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Technical Paper

Modeling and Measurement of Occupied Car Seats

An overview of model development for seated occupants is presented. Two approaches have been investigated for modeling the vertical response of a seated dummy: finite element and simplified mass-spring-damper methods. The construction and implementation of these models are described, and the various successes and drawbacks of each modeling approach are discussed. To evaluate the performance of the models, emphasis was also placed on producing accurate, repeatable measurements of the static and dynamic characteristics of a seated dummy.
Technical Paper

The Status of Error Management and Human Factors in Regional Airlines

This paper explores the current status of error management strategies and human factors efforts within regional airlines. It briefly addresses the potential needs of the environment from a perspective of the market’s accident and incident history as well as anecdotal reports received from members of the regional airline community. It also raises questions concerning the applicability of human factors and error management strategies developed in other segments of aviation to the problems faced within regional airline environments.
Technical Paper

Scenario Analysis of Hybrid Class 3-7 Heavy Vehicles

The effects of hybridization on heavy-duty vehicles are not well understood. Heavy vehicles represent a broader range of applications than light-duty vehicles, resulting in a wide variety of chassis and engine combinations, as well as diverse driving conditions. Thus, the strategies, incremental costs, and energy/emission benefits associated with hybridizing heavy vehicles could differ significantly from those for passenger cars. Using a modal energy and emissions model, we quantify the potential energy savings of hybridizing commercial Class 3-7 heavy vehicles, analyze hybrid configuration scenarios, and estimate the associated investment cost and payback time.
Technical Paper

The New PNGV System Analysis Toolkit PSAT V4.1 - Evolution and Improvement

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), working with the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), maintains hybrid vehicle simulation software, the PNGV System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). PSAT, originally proprietary, has been used by both DOE and the “Big Three” as a modeling tool. The number of PSAT users has increased recently because 15 universities participating in the 2001 FutureTruck competition were given the software for their use. PSAT allows companies to look at new types of vehicles (hybrids) and choose the best configuration according to customer expectations within a minimum of time. PSAT, a forward-looking model, allows the user to simulate a large number of different configurations (conventional, series, parallel, and power split). PSAT is well suited for development of control strategies; by using accurate dynamics component models as its code, PSAT can be implemented directly and tested at the bench scale or in a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Analysis of Automotive Exhaust Structures

Experimental modal analysis (EMA) provides many parameters that are required in numerical modeling of dynamic and vibratory behavior of structures. This paper discusses EMA on an exhaust system of an off-road car. The exhaust structure is tested under three boundary conditions: free-free, supported with two elastomeric mounts, and mounted to the car. The free-free modal parameters are compared to finite element results. The two-mount tests are done with the mounts fixed to a rigid and heavy frame. The rigidity of the frame is verified experimentally. The on-car test is done with realistic boundary conditions, where the exhaust structure is fixed to the engine manifold as well as the two elastomeric mounts. The two-mount and the on-car tests result in highly complex mode shapes.
Technical Paper

Sound Transmission Through Elastomeric Sealing Systems

The sound barrier performance of elastomeric vehicle weather seals was investigated. Experiments were performed for one bulb seal specimen following a reverberation room method. The seal wall vibration was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer. The acoustic pressure near the seal surface was measured simultaneously, allowing the sound intensities on both side of the seal, and the sound transmission loss to be evaluated. The vibration response of the bulb seal and its sound transmission loss were then computed using the finite element method. Model predictions for the same seal geometry were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data within the frequency range of interest, comprised between 500 Hz and 4000 Hz.
Technical Paper

Predictions of On-Engine Efficiency for the Radial Turbine of a Pulse Turbocharged Engine

Modern pulse-turbocharged systems produce a turbine operating environment that is dominated by unsteady flow. Effective utilization of the unsteady exhaust gas energy content at the turbine inlet is critical to achieving optimum system efficiency. This work presents predictions for turbocharger unsteady performance from a model based on the Euler equations with source terms (EEST). This approach allows the time-accurate performance of the turbine to be determined, allowing comparisons of actual energy utilization and that estimated from steady flow performance maps.
Technical Paper

Effect of Soot Loading on the Thermal Characteristics of Diesel Engine Oils

When compared with new oil, used diesel engine oils exhibited thermal conductivity that increases as the concentration of soot increases. The magnitude of the effect depends on the oil composition, and on the size and dispersion of the soot particles. Although soot in engine oil is generally deleterious to engine performance from the standpoint of wear and deposits, no negative effects were observed on the thermal performance of the oil itself; indeed, even slight positive effects are expected for oils that maintain soot in stable dispersion. Therefore, the thermal challenge for engine oils in diesel engines that use exhaust gas recirculation will be to prevent soot deposition on engine surfaces.
Technical Paper

