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Technical Paper

CNG Fueling Strategies for Commercial Vehicles Engines-A Literature Review

2013-11-27
2013-01-2812
The paper presents a survey of the opportunities to convert compression ignition heavy duty truck engines to work on single or dual fuel modes with CNG. In one popular option, the compression ignition engine is converted to spark ignition with throttle load control and port injection of the CNG. In another option of increasing popularity, the LNG is directly injected and ignited by direct injection of pilot Diesel. This latter option with direct injection of natural gas and diesel through separate injectors that are fully independent in their operation is determined to be the most promising, as it is expected to deliver better power density and similar part load fuel economy to Diesel.
Technical Paper

Reduced Warm-Up and Recovery of the Exhaust and Coolant Heat with a Single Loop Turbo Steamer Integrated with the Engine Architecture in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2013-11-27
2013-01-2827
The paper considers a novel waste heat recovery (WHR) system integrated with the engine architecture in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) platform. The novel WHR system uses water as the working media and recovers both the internal combustion engine coolant and exhaust energy in a single loop. Results of preliminary simulations show a 6% better fuel economy over the cold start UDDS cycle only considering the better fuel usage with the WHR after the quicker warm-up but neglecting the reduced friction losses for the warmer temperatures over the full cycle.
Technical Paper

Permanent Magnet Starter-Generator for Aircraft Application

2014-09-16
2014-01-2157
This paper describes a high-speed electrical machine for an aircraft starter-generator. A surface mounted permanent magnet machine is designed to have minimal rotor losses and a novel cooling system for the stator. An inner stator sleeve is adopted to allow for a flooded stator whilst minimizing rotor windage losses. Different slot-pole combinations are compared in view of attaining an optimal combination that provides minimum losses whilst satisfying the electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal constraints.
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel and On-Road Wind Noise: Comparison and Replication

2013-04-08
2013-01-1255
A KIA Soul was instrumented to measure the relative velocity (magnitude and yaw angle) at the front of the vehicle and in-cabin sound at a location close to the side glass near the A-pillar vortex impingement. Tests were conducted at a proving ground under a range of conditions from low wind conditions (~3 m/s) to moderate (7-8 m/s) wind speeds. For any given set of atmospheric conditions the velocity and sound data at any given position on the proving ground were noted to be very repeatable, indicating that the local wakes dominated the "turbulent" velocity field. Testing was also conducted in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel in smooth flow and with a number of novel turbulence generating methods. The resulting sounds were analyzed to study the modulation at frequencies likely to result in fluctuation strength type noise.
Technical Paper

A Comparison between Caster and Lean Angle in Generating Variable Camber

2015-03-10
2015-01-0067
A variation in the camber of an automotive wheel is desired to compensate a side-slip force change owing to normal load transfer when the car is cornering. The camber of a steered wheel can be varied by adjusting caster or lean angle which are the representations of steering axis orientation. Thus, a smart camber can be created by a variable caster or lean angle. Choosing which parameter among the two angles to be variable is very important and dependent on its different effects. Here, homogeneous transformation is employed to establish camber as a function of caster, lean angle, and steering angle in the general case. A comparison between caster and lean angle based on different criteria is then made. The comparison shows that a variable caster is much better and more feasible than a variable lean angle in generating a smart camber.
Technical Paper

Design of a Morphing Bi-Stable Composite Air Intake

2015-03-10
2015-01-0066
A morphing ram-air intake, capable of deploying from a flat, closed surface to an open state is investigated. Via geometric and material optimisation, an origami-inspired folding structure is developed to exhibit bi-stable behaviour. An iterative finite element design process was conducted, noting the effects of the critical design properties of geometry, bending stiffness and material strain limits on bi-stability and the achievable geometric shape change. As a first step, thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer materials are proposed while increased stiffness by fibre reinforcements are considered at a later design stage and evaluated under aerodynamic loading. The bi-stable structure is capable of remaining in either open or closed stable configurations without sustained actuation. The ability to retract the intake when not required has the potential to reduce drag. It is envisioned that such a concept may be readily adopted within automotive and aerospace applications.
Technical Paper

The Unsteady Wind Environment of Road Vehicles, Part One: A Review of the On-road Turbulent Wind Environment

2007-04-16
2007-01-1236
This paper is the first of two papers that address the simulation and effects of turbulence on surface vehicle aerodynamics. This, the first paper, focuses on the characteristics of the turbulent flow field encountered by a road vehicle. The natural wind environment is usually unsteady but is almost universally replaced by a smooth flow in both wind tunnel and computational domains. In this paper, the characteristics of turbulence in the relative-velocity co-ordinate system of a moving ground vehicle are reviewed, drawing on work from Wind Engineering experience. Data are provided on typical turbulence levels, probability density functions and velocity spectra to which vehicles are exposed. The focus is on atmospheric turbulence, however the transient flow field from the wakes of other road vehicles and roadside objects are also considered.
Technical Paper

