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Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of the Control Strategy for the Hydraulic System of an Articulated Boom Lift

2010-10-05
2010-01-2006
This paper describes the numerical modeling of the hydraulic circuit of a self-moving boom lift. Boom lifts consist of several hydraulic actuators, each of them performs a specific movement. Hydraulic systems for lifting applications must ensure consistent performance no matter what the load and how many users are in operation at the same time. Common solutions comprise a fixed or a variable displacement pump with load-sensing control strategy. Instead, the hydraulic circuit studied in this paper includes a fixed displacement pump and an innovative (patented) proportional valve assembly. Each proportional valve (one for each user) permits a flow regulation for all typical load conditions and movement simultaneously. The study of the hydraulic system required a detailed modeling of some components such as: the overcenter valves, for the control of the assistive loads; the proportional valve, which keeps a constant flow independently of pressure drop across itself.
Journal Article

Gerotor Pumps for Automotive Drivetrain Applications: A Multi Domain Simulation Approach

2011-09-13
2011-01-2272
This paper presents a simulation model for the analysis of internal gear ring pumps. The model follows a multi domain simulation approach comprising sub-models for parametric geometry generation, fluid dynamic simulation, numerical calculation of characteristic geometry data and CAD/FEM integration. The sub-models are interacting in different domains and relevant design and simulation parameters are accessible in a central, easy to handle graphical user interface. The potentials of the described tool are represented by simulation results for both steady state and transient pump operating conditions and by their correlation with measured data. Although the presented approach is suitable to all applications of gear ring pumps, a particular focus is given to hydraulic actuation systems used in automotive drivetrain applications.
Technical Paper

Pump Controlled Steer-by-Wire System

2013-09-24
2013-01-2349
Modern on-road vehicles have been making steady strides when it comes to employing technological advances featuring active safety systems. However, off-highway machines are lagging in this area and are in dire need for modernization. One chassis system that has been receiving much attention in the automotive field is the steering system, where several electric and electrohydraulic steering architectures have been implemented and steer-by-wire technologies are under current research and development activities. On the other hand, off-highway articulated steering vehicles have not adequately evolved to meet the needs of Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) as well as their end customers. Present-day hydrostatic steering systems are plagued with poor energy efficiency due to valve throttling losses and are considered passive systems relative to safety, adjustability, and comfort.
Technical Paper

Frequency Conversion Controlled Vapor Recovery System by Temperature and Flow Signals: Model Design and Parameters Optimization

2013-09-24
2013-01-2348
Current gasoline-gas vapor recovery system is incomplete, for it cannot adjust the vapor-liquid ratio automatically due to the change of working temperature. To solve this problem, this paper intends to design a new system and optimize its parameters. In this research, variables control method is used for tests while linear regression is used for data processing. This new system moves proportion valve away and adds a DSP control module, a frequency conversion device, and a temperature sensor. With this research, it is clearly reviewed that the vapor-liquid ratio should remains 1.0 from 0 °C to 20 °C as its working temperature, be changed into 1.1 from 20 °C to 25 °C, be changed into 1.2 from 25 °C to 30 °C, and be changed into 1.3 when the working temperature is above 30 °C.
Journal Article

A Novel Pressure-Feedback Based Adaptive Control Method to Damp Instabilities in Hydraulic Machines

2012-09-24
2012-01-2035
Excessive vibration and poor controllability occur in many mobile fluid power applications, with negative consequences as concerns operators' health and comfort as well as machine safety and productivity. This paper addresses the problem of reducing oscillations in fluid power machines presenting a novel control technique of general applicability. Strong nonlinearities of hydraulic systems and the unpredictable operating conditions of the specific application (e.g. uneven ground, varying loads, etc.) are the main challenges to the development of satisfactory general vibration damping methods. The state of the art methods are typically designed as a function of the specific application, and in many cases they introduce energy dissipation and/or system slowdown. This paper contributes to this research by introducing an energy efficient active damping method based on feedback signals from pressure sensors mounted on the flow control valve block.
Technical Paper

Design of a High-Bandwidth, Low-Cost Hydrostatic Absorption Dynamometer with Electronic Load Control

2009-10-06
2009-01-2846
A low-cost hydrostatic absorption dynamometer has been developed for small to medium sized engines. The dynamometer was designed and built by students to support student projects and educational activities. The availability of such a dynamometer permits engine break-in cycles, performance testing, and laboratory instruction in the areas of engines, fuels, sensors, and data acquisition. The dynamometer, capable of loading engines up to 60kW at 155Nm and 3600rpm, incorporates a two-section gear pump and an electronically operated proportional pressure control valve to develop and control the load. A bypass valve permits the use of only one pump section, allowing increased fidelity of load control at lower torque levels. Torque is measured directly on the drive shaft with a strain gage. Torque and speed signals are transmitted by an inductively-powered collar mounted to the dynamometer drive shaft. Pressure transducers at the pump inlet and pump outlet allow secondary load measurement.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Hydraulic Topographies using High Speed Valves