Detailed Characterization of Morphology and Dimensions of Diesel Particulates via Thermophoretic Sampling

A thermophoretic particulate sampling device was used to investigate the detailed morphology and microstructure of diesel particulates at various engine-operating conditions. A 75 HP Caterpillar single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine was operated to sample particulate matter from the high-temperature exhaust stream. The morphology and microstructure of the collected diesel particulates were analyzed using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and subsequent image processing/data acquisition system. The analysis revealed that spherical primary particles were agglomerated together to form large aggregate clusters for most of engine speed and load conditions. Measured primary particle sizes ranged from 34.4 to 28.5 nm at various engine-operating conditions. The smaller primary particles observed at high engine-operating conditions were believed to be caused by particle oxidation at the high combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Mapping and Analysis of the Toyota Prius HEV Engine

The Prius is a major achievement by Toyota: it is the first mass-produced HEV with the first available HEV-optimized engine. Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Test Facility has been testing the Prius for model validation and technology performance and assessment. A significant part of the Prius test program is focused on testing and mapping the engine. A short-length torque sensor was installed in the powertrain in-situ. The torque sensor data allow insight into vehicle operational strategy, engine utilization, engine efficiency, and specific emissions. This paper describes the design and process necessary to install a torque sensor in a vehicle and shows the high-fidelity data measured during chassis dynamometer testing. The engine was found to have a maximum thermodynamic efficiency of 36.4%. Emissions and catalyst efficiency maps were also produced.
Technical Paper

Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from a Vehicle with a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

Particulate and gaseous emissions from a Mitsubishi Legnum GDI™ wagon were measured for FTP-75, HWFET, SC03, and US06 cycles. The vehicle has a 1.8-L spark-ignition direct-injection engine. Such an engine is considered a potential alternative to the compression-ignition direct-injection engine for the PNGV program. Both engine-out and tailpipe emissions were measured. The fuels used were Phase-2 reformulated gasoline and Indolene. In addition to the emissions, exhaust oxygen content and exhaust-gas temperature at the converter inlet were measured. Results show that the particulate emissions are measurable and are significantly affected by the type of fuel used and the presence of an oxidation catalyst. Whether the vehicle can meet the PNGV goal of 0.01 g/mi for particulates depends on the type of fuel used. Both NMHC and NOx emissions exceed the PNGV goals of 0.125 g/mi and 0.2 g/mi, respectively. Meeting the NOx goal will be especially challenging.
Technical Paper

Total Fuel Cycle Impacts of Advanced Vehicles

Recent advances in fuel-cell technology and low-emission, direct-injection spark-ignition and diesel engines for vehicles could significantly change the transportation vehicle power plant landscape in the next decade or so. This paper is a scoping study that compares total fuel cycle options for providing power to personal transport vehicles. The key question asked is, “How much of the energy from the fuel feedstock is available for motive power?” Emissions of selected criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases are qualitatively discussed. This analysis illustrates the differences among options; it is not intended to be exhaustive. Cases considered are hydrogen fuel from methane and from iso-octane in generic proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell vehicles, methane and iso-octane in spark-ignition (SI) engine vehicles, and diesel fuel (from methane or petroleum) in direct-injection (DI) diesel engine vehicles.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation Techniques for Steering of Tracked Agricultural and Forestry Vehicles

A procedure for simulating the dynamics of agricultural and forestry machines using mechanical system simulation software is presented. A soil/track interface model including rubber-track and steel-track was introduced as well as equations that can be used to model mechanical and hydraulic power trains commonly found in tracked vehicles. Two rubber-tracked vehicles (agricultural tractors) and two steel-tracked machines (forestry vehicles) were simulated to illustrate the technique, and some analysis results are presented. The examples given in this paper are based on the author’s research over the past several years.
Technical Paper

Membrane-Based Nitrogen-Enriched Air for NOx Reduction in Light-Duty Diesel Engines

