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Technical Paper

Permanent Magnet Starter-Generator for Aircraft Application

This paper describes a high-speed electrical machine for an aircraft starter-generator. A surface mounted permanent magnet machine is designed to have minimal rotor losses and a novel cooling system for the stator. An inner stator sleeve is adopted to allow for a flooded stator whilst minimizing rotor windage losses. Different slot-pole combinations are compared in view of attaining an optimal combination that provides minimum losses whilst satisfying the electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal constraints.
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel and On-Road Wind Noise: Comparison and Replication

A KIA Soul was instrumented to measure the relative velocity (magnitude and yaw angle) at the front of the vehicle and in-cabin sound at a location close to the side glass near the A-pillar vortex impingement. Tests were conducted at a proving ground under a range of conditions from low wind conditions (~3 m/s) to moderate (7-8 m/s) wind speeds. For any given set of atmospheric conditions the velocity and sound data at any given position on the proving ground were noted to be very repeatable, indicating that the local wakes dominated the "turbulent" velocity field. Testing was also conducted in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel in smooth flow and with a number of novel turbulence generating methods. The resulting sounds were analyzed to study the modulation at frequencies likely to result in fluctuation strength type noise.
Technical Paper

Design of a Morphing Bi-Stable Composite Air Intake

A morphing ram-air intake, capable of deploying from a flat, closed surface to an open state is investigated. Via geometric and material optimisation, an origami-inspired folding structure is developed to exhibit bi-stable behaviour. An iterative finite element design process was conducted, noting the effects of the critical design properties of geometry, bending stiffness and material strain limits on bi-stability and the achievable geometric shape change. As a first step, thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer materials are proposed while increased stiffness by fibre reinforcements are considered at a later design stage and evaluated under aerodynamic loading. The bi-stable structure is capable of remaining in either open or closed stable configurations without sustained actuation. The ability to retract the intake when not required has the potential to reduce drag. It is envisioned that such a concept may be readily adopted within automotive and aerospace applications.
Technical Paper

The Unsteady Wind Environment of Road Vehicles, Part One: A Review of the On-road Turbulent Wind Environment

This paper is the first of two papers that address the simulation and effects of turbulence on surface vehicle aerodynamics. This, the first paper, focuses on the characteristics of the turbulent flow field encountered by a road vehicle. The natural wind environment is usually unsteady but is almost universally replaced by a smooth flow in both wind tunnel and computational domains. In this paper, the characteristics of turbulence in the relative-velocity co-ordinate system of a moving ground vehicle are reviewed, drawing on work from Wind Engineering experience. Data are provided on typical turbulence levels, probability density functions and velocity spectra to which vehicles are exposed. The focus is on atmospheric turbulence, however the transient flow field from the wakes of other road vehicles and roadside objects are also considered.
Technical Paper

The Unsteady Wind Environment of Road Vehicles, Part Two: Effects on Vehicle Development and Simulation of Turbulence

This paper summarises the effects of turbulence on the aerodynamics of road vehicles, including effects on forces and aero-acoustics. Data are presented showing that a different design of some vehicles may result when turbulent flow is employed. Methods for generating turbulence, focusing on physical testing in full-size wind tunnels, are discussed. The paper is Part Two of a review of turbulence and road vehicles. Part One (Cooper and Watkins, 2007) summarised the sources and nature of the turbulence experienced by surface vehicles.
Technical Paper

On The Causes of Image Blurring in External Rear View Mirrors

Effective rear view vision from external mirrors is compromised at high speed due to rotational vibration of the mirror glass. Possible causes of the mirror vibration are reviewed, including road inputs from the vehicle body and a variety of aerodynamic inputs. The latter included vibrations of the entire vehicle body, vibrations of the mirror “shell”, the turbulent flow field due to the A-pillar vortex (and to a lesser extent the approach flow) and base pressure fluctuations. Experiments are described that attempt to understand the relative influence of the causes of vibration, including road and tunnel tests with mirrors instrumented with micro accelerometers. At low frequencies, road inputs predominate, but some occur at such low frequencies that the human eye can track the moving image. At frequencies above about 20Hz the results indicate that at high speeds aerodynamics play a dominant role.
Journal Article

Modelling and Evaluation of Aircraft Contrails for 4-Dimensional Trajectory Optimisation

Contrails and aircraft-induced cirrus clouds are reputed being the largest components of aviation-induced global warming, even greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) exhaust emissions by aircraft. This article presents a contrail model algorithm specifically developed to be integrated within a multi-objective flight trajectory optimization software framework. The purpose of the algorithm is to supply to the optimizer a measure of the estimated radiative forcing from the contrails generated by the aircraft while flying a specific trajectory. In order to determine the precise measure, a comprehensive model is employed exploiting the Schmidt-Appleman criterion and ice-supersaturation regions. Additional parameters such as the solar zenith angle, contrail lifetime and spread are also considered.
Technical Paper