The Unsteady Wind Environment of Road Vehicles, Part Two: Effects on Vehicle Development and Simulation of Turbulence

2007-04-16
2007-01-1237
This paper summarises the effects of turbulence on the aerodynamics of road vehicles, including effects on forces and aero-acoustics. Data are presented showing that a different design of some vehicles may result when turbulent flow is employed. Methods for generating turbulence, focusing on physical testing in full-size wind tunnels, are discussed. The paper is Part Two of a review of turbulence and road vehicles. Part One (Cooper and Watkins, 2007) summarised the sources and nature of the turbulence experienced by surface vehicles.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Wheel Slip Control System Using Electromechanical Brake Actuators

2007-04-16
2007-01-0865
When presented with new technology that removes past constraints, it is often beneficial to revisit old learning's to see if they still hold, and to understand how these can be best applied to the new technology. Brake-By-Wire (BBW) systems replace all the mechanical linkages of conventional hydraulic brake systems with ‘dry’ electrical components [2],[3]. The advent of this technology poses the possibility of revisiting conventional ABS control systems by utilizing the continuous nature that BBW offers. Presented is a BBW model based wheel slip controller using a generic continuous time Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm [15]. The result being the first of many steps taken in understanding the full potential that BBW systems offer.
Technical Paper

On The Causes of Image Blurring in External Rear View Mirrors

2004-03-08
2004-01-1309
Effective rear view vision from external mirrors is compromised at high speed due to rotational vibration of the mirror glass. Possible causes of the mirror vibration are reviewed, including road inputs from the vehicle body and a variety of aerodynamic inputs. The latter included vibrations of the entire vehicle body, vibrations of the mirror “shell”, the turbulent flow field due to the A-pillar vortex (and to a lesser extent the approach flow) and base pressure fluctuations. Experiments are described that attempt to understand the relative influence of the causes of vibration, including road and tunnel tests with mirrors instrumented with micro accelerometers. At low frequencies, road inputs predominate, but some occur at such low frequencies that the human eye can track the moving image. At frequencies above about 20Hz the results indicate that at high speeds aerodynamics play a dominant role.
Journal Article

Modelling and Evaluation of Aircraft Contrails for 4-Dimensional Trajectory Optimisation

2015-09-15
2015-01-2538
Contrails and aircraft-induced cirrus clouds are reputed being the largest components of aviation-induced global warming, even greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) exhaust emissions by aircraft. This article presents a contrail model algorithm specifically developed to be integrated within a multi-objective flight trajectory optimization software framework. The purpose of the algorithm is to supply to the optimizer a measure of the estimated radiative forcing from the contrails generated by the aircraft while flying a specific trajectory. In order to determine the precise measure, a comprehensive model is employed exploiting the Schmidt-Appleman criterion and ice-supersaturation regions. Additional parameters such as the solar zenith angle, contrail lifetime and spread are also considered.
Technical Paper

Automated ATM System Enabling 4DT-Based Operations

2015-09-15
2015-01-2539
As part of the current initiatives aimed at enhancing safety, efficiency and environmental sustainability of aviation, a significant improvement in the efficiency of aircraft operations is currently pursued. Innovative Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) technologies and operational concepts are being developed to achieve the ambitious goals for efficiency and environmental sustainability set by national and international aviation organizations. These technological and operational innovations will be ultimately enabled by the introduction of novel CNS/ATM and Avionics (CNS+A) systems, featuring higher levels of automation. A core feature of such systems consists in the real-time multi-objective optimization of flight trajectories, incorporating all the operational, economic and environmental aspects of the aircraft mission.
Technical Paper

New Unconventional Airship Concept by Morphing the Lenticular Shape

2015-09-15
2015-01-2577
The aim of this paper is to develop a new concept of unconventional airship based on morphing a lenticular shape while preserving the volumetric dimension. Lenticular shape is known to have relatively poor aerodynamic characteristics. It is also well known to have poor static and dynamic stability after the certain critical speed. The new shape presented in this paper is obtained by extending one and reducing the other direction of the original lenticular shape. The volume is kept constant through the morphing process. To improve the airship performance, four steps of morphing, starting from the lenticular shape, were obtained and compared in terms of aerodynamic characteristics, including drag, lift and pitching moment, and stability characteristics for two different operational scenarios. The comparison of the stability was carried out based on necessary deflection angle of the part of tail surface.
Technical Paper

Airship and Hot Air Balloon Real Time Envelope Shape Prediction through a Cloth Simulation Technique

2015-09-15
2015-01-2578
The flight simulation of airships and hot air balloons usually considers the envelope geometry as a fixed shape, whose volume is eventually reduced by ballonets. However, the dynamic pressure or helium leaks in airships, and the release of air to allow descent in hot air balloons can significantly change the shape of the envelope leading to potential dangerous situations. In fact, in case of semi-rigid and non-rigid airships a reduction in envelope internal pressure can reduce the envelope bending stiffness leading to the loss of the typical axial-symmetric shape. For hot air balloons thing goes even worse since the lost of internal pressure can lead to the collapsing of the balloon shape to a sort of vertically stretched geometry (similar to a torch) which is not able to sustain the attached basket and its payload.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of a Wing-In-Ground-Effect (WIGE) Vehicle

