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Technical Paper

Recent Developments in a Novel Blended Hydraulic Hybrid Transmission

A novel Blended Hydraulic Hybrid transmission architecture is presented in this paper with benefits over conventional designs. This novel configuration combines elements of a hydrostatic transmission, a parallel hybrid, and a selectively connectable high pressure accumulator using passive and actively controlled logic elements. Losses are reduced compared to existing series hybrid transmissions by enabling the units to operate efficiently at pressures below the current high pressure accumulator's pressure. A selective connection to the high pressure accumulator also allows for higher system precharge which increases regenerative braking torque and energy capture with little determent to system efficiency. Finally operating as a hydrostatic transmission increases transmission stiffness (i.e. driver response) and may improve driver feel in certain situations when compared to a conventional series hybrid transmission.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Sound to Perception of CVT Performance

Three experiments examined the contribution of sound to the perception of performance using audio recordings made on a test track with a vehicle equipped with a continuously variable transmission (CVT) performing four different maneuvers with four transmission settings. Subjects rated the recordings based on their perceptions of power & performance, pleasantness, smoothness, and loudness. On the track, the low calibration setting (including a flat ratio schedule) had been rated higher for power & performance than the high calibration setting (including a rising ratio schedule). In Experiment 1, where subjects were unaware of the maneuver performed, there was no advantage for the low calibration setting; in Experiment 2, where subjects were aware of the maneuver, the power & performance ratings were opposite to those obtained on the test track. In Experiment 3, drivers of performance cars rated the recordings as more pleasant and smoother than did drivers of other vehicles.
Technical Paper

A New Lab for Testing Biofiltration for Advanced Life Support

Bioregenerative systems for removal of gaseous contaminants are desired for long-term space missions to reduce the equivalent system mass of the air cleaning system. This paper describes an innovative design of a new biofiltration test lab for investigating the capability of biofiltration process for removal of ersatz multi-component gaseous streams representative of spacecraft contaminants released during long-term space travel. The lab setup allows a total of 24 bioreactors to receive identical inlet waste streams at stable contaminant concentrations via use of permeations ovens, needle valves, precision orifices, etc. A unique set of hardware including a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, and a data acquisition and control system using LabVIEW™ software allows automatic, continuous, and real-time gas monitoring and data collection for the 24 bioreactors. This lab setup allows powerful factorial experimental design.
Technical Paper

Design of a High-Bandwidth, Low-Cost Hydrostatic Absorption Dynamometer with Electronic Load Control

A low-cost hydrostatic absorption dynamometer has been developed for small to medium sized engines. The dynamometer was designed and built by students to support student projects and educational activities. The availability of such a dynamometer permits engine break-in cycles, performance testing, and laboratory instruction in the areas of engines, fuels, sensors, and data acquisition. The dynamometer, capable of loading engines up to 60kW at 155Nm and 3600rpm, incorporates a two-section gear pump and an electronically operated proportional pressure control valve to develop and control the load. A bypass valve permits the use of only one pump section, allowing increased fidelity of load control at lower torque levels. Torque is measured directly on the drive shaft with a strain gage. Torque and speed signals are transmitted by an inductively-powered collar mounted to the dynamometer drive shaft. Pressure transducers at the pump inlet and pump outlet allow secondary load measurement.
Technical Paper

A Novel Suspended Liner Test Apparatus for Friction and Side Force Measurement with Corresponding Modeling

An experimental apparatus and a numerical model have been designed and developed to examine the lubrication condition and frictional losses at the piston and cylinder interface. The experimental apparatus utilizes components from a single cylinder, ten horsepower engine in a novel suspended liner arrangement. The test rig has been specifically designed to reduce the number of operating variables while utilizing actual components and geometry. A mixed lubrication model for the complete ring-pack and piston skirt was developed to correlate with experimental measurements and provide further insight into the sources of frictional losses. The results demonstrate the effects of speed and viscosity on the overall friction losses at the piston and cylinder liner interface. Comparisons between the experimental and analytical results show good agreement.
Technical Paper

Dead Pedal and the Perception of Performance of a Continuously Variable Transmission

The flat ratio schedule that maximizes the performance advantages of a CVT may also be a source of consumer resistance. A previous investigation of consumer perception did obtain maximum engine power and pickup ratings using the flat-ratio schedule, but some data were missing due to traffic conditions on public roads. This paper is a report of an experiment conducted at the Dearborn Proving Ground to confirm the flat-ratio-schedule advantage for engine power and pickup ratings, and to investigate further the effects of varying Dead Pedal. Driver ratings of engine power and pickup replicated the earlier findings, and an overall advantage of low Dead Pedal was found for ratings of engine power and pickup and for transmission smoothness.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Widespread Fatigue Damage in Lap Joints

This paper describes research to analyze widespread fatigue damage in lap joints. The particular objective is to determine when large numbers of small cracks could degrade the joint strength to an unacceptable level. A deterministic model is described to compute fatigue crack growth and residual strength of riveted panels that contain multiple cracks. Fatigue crack growth tests conducted to evaluate the predictive model are summarized, and indicate good agreement between experimental and numerical results. Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to determine the influence of statistical variability on various analysis parameters.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Nonlinear Elastomeric Mounts. Part 2: Comparing Numerical Model and Test Results

This paper presents the continuation of the modeling work described in a companion paper “Modeling of Nonlinear Elastomeric Mounts. Part 1: Dynamic Testing and Parameter Identification” by the same authors. That paper discussed a dynamic test procedure and an optimization methodology to identify and model an elastomeric mount as a non-linear lumped parameter structure. This paper discusses a numerical modeling methodology to confirm or improve the agreement between the dynamic test results and the input-output relationship of the analytical model generated in the companion paper. In this paper, the model developed in the companion paper and the model parameters are input into a dynamic simulation model using a commercial simulation package. The model is then run to produce the numerical force-versus-displacement (F-x) curves of the mount. The numerical F-x curves are compared with the F-x curves obtained from the experiments.
Technical Paper

A Desktop Procedure for Measuring the Transmission Loss of Automotive Door Seals

Due the increasing concern with the acoustic environment within automotive vehicles, there is an interest in measuring the acoustical properties of automotive door seals. These systems play an important role in blocking external noise sources, such as aerodynamic noise and tire noise, from entering the passenger compartment. Thus, it is important to be able to conveniently measure their acoustic performance. Previous methods of measuring the ability of seals to block sound required the use of either a reverberation chamber, or a wind tunnel with a special purpose chamber attached to it. That is, these methods required the use of large and expensive facilities. A simpler and more economical desktop procedure is thus needed to allow easy and fast acoustic measurement of automotive door seals.