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Technical Paper

Real-time Thermal Observer for Electric Machines

A temperature estimation algorithm (thermal observer) that provides accurate estimates of the thermal states of an electric machine in real time is presented. The thermal observer is designed to be a Kalman filter that combines thermal state predictions from a lumped-parameter thermal model of the electric machine with temperature measurements from a single external temperature sensor. An analysis based on the error covariance matrix of the Kalman filter is presented to guide the selection of the best sensor location. The thermal observer performance is demonstrated using a 3.8 kW permanent-magnet machine. Comparison of the thermal observer estimates and the actual temperatures demonstrate that this approach can provide accurate knowledge of the machine's thermal states despite modeling uncertainty and unknown initial machine thermal states.
Journal Article

The Utility of Wide-Bandwidth Emulation to Evaluate Aircraft Power System Performance

The cost and complexity of aircraft power systems limit the number of integrated system evaluations that can be performed in hardware. As a result, evaluations are often performed using emulators to mimic components or subsystems. As an example, aircraft generation systems are often tested using an emulator that consists of a bank of resistors that are switched to represent the power draw of one or more actuators. In this research, consideration is given to modern wide bandwidth emulators (WBEs) that use power electronics and digital controls to obtain wide bandwidth control of power, current, or voltage. Specifically, this paper first looks at how well a WBE can emulate the impedance of a load when coupled to a real-time model. Capturing the impedance of loads and sources is important for accurately assessing the small-signal stability of a system.