2015-09-15
2015-01-2571
This paper introduces the Seabus SB-8, a new Wing-In-Ground-Effect (WIGE) craft designed for 8 - 10 passengers. The craft will be used for fast transportation across Port Phillip Bay in Melbourne, Australia. With a cruise speed of about 140 km/hr, it can cross the bay in 30 min as compared to 75 min for land transportation. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted on the design to determine aerodynamic properties at various angles of attack and operating heights. The influence of ground effect was also determined as well as the effect of Centre of Gravity (CG) position on longitudinal stability. Using flow visualization areas of potential flow separation were identified and interactions of wake vortices with different parts of the aircraft were determined. Note that some aspects of the design are proprietary.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Control Law Design for Aircraft with Reduced Tail Size

2001-09-11
2001-01-3003
The design of a longitudinal stability augmentation system (SAS) for an aircraft with reduced tail size in the preliminary design phase is presented. Reducing tail size will reduce drag and weight and result in better fuel consumption, but it will reduce the level of stability. A control law is designed to give the aircraft the same stability level as that with the initial tail size. The feedback gains of the control law is computed with the equivalent stability derivative criteria of and CmαCmq . The paper also gives an overview of classical root locus and pole placement method and demonstrates that equivalent stability derivative criteria is suitable for preliminary aircraft design applications. Moreover, the control laws are also synthesized using robust control LQG/LTR which can be elaborated more in the detail design phase.
Technical Paper

Airflow Parameters Near the Differential of a Rear Drive Passenger Car

2001-03-05
2001-01-1015
The paper presents experimental analysis of the airflow around the differential center housing of a rear drive full-scale passenger car. The study included investigation of local airflow total and static pressure, as well as surface flow visualization. Estimation of the local airflow velocity is based on the measured pressure coefficients. The experiments were carried out at different test facilities: in a climatic wind tunnel, in a full-scale wind tunnel and on-road. Influence of side wind was modeled by the yawing of the car in the full-scale wind tunnel. The results show the asymmetrical structure of the flow in both, vertical and horizontal planes. Estimated longitudinal relative local velocity decreases from maximum Vr ≈ 0.4 at the lower surface of the center housing, to about Vr ≈ 0 above the upper surface. Side wind increases airflow velocity around the center housing within the investigated yaw range ± 20°
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel Tests of Vehicle Cooling System Performance at High Blockage

2000-03-06
2000-01-0351
Wind tunnels provide a convenient, repeatable method of assessing vehicle engine cooling, yet important draw-backs are the lack of a moving ground and rotating wheels, blockage constraints and, in some tunnels, the inability to simulate ambient temperatures. A series of on-road and wind-tunnel experiments has been conducted to validate a process for evaluating vehicle cooling system performance in a high blockage aerodynamic wind tunnel with a fixed ground simulation. Airflow through the vehicle front air intake was measured via a series of pressure taps and the wind-tunnel velocity was adjusted to match the corresponding pressures found during the road tests. In order to cope with the inability to simulate ambient temperatures, the technique of Specific Dissipation (SD) was used (which has previously been shown to overcome this problem).
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Cooperative and Non-Cooperative RPAS Detect-and-Avoid

2015-09-15
2015-01-2470
A unified approach to cooperative and non-cooperative Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) is a key enabler for Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) to safely and routinely access all classes of airspace. In this paper state-of-the-art cooperative and non-cooperative DAA sensor/system technologies for manned aircraft and RPAS are reviewed and the associated multi-sensor data fusion techniques are discussed. A DAA system architecture is presented based on Boolean Decision Logics (BDL) for selecting non-cooperative and cooperative sensors/systems including both passive and active Forward Looking Sensors (FLS), Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B). After elaborating the DAA system processes, the key mathematical models associated with both non-cooperative and cooperative DAA functions are presented.
Technical Paper

Image Processing Based Air Vehicles Classification for UAV Sense and Avoid Systems

2015-09-15
2015-01-2471
The maturity reached in the development of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) systems is making them more and more attractive for a vast number of civil missions. Clearly, the introduction of UAVs in the civil airspace requiring practical and effective regulation is one of the most critical issues being currently discussed. As several civil air authorities report in their regulations “Sense and Avoid” or “Detect and Avoid” capabilities are critical to the successful integration of UAV into the civil airspace. One possible approach to achieve this capability, specifically for operations beyond the Line-of-Sight, would be to equip air vehicles with a vision-based system using cameras to monitor the surrounding air space and to classify other air vehicles flying in close proximity. This paper presents an image-based application for the supervised classification of air vehicles.
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