Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

RANS and LES Study of Lift-Off Physics in Reacting Diesel Jets

2014-04-01
2014-01-1118
Accurate modeling of the transient structure of reacting diesel jets is important as transient features like autoignition, flame propagation, and flame stabilization have been shown to correlate with combustion efficiency and pollutant formation. In this work, results from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations of flame lift-off in diesel jets are examined to provide insight into the lift-off physics. The large eddy simulation (LES) technique is also used to computationally model a lifted jet flame at conditions representative of those encountered in diesel engines. An unsteady flamelet progress variable (UFPV) model is used as the turbulent combustion model in both RANS simulations and LES. In the model, a look-up table of reaction source terms is generated as a function of mixture fraction Z, stoichiometric scalar dissipation rate Xst, and progress variable Cst by solving the unsteady flamelet equations.
Journal Article

Effects of Controlled Modulation on Surface Textures in Deep-Hole Drilling

2012-09-10
2012-01-1868
Deep-hole drilling is among the most critical precision machining processes for production of high-performance discrete components. The effects of drilling with superimposed, controlled low-frequency modulation - Modulation-Assisted Machining (MAM) - on the surface textures created in deep-hole drilling (ie, gun-drilling) are discussed. In MAM, the oscillation of the drill tool creates unique surface textures by altering the burnishing action typical in conventional drilling. The effects of modulation frequency and amplitude are investigated using a modulation device for single-flute gun-drilling on a computer-controlled lathe. The experimental results for the gun-drilling of titanium alloy with modulation are compared and contrasted with conventional gun-drilling. The chip morphology and surface textures are characterized over a range of modulation conditions, and a model for predicting the surface texture is presented. Implications for production gun-drilling are discussed.
Technical Paper

Inductive or Magnetic Recharging for Small UAVs

2012-10-22
2012-01-2115
We developed a wireless, contact free power transfer mechanism that is safer and robust to imperfect alignment on landing at the base station and that avoid trips back to the launch sites for recharging off power lines. A magnetic field is created using inductor coils on both the transmitting and receiving sides. We use small induction coils around the UAV to increase efficiency and decrease interference. By locating several of these small inductive coils around our quad-rotor UAV, faster recharging is accomplished in comparison to the use of just one coil. In addition, more coils permit larger voltages for more efficient power transfers. On the base station, several folding robotic arms will be used to realign the receiver coils over the transmitter coils. After adequate recharging as measured by battery voltages or power consumption at the base station, the UAV sends a signal to the base station to open the dome to fly away.
Technical Paper

Excitation Strategies for a Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine Drive

2014-09-16
2014-01-2138
In this research, excitation strategies for a salient-pole wound rotor synchronous machine are explored using a magnetic equivalent circuit model that includes core loss. It is shown that the excitation obtained is considerably different than would be obtained using traditional qd-based models. However, through evaluation of the resulting ‘optimal’ excitation, a relatively straightforward field-oriented type control is developed that is consistent with a desire for efficiency yet control simplicity. Validation is achieved through hardware experiment. The usefulness/applicability of the simplified control to variable speed applications is then considered.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Biodegradation of a Two-Phase Fluid: Discolored Biofilm Issues

2006-07-17
2006-01-2256
Three replicate aerobic-heterotrophic biotrickling filters were designed to promote the simultaneous biodegradation of graywater and a waste gas containing NH3, H2S and CO2. Upon visual observation of discolored solids, it was originally hypothesized that gas-phase CO2 concentrations were excessive, causing regions of anoxic zones to form within the biotrickling filters. Observed discolored (black) biofilm of this nature is typically assumed to be either lysed bacterial cells or anaerobic regions, implying alteration of operational conditions. Solid (biofilm) samples were collected in the presence and absence of gas-phase wastestream(s) to determine if the gas-phase contaminants were contributing to the solid-phase discoloration. Two sets of experiments (shaker flask and solids characterization) were conduced to determine the nature of the discolored solids. Results indicated that the discolored solids were neither anaerobic bacteria nor lysed cells.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Biological Trickling Filter Performance for Graywater Treatment in ALS Systems