Automated ATM System Enabling 4DT-Based Operations

As part of the current initiatives aimed at enhancing safety, efficiency and environmental sustainability of aviation, a significant improvement in the efficiency of aircraft operations is currently pursued. Innovative Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) technologies and operational concepts are being developed to achieve the ambitious goals for efficiency and environmental sustainability set by national and international aviation organizations. These technological and operational innovations will be ultimately enabled by the introduction of novel CNS/ATM and Avionics (CNS+A) systems, featuring higher levels of automation. A core feature of such systems consists in the real-time multi-objective optimization of flight trajectories, incorporating all the operational, economic and environmental aspects of the aircraft mission.
Technical Paper

New Unconventional Airship Concept by Morphing the Lenticular Shape

The aim of this paper is to develop a new concept of unconventional airship based on morphing a lenticular shape while preserving the volumetric dimension. Lenticular shape is known to have relatively poor aerodynamic characteristics. It is also well known to have poor static and dynamic stability after the certain critical speed. The new shape presented in this paper is obtained by extending one and reducing the other direction of the original lenticular shape. The volume is kept constant through the morphing process. To improve the airship performance, four steps of morphing, starting from the lenticular shape, were obtained and compared in terms of aerodynamic characteristics, including drag, lift and pitching moment, and stability characteristics for two different operational scenarios. The comparison of the stability was carried out based on necessary deflection angle of the part of tail surface.
Technical Paper

Airship and Hot Air Balloon Real Time Envelope Shape Prediction through a Cloth Simulation Technique

The flight simulation of airships and hot air balloons usually considers the envelope geometry as a fixed shape, whose volume is eventually reduced by ballonets. However, the dynamic pressure or helium leaks in airships, and the release of air to allow descent in hot air balloons can significantly change the shape of the envelope leading to potential dangerous situations. In fact, in case of semi-rigid and non-rigid airships a reduction in envelope internal pressure can reduce the envelope bending stiffness leading to the loss of the typical axial-symmetric shape. For hot air balloons thing goes even worse since the lost of internal pressure can lead to the collapsing of the balloon shape to a sort of vertically stretched geometry (similar to a torch) which is not able to sustain the attached basket and its payload.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of a Wing-In-Ground-Effect (WIGE) Vehicle

This paper introduces the Seabus SB-8, a new Wing-In-Ground-Effect (WIGE) craft designed for 8 - 10 passengers. The craft will be used for fast transportation across Port Phillip Bay in Melbourne, Australia. With a cruise speed of about 140 km/hr, it can cross the bay in 30 min as compared to 75 min for land transportation. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted on the design to determine aerodynamic properties at various angles of attack and operating heights. The influence of ground effect was also determined as well as the effect of Centre of Gravity (CG) position on longitudinal stability. Using flow visualization areas of potential flow separation were identified and interactions of wake vortices with different parts of the aircraft were determined. Note that some aspects of the design are proprietary.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Control Law Design for Aircraft with Reduced Tail Size

The design of a longitudinal stability augmentation system (SAS) for an aircraft with reduced tail size in the preliminary design phase is presented. Reducing tail size will reduce drag and weight and result in better fuel consumption, but it will reduce the level of stability. A control law is designed to give the aircraft the same stability level as that with the initial tail size. The feedback gains of the control law is computed with the equivalent stability derivative criteria of and CmαCmq . The paper also gives an overview of classical root locus and pole placement method and demonstrates that equivalent stability derivative criteria is suitable for preliminary aircraft design applications. Moreover, the control laws are also synthesized using robust control LQG/LTR which can be elaborated more in the detail design phase.
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel Tests of Vehicle Cooling System Performance at High Blockage

Wind tunnels provide a convenient, repeatable method of assessing vehicle engine cooling, yet important draw-backs are the lack of a moving ground and rotating wheels, blockage constraints and, in some tunnels, the inability to simulate ambient temperatures. A series of on-road and wind-tunnel experiments has been conducted to validate a process for evaluating vehicle cooling system performance in a high blockage aerodynamic wind tunnel with a fixed ground simulation. Airflow through the vehicle front air intake was measured via a series of pressure taps and the wind-tunnel velocity was adjusted to match the corresponding pressures found during the road tests. In order to cope with the inability to simulate ambient temperatures, the technique of Specific Dissipation (SD) was used (which has previously been shown to overcome this problem).
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Cooperative and Non-Cooperative RPAS Detect-and-Avoid

