Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Analysis of Automotive Exhaust Structures

2001-03-05
2001-01-0662
Experimental modal analysis (EMA) provides many parameters that are required in numerical modeling of dynamic and vibratory behavior of structures. This paper discusses EMA on an exhaust system of an off-road car. The exhaust structure is tested under three boundary conditions: free-free, supported with two elastomeric mounts, and mounted to the car. The free-free modal parameters are compared to finite element results. The two-mount tests are done with the mounts fixed to a rigid and heavy frame. The rigidity of the frame is verified experimentally. The on-car test is done with realistic boundary conditions, where the exhaust structure is fixed to the engine manifold as well as the two elastomeric mounts. The two-mount and the on-car tests result in highly complex mode shapes.
Technical Paper

Sound Transmission Through Elastomeric Sealing Systems

2001-04-30
2001-01-1411
The sound barrier performance of elastomeric vehicle weather seals was investigated. Experiments were performed for one bulb seal specimen following a reverberation room method. The seal wall vibration was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer. The acoustic pressure near the seal surface was measured simultaneously, allowing the sound intensities on both side of the seal, and the sound transmission loss to be evaluated. The vibration response of the bulb seal and its sound transmission loss were then computed using the finite element method. Model predictions for the same seal geometry were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data within the frequency range of interest, comprised between 500 Hz and 4000 Hz.
Technical Paper

Predictions of On-Engine Efficiency for the Radial Turbine of a Pulse Turbocharged Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1238
Modern pulse-turbocharged systems produce a turbine operating environment that is dominated by unsteady flow. Effective utilization of the unsteady exhaust gas energy content at the turbine inlet is critical to achieving optimum system efficiency. This work presents predictions for turbocharger unsteady performance from a model based on the Euler equations with source terms (EEST). This approach allows the time-accurate performance of the turbine to be determined, allowing comparisons of actual energy utilization and that estimated from steady flow performance maps.
Technical Paper

Critical Management Skills for Maintenance Managers

1999-08-10
1999-01-2976
Recognizing that technicians and managers need additional skills in order to compete for and successfully fill management positions, a major air carrier requested that Purdue University perform a study with employees in order to identify specific skills that are required to perform successfully in leadership positions. The study identified three core competencies (leadership, communication, and management processes) needed to be a successful leader in a major air carrier environment and outlined several related knowledge and skills within each area. Currently, many individuals in front line and mid-level management are lacking in several of these knowledge bases and skill sets. Consequently, the value of addressing current deficiencies through educational and experiential learning opportunities was proposed.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Best Practices

1999-08-10
1999-01-2977
Throughout the industry, organizations struggle with the task of implementing effective human factors programs aimed at reducing maintenance errors. Almost universally, many barriers have frustrated these efforts. In 1998 and 1999, the National Transportation Safety Board sponsored two workshops designed at identifying barriers to the implementation of human factors programs and to explore what was working and what was not working among the many industry efforts. This paper explores the findings of these workshops. In addition, it will report findings of Purdue University studies that reveal a rapid deterioration of even the most successful human factors programs. The research findings disclose several “disconnects” within most organizations which rapidly negate the positive effects of successful human factors and error management training and nullify many proactive human factors programs.
Technical Paper

Conditions In Which Vaporizing Fuel Drops Reach A Critical State In A Diesel Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0511
It has been shown recently that the maximum penetration of the liquid phase in a vaporizing Diesel spray is relatively short compared to the overall jet penetration and that this maximum is reached in 2 - 4°CA after start of injection. This implies that the drops that are formed by atomization vaporize in a short characteristic time and length relative to other physical processes. This paper addresses an important question related to this observation: Are the vaporizing fuel drops disappearing because they reach a critical state? Related to this question is another: Under what conditions will vaporizing fuel drops reach a critical state in a Diesel engine? Single drops of pure component liquid hydrocarbons and their mixtures vaporizing in quiescent nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas environments with ambient pressures and temperatures at values typically found in Diesel engines are examined.
Technical Paper

Swirl-Spray Interactions in a Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0996
Swirl in Diesel engines is known to be an important parameter that affects the mixing of the fuel jets, heat release, emissions, and overall engine performance. The changes may be brought about through interactions of the swirling flow field with the spray and through modifications of the flow field. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interaction of the swirl with sprays in a Diesel engine through a computational study. A multi-dimensional model for flows, sprays, and combustion in engines is employed. Results from computations are reported with varying levels of swirl and initial turbulence in two typical Diesel engine geometries. It is shown that there is an optimal level of swirl for each geometry that results from a balance between increased jet surface area and, hence, mixing rates and utilization of air in the chamber.
Technical Paper