2005-07-11
2005-01-3023
The Bioregenerative Air Treatment for Health system has been proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) planetary base applications. The system will be operated as a biotrickling filter to simultaneously treat graywater and waste gas. Preliminary experiments have focused on carbon removal from a graywater simulant. Six bench scale biotrickling filter reactors were constructed and monitored continuously. After a reactor startup phase of 40 days, the average total organic carbon (TOC) removal for reactors packed with Tri-packs® packing material was 62%. A second set of experiments was designed to evaluate TOC removal using different packing materials (Bee-cell and Biobale). It was hypothesized that the alternative packing materials would reduce the effects of channeling in the reactors, thus improving TOC removal. However, TOC removal did not significantly improve during the second set of experiments.
Technical Paper

Urine Processing for Water Recovery via Freeze Concentration

2005-07-11
2005-01-3032
Resource recovery, including that of urine water extraction, is one of the most crucial aspects of long-term life support in interplanetary space travel. This paper will consequently examine an innovative approach to processing raw, undiluted urine based on low-temperature freezing. This strategy is uniquely different from NASA's current emphasis on either ‘integrated’ (co-treatment of mixed urine, grey, and condensate waters) or ‘high-temperature’ (i.e., VCD [vapor compression distillation] or VPCAR [vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal]) processing strategies, whereby this liquid freeze-thaw (LiFT) procedure would avoid both chemical and microbial cross-contamination concerns while at the same time securing highly desirable reductions in likely ESM levels.
Technical Paper

Water and Energy Transport for Crops under Different Lighting Conditions

2006-07-17
2006-01-2028
When high-intensity discharge (HID) electric lamps are used for plant growth, system inefficiencies occur due to an inability to effectively target light to all photosynthetic tissues of a growing crop stand, especially when it is closed with respect to light penetration. To maintain acceptable crop productivity, light levels typically are increased thus increasing heat loads on the plants. Evapotranspiration (ET) or transparent thermal barrier systems are subsequently required to maintain thermal balance, and power-intensive condensers are used to recover the evaporated water for reuse in closed systems. By accurately targeting light to plant tissues, electric lamps can be operated at lower power settings and produce less heat. With lower power and heat loads, less energy is used for plant growth, and possibly less water is evapotranspired. By combining these effects, a considerable energy savings is possible.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Absorbers in Normal-Incidence Four- Microphone Transmission-Loss Systems to Measure Effectiveness of Materials in Lateral-Flow Configurations of Filled or Partially Filled Cavities

2007-05-15
2007-01-2190
The four-microphone standing wave tube system has proven useful for measuring the absorption and transmission loss of various fibrous and non-fibrous absorbers. The system is fast, repeatable, accurate and compact. This paper discusses the advantages of the four-microphone system for measuring the transmission loss in lateral-flow absorber systems. The original four-microphone round impedance tube system and the migration to a four-microphone square tube system are discussed. The four-microphone square tube system allows effective study of filled and partially filled cavities.
Technical Paper

Thermal Interface Materials Based on Anchored Carbon Nanotubes

2007-07-09
2007-01-3127
The new devices and missions to achieve the aims of NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) are creating increasingly demanding thermal environments and applications. In particular, the low conductance of metal-to-metal interfaces used in the thermal switches lengthen the cool-down phase and resource usage for spacecraft instruments. During this work, we developed and tested a vacuum-compatible, durable, heat-conduction interface that employs carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays directly anchored on the mating metal surfaces via microwave plasma-enhanced, chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). We demonstrated that CNT-based thermal interface materials have the potential to exceed the performance of currently available options for thermal switches and other applications.
Technical Paper

Surfactant Biodegradation for Application to Advanced Life Support Water Recycling Systems