A unified approach to cooperative and non-cooperative Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) is a key enabler for Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) to safely and routinely access all classes of airspace. In this paper state-of-the-art cooperative and non-cooperative DAA sensor/system technologies for manned aircraft and RPAS are reviewed and the associated multi-sensor data fusion techniques are discussed. A DAA system architecture is presented based on Boolean Decision Logics (BDL) for selecting non-cooperative and cooperative sensors/systems including both passive and active Forward Looking Sensors (FLS), Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B). After elaborating the DAA system processes, the key mathematical models associated with both non-cooperative and cooperative DAA functions are presented.
Technical Paper

Image Processing Based Air Vehicles Classification for UAV Sense and Avoid Systems

The maturity reached in the development of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) systems is making them more and more attractive for a vast number of civil missions. Clearly, the introduction of UAVs in the civil airspace requiring practical and effective regulation is one of the most critical issues being currently discussed. As several civil air authorities report in their regulations “Sense and Avoid” or “Detect and Avoid” capabilities are critical to the successful integration of UAV into the civil airspace. One possible approach to achieve this capability, specifically for operations beyond the Line-of-Sight, would be to equip air vehicles with a vision-based system using cameras to monitor the surrounding air space and to classify other air vehicles flying in close proximity. This paper presents an image-based application for the supervised classification of air vehicles.
Technical Paper

A 3D User and Maintenance Manual for UAVs and Commercial Aircrafts Based on Augmented Reality

Traditional User/Maintenance Manuals provide useful information when dealing with simple machines. However, when dealing with complex systems of systems and highly miniaturized technologies, like UAVs, or with machines with millions of parts, a commercial aircraft is a case in point, new technologies taking advantage of Augmented Reality can rapidly and effectively support the maintenance operations. This paper presents a User/Maintenance Manual based on Augmented Reality to help the operator in the detection of parts and in the sequence to be followed to assemble/disassemble systems and subsystems. The proposed system includes a handheld device and/or an head mounted display or special goggles, to be used by on-site operators, with software management providing data fusion and overlaying traditional 2D user/maintenance manual information with an augmented reality software and appropriate interface.
Technical Paper

Development of a Template Safety Case for Unmanned Aircraft Operations Over Populous Areas

One of the primary hazards associated with the operation of Unmanned Aircraft (UA) is the controlled or uncontrolled impact of the UA with terrain or objects on the terrain (e.g., people or structures). National Aviation Authorities (NAAs) have the responsibility of ensuring that the risks associated with this hazard are managed to an acceptable level. The NAA can mandate a range of technical (e.g., design standards) and operational (e.g., restrictions on flight) regulatory requirements. However, work to develop these regulations for UA is ongoing. Underpinning this rule-making process is a safety case showing how the regulatory requirements put in place ensure that the UA operation is acceptably safe for the given application and environment.
Technical Paper

Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Techniques for RPAS Detect, Track and Avoid

Accurate and robust tracking of objects is of growing interest amongst the computer vision scientific community. The ability of a multi-sensor system to detect and track objects, and accurately predict their future trajectory is critical in the context of mission- and safety-critical applications. Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) are currently not equipped to routinely access all classes of airspace since certified Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) systems are yet to be developed. Such capabilities can be achieved by incorporating both cooperative and non-cooperative DAA functions, as well as providing enhanced communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) services. DAA is highly dependent on the performance of CNS systems for Detection, Tacking and avoiding (DTA) tasks and maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Aeroelastic Behaviour of Flexible Wings Carrying Distributed Electric Propulsion Systems

An accurate aeroelastic assessment of powered HALE aircraft is of paramount importance considering that their behaviour contrasts the one of conventional aircraft mainly due to the use of high aspect-ratio wings with distributed propulsion systems. This particular configuration shows strong dependency of the wing natural frequencies to the propulsion distribution and operating conditions. Numerical and experimental investigations are carried out to better understand the behaviour of flexible wings, focusing on the effect of distributed electric propulsion systems. Several configurations are investigated, including a single propulsion system using an engine pod (a weight with embedded electric motor, a propeller, and the wing-attached structure) installed at selected spanwise positions, and configurations with two and three propellers.
Technical Paper

Design, Development and Integration of a Wing-Morphing, Bimodal Unmanned Vehicle

This paper relates to the design and development of a multi-modal UAV capable of aerial flight and underwater propulsion. A novel hybrid propulsion system has been manufactured and tested. Consisting of folding blades, the propeller has been optimized for propulsion both in air and water. The critical water to air transition phase is achieved by an additional impulsive thruster powered by a C02 cartridge. To decrease the drag in underwater cruise and reduce the potential damage when the vehicle impacts the water, a morphing wing has been developed. This consists of foam-carbon fiber lay-up constructed wings in a variable sweep configuration. The actuation of the sweep is achieved by linear servos mounted on the sleeve shaped spar. An integrated prototype is constructed, using an unconventional, anhedral horizontal stabilizers to allow clearance for the morphing wing.