A Photostress Study of Spur Gear Teeth

1967-05-15
670503
An experimental-analytic method of determining the stress distribution in narrow faced spur gear teeth is presented. The successful application of photostress to this contact problem is reported. It utilizes a digital computer routine developed for separating stresses in any general two-dimensional region. Results for two pairs of gears are presented. Comparison is made with values predicted by the modified Lewis formula, the Kelley and Pedersen equation, and by the Belajef solution of the Hertz contact problem for two cylinders.
Technical Paper

Training Materials for Agricultural Safety and Health

1975-02-01
750785
AN INTERDISCIPLINARY TEAM from Purdue University is developing a comprehensive set of educational materials for agricultural safety and health for OSHA, of the U. S. Department of Labor. The team from the Purdue school of Agriculture, school of Veterinary Medicine, and the school of Humanities, Social Science and Education are working for a year and a half to gather and catalog all existing safety materials, and to produce new ones to meet nationwide needs. The project was begun on July 1, 1974 and is scheduled to be completed by December 31, 1975. The project team includes John B. Liljedahl, professor of agricultural engineering, project leader; Avery H. Gray, assistant department head, 4-H and Youth; William H. Hamilton, agricultural education; David H. Loewer, Extension agricultural engineer; David L. Matthew, Extension Entomologist; Vernon B. Mayrose, Extension animal scientist; Ken Weinland, Extension veterinarian; Bruce A. McKenzie, Extension agricultural engineer; James L.
Technical Paper

Probability-Based Methods for Fatigue Analysis

1992-02-01
920661
Modern fatigue analysis techniques, that can provide reliable estimates of the service performance of components and structures, are finding increasing use in vehicle development programs. A major objective of such efforts is the prediction of the field performance of a fleet of vehicles as influenced by the host of design, manufacturing, and performance variables. An approach to this complex problem, based on the incorporation of probability theory in established life prediction methods, is presented. In this way, quantitative estimates of the lifetime distribution of a population are obtained based on anticipated, or specified, variations in component geometry, material processing sequences, and service loading. The application of this approach is demonstrated through a case study of an automotive transmission component.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Computed and Measured Results of Combustion in a Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980786
Results of computations of flows, sprays and combustion performed in an optically- accessible Diesel engine are presented. These computed results are compared with measured values of chamber pressure, liquid penetration, and soot distribution, deduced from flame luminosity photographs obtained in the engine at Sandia National Laboratories and reported in the literature. The computations were performed for two operating conditions representing low load and high load conditions as reported in the experimental work. The computed and measured peak pressures agree within 5% for both the low load and the high load conditions. The heat release rates derived from the computations are consistent with expectations for Diesel combustion with a premixed phase of heat release and then a diffusion phase. The computed soot distribution shows noticeable differences from the measured one.
Technical Paper

The Computed Structure of a Combusting Transient Jet Under Diesel Conditions

1998-02-23
981071
Numerical computations of combusting transient jets are performed under diesel-like conditions. Discussions of the structure of such jets are presented from global and detailed points of view. From a global point of view, we show that the computed flame heights agree with deductions from theory and that integrated soot mass and heat release rates are consistent with expected trends. We present results of several paramaters which characterise the details of the jet structure. These are fuel mass fractions, temperature, heat release rates, soot and NO. Some of these parameters are compared with the structure of a combusting diesel spray as deduced from measurements and reported in the literature. The heat release rate contours show that the region of chemical reactions is confined to a thin sheet as expected for a diffusion flame. The soot contour plots appear to agree qualitatively with the experimental observations.
Technical Paper

A Two-Step Combustion Model of Iso-Octane for 3D CFD Combustion Simulation in SI Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0201
The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for three-dimensional (3D) combustion analysis coupled with detailed chemistry in engine development is hindered by its expensive computational cost. Chemistry computation may occupy as much as 90% of the total computational cost. In the present paper, a new two-step iso-octane combustion model was developed for spark-ignited (SI) engine to maximize computational efficiency while maintaining acceptable accuracy. Starting from the model constants of an existing global combustion model, the new model was developed using an approach based on sensitivity analysis to approximate the results of a reference skeletal mechanism. The present model involves only five species and two reactions and utilizes only one uniform set of model constants. The validation of the new model was performed using shock tube and real SI engine cases.
Technical Paper

Unconventional Truck Chassis Design with Multi-Functional Cross Members

2019-04-02
2019-01-0839
An unconventional conceptual design of truck chassis with multi-functional cross-members is proposed, and an optimization framework is developed to optimize its structure to minimize mass while satisfying stiffness and modal frequency constraints. The side rails are C-sectional channels of variable height and were divided into six sections, each with different thickness distribution for the flanges and the web. The gearbox cross-member and the intermediate cross-members are compressed-air cylinders, and hence they act as multi-functional components. The dimensions and thickness of the side rails and the air-tank cross members are defined by a set of parameters which are considered as design variables in the optimization problem. The structure consists of three additional fixed cross-members which are modeled using beam elements. The limits of the design variables are decided while considering manufacturing limits.
Journal Article