2004-07-19
2004-01-2513
Complete reuse of graywater will be essential during long duration human space missions. The highest loaded and most important component to remove from graywater is surfactant, the active ingredient in soaps and detergents. When considering a biological treatment system for processing of graywater, surfactant biodegradability becomes a very important consideration. Surfactants should be chosen that are degraded at a fast rate and yield inconsequential degradation byproducts. Experiments conducted for this research examined the biodegradation of the surfactants in Pert Plus for Kids, disodium cocoamphodiacetate (DSCADA) and sodium laureth-3 sulfate (SLES), using respirometry. Rates of CO2 production, or ultimate degradation, are reported. DSCADA was found to be toxic to bacteria when present at 270 ppm whereas no toxicity was observed during experiments with SLES.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Fuel-Air Mixing Characteristics on Injection Timing in an Early-Injection Diesel Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0944
In recent years, there has been an interest in early-injection Diesel engines as it has the potential of achieving a more homogeneous and leaner mixture close to top-dead-center (TDC) compared to standard Diesel engines. The more homogeneous mixture may result in reduced NOx and soot emissions and higher efficiency. Diesel engines in which a homogeneous mixture is achieved close to TDC are known as Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines. PREmixed lean DIesel Combustion (PREDIC) engines in which the start of fuel injection is considerably advanced in comparison with that of the standard Diesel engine is an attempt to achieve a mode of operation close to HCCI. Earlier studies have shown that in a PREDIC engine, the fuel injection timing affects the mixture formation and hence influences combustion and pollutant formation.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of a Composite Model for Predicting Drop-Drop Collision Outcomes in Multidimensional Spray Computations

2002-03-04
2002-01-0943
The standard model for predicting the outcome of drop-drop collisions in sprays is one developed based on measurements in rain drops under atmospheric pressure conditions. This model includes the possible outcomes of grazing collisions and coalescence. Recent measurements with hydrocarbon drops and at higher pressure (up to 12 bar) indicate the possibility of additional outcomes: bounce, reflexive separation and drop shattering. The measurements also indicate that the Weber number range over which bounce occurs is dependent on the gas pressure. The probability of a drop-drop collision resulting in bounce increases with gas pressure. A composite model that includes all these outcomes as possibilities is employed to carry out computations in a constant volume chamber and in a Diesel engine. A sub-model for bounce that includes the pressure effects is also part of the composite model.
Technical Paper

Influence of Wall Impingement on the Structure of Reacting Jets

2003-03-03
2003-01-1042
In Diesel engines, the vapor phase of the fuel jet is known to impinge on the walls. This impingement is likely to have an effect on mixing characteristics, the structure of the diffusion flame and on pollutant formation and oxidation. These effects have not been studied in detail in the literature. In this work, the structure of a laminar wall jet that is generated from the impingement of a free laminar jet on a wall is discussed. We study the laminar jet with the belief that the local structure of the reaction zone in the turbulent reacting jet is that of a laminar flame. Results from non-reacting and reacting jets will be presented. In the case of the non-reacting jets, the focus of the inquiry is on assessing the accuracy of the computed results by comparing them with analytical results. Velocity profiles in the wall jet, growth rates of the half-width of the jet and penetration rates are presented.
Technical Paper

Effects of Window Seal Mechanical Properties on Vehicle Interior Noise

2003-05-05
2003-01-1703
One dominant “wind noise” generating mechanism in road vehicles is the interaction between turbulent flows and flexible structures which include side glass windows. In this study, the effects of seal mechanical properties on the sound generated from flow-induced vibration of side glass windows were investigated. The primary goal was to assess the influence of seal support properties on the noise generated from a plate. Two different models to calculate the optimal support stiffness of the seal that minimizes the velocity response are presented. The results show that both the velocity response and the sound radiation are strongly influenced by dissipation of vibration energy at the edges. It is demonstrate that support tuning can yield significant noise and vibration reduction.
Technical Paper

Effects of Geometric Parameters on the Sound Transmission Characteristic of Bulb Seals

