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Technical Paper

Excitation Strategies for a Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine Drive

2014-09-16
2014-01-2138
In this research, excitation strategies for a salient-pole wound rotor synchronous machine are explored using a magnetic equivalent circuit model that includes core loss. It is shown that the excitation obtained is considerably different than would be obtained using traditional qd-based models. However, through evaluation of the resulting ‘optimal’ excitation, a relatively straightforward field-oriented type control is developed that is consistent with a desire for efficiency yet control simplicity. Validation is achieved through hardware experiment. The usefulness/applicability of the simplified control to variable speed applications is then considered.
Technical Paper

Surface Pressure Fluctuations in Separated-Reattached Flows Behind Notched Spoilers

2007-05-15
2007-01-2399
Notched spoilers may be used to suppress flow-induced cavity resonance in vehicles with open sunroofs or side windows. The notches are believed to generate streamwise vortices that break down the structure of the leading edge cross-stream vortices predominantly responsible for the cavity excitation. The objectives of the present study were to gain a better understanding of the buffeting suppression mechanisms associated with notched spoilers, and to gather data for computational model verification. To this end, experiments were performed to characterize the surface pressure field downstream of straight and notched spoilers mounted on a rigid wall to observe the effects of the notches on the static and dynamic wall pressure. Detailed flow velocity measurements were made using hot-wire anemometry. The results indicated that the presence of notches on the spoiler reduces drag, and thus tends to move the flow reattachment location closer to the spoiler.
Technical Paper

Balloon Launched UAV with Nested Wing for Near Space Applications

2007-09-17
2007-01-3910
There has always been, from the very first UAV, a need for providing cost-effective methods of deploying unmanned aircraft systems at high altitudes. Missions for UAVs at high altitudes are used to conduct atmospheric research, perform global mapping missions, collect remote sensing data, and establish long range communications networks. The team of Gevers Aircraft, Technology Management Group, and Purdue University have designed an innovative balloon launched UAV for these near space applications. A UAV (Payload Return Vehicle) with a nested morphing wing was designed in order to meet the challenges of high altitude flight, and long range and endurance without the need for descent rate control with rockets or a feathering mode.
Technical Paper

Effects of Window Seal Mechanical Properties on Vehicle Interior Noise

2003-05-05
2003-01-1703
One dominant “wind noise” generating mechanism in road vehicles is the interaction between turbulent flows and flexible structures which include side glass windows. In this study, the effects of seal mechanical properties on the sound generated from flow-induced vibration of side glass windows were investigated. The primary goal was to assess the influence of seal support properties on the noise generated from a plate. Two different models to calculate the optimal support stiffness of the seal that minimizes the velocity response are presented. The results show that both the velocity response and the sound radiation are strongly influenced by dissipation of vibration energy at the edges. It is demonstrate that support tuning can yield significant noise and vibration reduction.
Technical Paper

A Detailed Synchronous Machine Model

2002-10-29
2002-01-3205
A synchronous machine model is set forth that simultaneously incorporates magnetizing path saturation, leakage saturation, and transfer function representations of the rotor circuits. A parameter identification procedure consisting of voltage step tests as well as standstill frequency response tests is described. The model's predictions are validated using the Naval Combat Survivability Generation and Propulsion test bed.
Technical Paper

Active Vibration Damping for Construction Machines Based on Frequency Identification

2016-09-27
2016-01-8121
Typically, earthmoving machines do not have wheel suspensions. This lack of components often causes uncomfortable driving, and in some cases reduces machine productivity and safety. Several solutions to this problem have been proposed in the last decades, and particularly successful is the passive solution based on the introduction of accumulators in the hydraulic circuit connecting the machine boom. The extra capacitance effect created by the accumulator causes a magnification of the boom oscillations, in such a way that these oscillations counter-react the machine oscillation caused by the driving on uneven ground. This principle of counter-reacting machine oscillations through the boom motion can be achieved also with electro-hydraulic solutions, properly actuating the flow supply to the boom actuators on the basis of a feedback sensors and a proper control strategy.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Damping Effect of Fibrous Acoustical Treatments

2001-04-30
2001-01-1462
The damping effect that is observed when a fibrous acoustical treatment is applied to a thin metal panel typical of automotive structures has been modeled by using three independent techniques. In the first two methods the fibrous treatment was modeled by using the limp frame formulation proposed by Bolton et al., while the third method makes use of a general poro-elastic model based on the Biot theory. All three methods have been found to provide consistent predictions that are in excellent agreement with one another. An examination of the numerical results shows that the structural damping effect results primarily from the suppression of the nearfield acoustical motion within the fibrous treatment, that motion being closely coupled with the vibration of the base panel. The observed damping effect is similar in magnitude to that provided by constrained layer dampers having the same mass per unit area as the fibrous layer.
Technical Paper

