reduce the equivalent system mass of the air cleaning system. This paper describes an innovative design of a new biofiltration test lab for investigating the capability of biofiltration process for removal of ersatz multi-component gaseous streams representative of spacecraft contaminants released during long-term space travel. The lab setup allows a total of 24 bioreactors to receive identical inlet waste streams at stable contaminant concentrations via use of permeations ovens, needle valves, precision orifices, etc. A unique set of hardware including a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, and a data acquisition and control system using LabVIEW™ software allows automatic, continuous, and real-time gas monitoring and data collection for the 24 bioreactors. This lab setup allows powerful factorial experimental design.
Technical Paper

Surfactant Biodegradation for Application to Advanced Life Support Water Recycling Systems

2004-07-19
2004-01-2513
Complete reuse of graywater will be essential during long duration human space missions. The highest loaded and most important component to remove from graywater is surfactant, the active ingredient in soaps and detergents. When considering a biological treatment system for processing of graywater, surfactant biodegradability becomes a very important consideration. Surfactants should be chosen that are degraded at a fast rate and yield inconsequential degradation byproducts. Experiments conducted for this research examined the biodegradation of the surfactants in Pert Plus for Kids, disodium cocoamphodiacetate (DSCADA) and sodium laureth-3 sulfate (SLES), using respirometry. Rates of CO2 production, or ultimate degradation, are reported. DSCADA was found to be toxic to bacteria when present at 270 ppm whereas no toxicity was observed during experiments with SLES.
Technical Paper

Education and Outreach Program Designed for NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advance Life Support (ALS/NSCORT)

2004-07-19
2004-01-2418
The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (ALS/NSCORT) Education and Outreach Program is designed to engage audiences through concepts and technologies highlighted in the NSCORT research program. The outreach program is composed of three thrust areas. These areas are technical outreach (graduate education, technology transfer, presentations to industry, etc.), educational outreach (professional development, undergraduate, K-12), and public outreach (museums, state fairs, etc.) Program design of the technical and educational outreach began in January 2003. This paper reports anecdotal data on one ALS/NSCORT outreach program and gives a brief description of the other programs in their pilot stages. Technical and educational outreach programs developed to date include: 1) Summer Fellowship Research Program, 2) Distance Learning Course, 3) Key Learning Community Collaborative Project and 4) Mission to Mars.
Technical Paper

Wastestream Characterization for a Packed Bed Biofilter Intended for Simultaneous Treatment of Graywater and Air in an Advanced Life Support System

2003-07-07
2003-01-2555
An important function of life support systems developed for a long duration human mission to Mars is the ability to recycle water and air. The Bio-Regenerative Environmental Air Treatment for Health (BREATHe) is part of a multicomponent life support system and will simultaneously treat wastewater and air. The BREATHe system will consist of packed bed biofilm reactors. Model waste streams will be used for experiments conducted during the design phase of the BREATHe system. This paper summarizes expected characteristics of water and air waste steams that would be generated by a crew of six during a human mission to Mars. In addition to waste air and water generation rates, the chemical composition of each waste stream is defined. Specifically, chemical constituents expected to be present in hygiene wastewater, dishwater, laundry water, atmospheric condensate, and cabin air are presented.
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