2003-05-05
2003-01-1701
Sound transmission through door and window sealing systems is one important contributor to vehicle interior noise. The noise generation mechanism involves the vibration of the seal due to the unsteady wall pressures associated with the turbulent flow over the vehicle. For bulb seals, sound transmission through the seal is governed by the resonance of the seal membranes and the air cavity within the bulb (the so-called mass-air-mass resonance). The objective of this study was to develop a finite element (FE) model to predict the sound transmission loss of elastomeric bulb seals. The model was then exercized to perform a parametric study of the influence of seveal seal design parameters. The results suggest that the sound transmission loss increases as the membrane thicknesses and/or the separation distance between the two seal walls are increased. The addition of additional internal “webs” was found to have adverse effects on the sound barrier performance.
Technical Paper

Lattice Boltzmann Simulations of Flows in a Duct with Multiple Inlets

2003-03-03
2003-01-0220
In this paper, computations of pulsating flows in a duct with multiple inlets using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) are reported. As future emissions standards present a significant challenge for Diesel engine manufacturers, several options are being investigated to identify strategies to meet such regulations. Exhaust gas aftertreatment is one of the most important among them. As the performance of the various aftertreatment devices is sensitive to the flow conditions in the exhaust, a greater understanding of the flows under pulsating conditions in the presence of multiple cylinders is needed. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is a relatively new and promising computational approach for applications to fluid dynamics problems. Two advantages of the method relative to traditional methods are ease of implementation and ease of parallelization and performance on parallel computers.
Technical Paper

A Wall-Modified Flamelet Model for Diesel Combustion

2004-03-08
2004-01-0103
In this paper, a wall-modified interactive flamelet model is developed for improving the modeling of Diesel combustion. The objective is to include the effects of wall heat loss on the transient flame structure. The essential idea is to compute several flamelets with several representative enthalpy defects which account for wall heat loss. Then, the averaged flamelet profile can be obtained through a linear fit between the flamelets according to the enthalpy defect of the local gas which results from the wall heat loss. The enthalpy defect is estimated as the difference between the enthalpy in a flamelet without wall heat loss, which would correspond to the enthalpy in the gas without wall heat loss, and the gas with wall heat loss. The improved model is applied to model combustion in a Diesel engine. In the application, two flamelets, one without wall heat loss and one with wall heat loss, are considered.
Journal Article

Prechamber Hot Jet Ignition of Ultra-Lean H2/Air Mixtures: Effect of Supersonic Jets and Combustion Instability

2016-04-05
2016-01-0795
An experiment has been developed to investigate the ignition characteristics of ultra-lean premixed H2/air mixtures by a supersonic hot jet. The hot jet is generated by combustion of a stoichiometric mixture in a small prechamber. The apparatus adopted a dual-chamber design in which a small-volume (1% of the main chamber by volume) prechamber was installed within a large-volume main chamber. A small orifice (nozzle) connects the two chambers. Spark initiated combustion inside the prechamber causes a pressure rise and pushes the gases though the nozzle, resulting in a hot jet that would ignite the lean mixture in the main chamber. Simultaneous high-speed Schlieren photography and OH* Chemiluminescence were applied to visualize the jet penetration and the ignition processes inside the main chamber. Hot Wire Pyrometry (HWP) was used to measure temperature distribution of the transient hot jet.
Journal Article

Assessment of Large-Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Round Jets Using Low-Order Numerical Schemes

2017-03-28
2017-01-0575
The basic idea behind large-eddy simulation (LES) is to accurately resolve the large energy-containing scales and to use subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the smaller scales. The accuracy of LES can be significantly impacted by the numerical discretization schemes and the choice of the SGS model. This work investigates the accuracy of low-order LES codes in the simulation of a turbulent round jet which is representative of fuel jets in engines. The turbulent jet studied is isothermal with a Reynolds number of 6800. It is simulated using Converge, which is second-order accurate in space and first-order in time, and FLEDS, developed at Purdue University, which is sixth-order accurate in space and fourth-order in time. The high-order code requires the resolution of acoustic time-scales and hence is approximately 10 times more expensive than the low-order code.
X