THE EFFECT OF PROPLETS AND BI-BLADES ON THE PERFORMANCE AND NOISE OF PROPELLERS

1981-02-01
810600
A analytical technique for predicting the aerodynamic performance of propellers with tip devices (proplets) using vortex lattice method shows that the ideal efficiency of a fixed diameter propeller can be improved by 1-5%. By suitable orientation and sweep of the proplet, the noise analysis method presented predicts that propellers with tip devices will have approximately the same noise as propellers without tip devices. Therefore proplets can be added to a fixed diameter propeller to improve the efficiency with no increase in noise or the noise may be reduced by decreasing the diameter with no loss in aerodynamic efficiency.
Technical Paper

Average Value Modeling of Finite Inertia Power Systems with Harmonic Distortion

2000-10-31
2000-01-3648
Typically, average-value models of power system components neglect harmonic information. Herein, a systematic method of including harmonic information in average-value models based on the theory of multiple reference frames is set forth. Computer simulation results show that when there is significant harmonic distortion of the ac distribution bus the models presented herein are more accurate than traditional average-value models. Furthermore, much of the computational advantage of average-value techniques over detailed modeling techniques is retained.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Nonlinear Elastomeric Mounts. Part 1: Dynamic Testing and Parameter Identification

2001-03-05
2001-01-0042
A methodology for modeling elastomeric mounts as nonlinear lumped parameter models is discussed. A key feature of this methodology is that it integrates dynamic test results under different conditions into the model. The first step is to model the mount as a linear model that is simple but reproduces accurately results from dynamic tests under small excitations. Frequency Response Functions (FRF) enables systematic calculation of the parameters for the model. Under more realistic excitation, the mount exhibits non-linearity, which is investigated in the next step. For nonlinear structures, a simple and intuitive method is to use time-domain force-displacement (F-x) curves. Experiments to obtain the F-x curves involve controlling the displacement excitation and measuring the induced forces. From the F-x curves, stiffness and damping parameters are obtained with an optimization technique.
Technical Paper

The Analysis of Counter-Rotating Propeller Systems

1985-04-01
850869
A vortex lattice method for the aerodynamic analysis of counter-rotation propellers was developed. This model along with an unsteady Sears analysis for correcting the quasi-steady loadings that are obtained from the vortex lattice model were used to predict the performance of counter-rotation propeller systems. The method developed shows good correlation with experimental results. The investigation into the unsteady loadings on each of the propellers indicates that significant variations in loading occur due to the unsteady flow and due to the propeller blade passage. These variations were found to be as high as 17 percent of the mean value. The parametric studies that were performed indicate that reducing the rear propeller's diameter or rotational speed results in a loss of efficiency.
Technical Paper

Multiple Reference Frame Analysis of Non-sinusoidal Brushless DC Drives

1998-04-21
981269
The method of multiple reference frames is employed in the development of a state variable model for brushless DC drives with non-sinusoidal back emf waveforms. This model has the desirable features of being valid for transient and steady-state analysis as well as having state variables that are constant in the steady-state. The model facilitates both nonlinear and linear system analysis and control design. Computer simulation and experimental data are included to validate the analysis.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Near-Field Acoustical Holography Methods Applied to Noise Source Identification

2019-06-05
2019-01-1533
Near-Field Acoustical Holography (NAH) is an inverse process in which sound pressure measurements made in the near-field of an unknown sound source are used to reconstruct the sound field so that source distributions can be clearly identified. NAH was originally based on performing spatial transforms of arrays of measured pressures and then processing the data in the wavenumber domain, a procedure that entailed the use of very large microphone arrays to avoid spatial truncation effects. Over the last twenty years, a number of different NAH methods have been proposed that can reduce or avoid spatial truncation issues: for example, Statistically Optimized Near-Field Acoustical Holography (SONAH), various Equivalent Source Methods (ESM), etc.
Technical Paper

Measured Interfacial Residual Strains Produced by In-Flight Ice

2019-06-10
2019-01-1998
The formation of ice on aircraft is a highly dynamic process during which ice will expand and contract upon freezing and undergoing changes in temperature. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulations were performed investigating the stress/strain response of an idealized ice sample bonded to an acrylic substrate subjected to a uniform temperature change. The FEA predictions were used to guide the placement of strain gages on custom-built acrylic and aluminum specimens. Tee rosettes were placed in two configurations adjacent to thermocouple sensors. The specimens were then placed in icing conditions such that ice was grown on top of the specimen. It was hypothesized that the ice would expand on freezing and contract as the temperature of the interface returned to the equilibrium conditions.
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