Perception of Diesel Engine Gear Rattle Noise

2015-06-15
2015-01-2333
Component sound quality is an important factor in the design of competitive diesel engines. One component noise that causes complaints is the gear rattle that originates in the front-of-engine gear train which drives the fuel pump and other accessories. The rattle is caused by repeated tooth impacts resulting from fluctuations in differential torsional acceleration of the driving gears. These impacts generate a broadband, impulsive noise that is often perceived as annoying. In most previous work, the overall sound quality of diesel engines has been considered without specifically focusing on predicting the perception of gear rattle. Gear rattle level has been quantified based on angular acceleration measurements, but those measurements can be difficult to perform. Here, the emphasis was on developing a metric based on subjective testing of the perception of gear rattle.
Technical Paper

A Desktop Procedure for Measuring the Transmission Loss of Automotive Door Seals

2017-06-05
2017-01-1760
Due the increasing concern with the acoustic environment within automotive vehicles, there is an interest in measuring the acoustical properties of automotive door seals. These systems play an important role in blocking external noise sources, such as aerodynamic noise and tire noise, from entering the passenger compartment. Thus, it is important to be able to conveniently measure their acoustic performance. Previous methods of measuring the ability of seals to block sound required the use of either a reverberation chamber, or a wind tunnel with a special purpose chamber attached to it. That is, these methods required the use of large and expensive facilities. A simpler and more economical desktop procedure is thus needed to allow easy and fast acoustic measurement of automotive door seals.
Technical Paper

The Application of Acoustic Radiation Modes to Engine Oil Pan Design

2017-06-05
2017-01-1844
In modern engine design, downsizing and reducing weight while still providing an increased amount of power has been a general trend in recent decades. Traditionally, an engine design with superior NVH performance usually comes with a heavier, thus sturdier structure. Therefore, modern engine design requires that NVH be considered in the very early design stage to avoid modifications of engine structure at the last minute, when very few changes can be made. NVH design optimization of engine components has become more practical due to the development of computer software and hardware. However, there is still a need for smarter algorithms to draw a direct relationship between the design and the radiated sound power. At the moment, techniques based on modal acoustic transfer vectors (MATVs) have gained popularity in design optimization for their good performance in sound pressure prediction.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Noise Source Visualization with Wideband Acoustical Holography

2017-06-05
2017-01-1874
Wideband Acoustical Holography (WBH), which is a monopole-based, equivalent source procedure (J. Hald, “Wideband Acoustical Holography,” INTER-NOISE 2014), has proven to offer accurate noise source visualization results in experiments with a simple noise source: e.g., a loudspeaker (T. Shi, Y. Liu, J.S. Bolton, “The Use of Wideband Holography for Noise Source Visualization”, NOISE-CON 2016). From a previous study, it was found that the advantage of this procedure is the ability to optimize the solution in the case of an under-determined system: i.e., when the number of measurements is much smaller than the number of parameters that must be estimated in the model. In the present work, a diesel engine noise source was measured by using one set of measurements from a thirty-five channel combo-array placed in front of the engine.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Model for a Tandem External Gear Pump for Automotive Transmission

2018-04-03
2018-01-0403
This paper describes a simulation approach for the modeling of tandem external gear pumps. A tandem gear pump is the combination of two pumps with a common drive shaft. Such design architecture finds application in certain automotive transmission systems. The model presented in this work is applicable for pumps with both helical and spur gears. The simulation model is built on the HYGESim (HYdraulic GEars machines Simulator) previously developed by the authors for external spur gear units. In this work, the model formulation is properly extended to the capabilities of simulating helical gears. Starting directly from the CAD drawings of the unit, the fluid-dynamic model solves the internal instantaneous tooth space volume pressures and the internal flows following a lumped parameter approach. The simulation tool considers also the radial micro-motion of the gears, which influences the internal leakages and the features of the meshing process.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Vehicle Tire-Road Contact Forces: A Comparison between Artificial Neural Network and Observed Theory Approaches

2018-04-03
2018-01-0562
One of the principal goals of modern vehicle control systems is to ensure passenger safety during dangerous maneuvers. Their effectiveness relies on providing appropriate parameter inputs. Tire-road contact forces are among the most important because they provide helpful information that could be used to mitigate vehicle instabilities. Unfortunately, measuring these forces requires expensive instrumentation and is not suitable for commercial vehicles. Thus, accurately estimating them is a crucial task. In this work, two estimation approaches are compared, an observer method and a neural network learning technique. Both predict the lateral and longitudinal tire-road contact forces. The observer approach takes into account system nonlinearities and estimates the stochastic states by using an extended Kalman filter technique to perform data fusion based on the popular bicycle model.
X