2009-10-06
2009-01-2847
This paper presents hydraulic topographies using a network of valves to achieve better energy efficiency, reliability, and performance. The Topography with Integrated Energy Recovery (TIER) system allows the valves and actuators to reconfigure so that flow from assistive loads on actuators can be used to move actuators with resistive loads. Many variations are possible, including using multiple valves with either a single pump/motor or with multiple pump/motors. When multiple pump/motors are used, units of different displacements can be chosen such that units are controlled to minimize time operating at low displacement, thus increasing overall system efficiency. Other variations include configurations allowing open loop or closed loop pump/motors to be used, the use of fixed displacement pump/motors, or the ability to store energy in an accumulator. This paper gives a system level overview and summarizes the hydraulic systems using the TIER approach.
Journal Article

Multi-objective Optimization Tool for Noise Reduction in Axial Piston Machines

2008-10-07
2008-01-2723
Noise generation in axial piston machines can be attributed to two main sources; fluid borne and structure borne. Any attempt towards noise reduction in axial piston machines should focus on simultaneous reduction of these two sources. A multi-parameter multi-objective optimization approach to design valve plates to reduce both sources of noise for pumps which operate in a wide range of operating conditions has been detailed in a previous work (Seeniraj and Ivantysynova, 2008). The focus of this paper is to explain the background and to demonstrate the functionality and usefulness of the methodology for pump design.
Technical Paper

Digital Electrohydraulic Control for Constant-Deceleration Emergency Braking

2002-03-19
2002-01-1464
A digital electrohydraulic control system for emergency braking is designed, simulated, built, and tested. First, a dynamic model of the system was developed with Matlab Simulink. The parameters are obtained experimentally. Feedback gains are obtained by tuning the model. Then, the digital controller is implemented on an industrial personal computer programmed in Turbo C++. The control strategy is an improved digital version of the PID control. The key element in the control of the brake was an electro-hydraulic proportional pressure valve. Experiments show that the control system successfully realizes constant-deceleration emergency brake within mine safety rules. The same hardware can be reprogrammed for various hoists, different load conditions, and different control objectives. Although the test was conducted on a mine hoist brake, the control system can be applied to most vehicles.
Technical Paper

Polytopic Modeling and Lyapunov Stability Analysis of Power Electronics Systems

2002-10-29
2002-01-3203
Power electronics based power distribution systems are inherently nonlinear often behaving as constant power loads. Stability analysis of such systems typically is limited to local behavior. Herein polytopic modeling techniques are presented. Classification of polytopic model equilibrium points is made and methods of determining uniform asymptotic stability are presented.
Technical Paper

Stability Analysis of a DC Power Electronics Based Distribution System

2002-10-29
2002-01-3184
This paper illustrates the application of the generalized immittance space approach to the analysis of multi-bus interconnected power electronics based power distribution system. The paper sets forth the basic classifications of power converters in regard to stability analysis, a set of network reduction transformations, and illustrates the use of these reductions in order to analyze the stability of a zonal dc distribution system.
Technical Paper

A Transfer Path Approach for Experimentally Determining the Noise Impact of Hydraulic Components

2015-09-29
2015-01-2854
This work contributes to the overall goal of identifying and reducing noise sources and propagation in hydraulic systems. This is a general problem and a primary design concern for all fluid power applications. The need for new methods for identification of noise sources and transmission is evident in order to direct future modeling and experimental efforts aimed at reducing noise emissions of current fluid power machines. In this paper, this goal is accomplished through the formulation of noise functions used to identify contributions and transfer paths from different components of the system. An experimental method for noise transfer path analysis was developed and tested on a simple hydraulic system composed of a reference external gear pump, attached lines, and loading valve. Pressure oscillations in the working fluid are measured at the outlet of the pump. Surface vibrations are measured at multiple locations on the pump and connected system.
Journal Article

The Utility of Wide-Bandwidth Emulation to Evaluate Aircraft Power System Performance

2016-09-20
2016-01-1982
The cost and complexity of aircraft power systems limit the number of integrated system evaluations that can be performed in hardware. As a result, evaluations are often performed using emulators to mimic components or subsystems. As an example, aircraft generation systems are often tested using an emulator that consists of a bank of resistors that are switched to represent the power draw of one or more actuators. In this research, consideration is given to modern wide bandwidth emulators (WBEs) that use power electronics and digital controls to obtain wide bandwidth control of power, current, or voltage. Specifically, this paper first looks at how well a WBE can emulate the impedance of a load when coupled to a real-time model. Capturing the impedance of loads and sources is important for accurately assessing the small-signal stability of a system.
Technical Paper

Externally Electro-Pneumatically Shifting System (E.P.S) to Install on Manual Transmissions

2012-09-24
2012-01-1994
In this study, an Electro-pneumatic shifting system (E.P.S) has been designed to install on manual transmissions to make the selecting and shifting process faster and more reliable compared to manual systems. Shifting mechanism of a six speed gear box has been improved by using two tandem pneumatic cylinders, position sensors, pneumatic valves, and a controlling board based on AVR microcontroller. The central processing unit uses an electronic control system to provide the optimized operation of shift mechanism. This system can be easily adjusted in order to install externally on manual transmission systems without any changes on housing and transmission shift links.
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