The effects of nitrogen-enriched air, supplied by an air separation membrane, on NOx emissions from a 1.9-L turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine were investigated. To enrich combustion air with more nitrogen, prototype air separation membranes were installed between the after-cooler and intake manifold without any additional controls. The effects of nitrogen-enriched combustion air on NOx emissions were compared with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). At sufficient boost pressures (>50 kPag), nitrogen-enriched air from the membrane provided intake oxygen levels that were similar to those of EGR. Compared with EGR, nitrogen-enriched air provided 10-15% NOx reductions during medium to high engine loads and speeds. At part loads, when turbocharger boost pressure was low, the air separation membrane was not effective in enriching air with nitrogen. As a result, NOx reduction was lower, but it was 15-25% better than when EGR was not used.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Oxygen-Enriched Air and Emulsified Fuels

Analytical studies of oxygen-enriched diesel engine combustion have indicated the various benefits as well as the need for using cheaper fuels with water addition. To verify analytical results, a series of single-cylinder diesel engine tests were conducted to investigate the concepts of oxygen enriched air (OEA) for combustion with water emulsified fuels. Cylinder pressure traces were obtained for inlet oxygen levels of 21% to 35% and fuel emulsions with water contents of 0% to 20%. Data for emulsified fuels included no. 2 and no. 4 diesel fuels. The excess oxygen for the tests was supplied from compressed bottled oxygen connected to the intake manifold. The cylinder pressure data was collected with an AVL pressure transducer and a personal computer-based data logging system. The crank angle was measured with an optical encoder. In each data run, 30 consecutive cycles were recorded and later averaged for analysis.
Technical Paper

Conditions In Which Vaporizing Fuel Drops Reach A Critical State In A Diesel Engine

It has been shown recently that the maximum penetration of the liquid phase in a vaporizing Diesel spray is relatively short compared to the overall jet penetration and that this maximum is reached in 2 - 4°CA after start of injection. This implies that the drops that are formed by atomization vaporize in a short characteristic time and length relative to other physical processes. This paper addresses an important question related to this observation: Are the vaporizing fuel drops disappearing because they reach a critical state? Related to this question is another: Under what conditions will vaporizing fuel drops reach a critical state in a Diesel engine? Single drops of pure component liquid hydrocarbons and their mixtures vaporizing in quiescent nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas environments with ambient pressures and temperatures at values typically found in Diesel engines are examined.
Technical Paper

Swirl-Spray Interactions in a Diesel Engine

Swirl in Diesel engines is known to be an important parameter that affects the mixing of the fuel jets, heat release, emissions, and overall engine performance. The changes may be brought about through interactions of the swirling flow field with the spray and through modifications of the flow field. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interaction of the swirl with sprays in a Diesel engine through a computational study. A multi-dimensional model for flows, sprays, and combustion in engines is employed. Results from computations are reported with varying levels of swirl and initial turbulence in two typical Diesel engine geometries. It is shown that there is an optimal level of swirl for each geometry that results from a balance between increased jet surface area and, hence, mixing rates and utilization of air in the chamber.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol Additives on Diesel Particulate and NOx Emissions

Particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions from a 1.9-liter Volkswagen diesel engine were measured for three different fuels: neat diesel fuel, a blend of diesel fuel with 10% ethanol, and a blend of diesel fuel with 15% ethanol. Engine-out emissions were measured on an engine dynamometer for five different speeds and five different torques using the standard engine-control unit. Results show that particulate emissions can be significantly reduced over approximately two-thirds of the engine map by using a diesel-ethanol blend. Nitrogen oxide emissions can also be significantly reduced over a smaller portion of the engine map by using a diesel-ethanol blend. Moreover, there is an overlap between the regions where particulate emissions can be reduced by up to 75% and nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced by up to 84% compared with neat diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

A Photostress Study of Spur Gear Teeth

An experimental-analytic method of determining the stress distribution in narrow faced spur gear teeth is presented. The successful application of photostress to this contact problem is reported. It utilizes a digital computer routine developed for separating stresses in any general two-dimensional region. Results for two pairs of gears are presented. Comparison is made with values predicted by the modified Lewis formula, the Kelley and Pedersen equation, and by the Belajef solution of the Hertz contact problem for two cylinders.
Technical Paper

Probability-Based Methods for Fatigue Analysis

Modern fatigue analysis techniques, that can provide reliable estimates of the service performance of components and structures, are finding increasing use in vehicle development programs. A major objective of such efforts is the prediction of the field performance of a fleet of vehicles as influenced by the host of design, manufacturing, and performance variables. An approach to this complex problem, based on the incorporation of probability theory in established life prediction methods, is presented. In this way, quantitative estimates of the lifetime distribution of a population are obtained based on anticipated, or specified, variations in component geometry, material processing sequences, and service loading. The application of this approach is demonstrated through a case study of an automotive transmission component.