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Technical Paper

Permanent Magnet Starter-Generator for Aircraft Application

2014-09-16
2014-01-2157
This paper describes a high-speed electrical machine for an aircraft starter-generator. A surface mounted permanent magnet machine is designed to have minimal rotor losses and a novel cooling system for the stator. An inner stator sleeve is adopted to allow for a flooded stator whilst minimizing rotor windage losses. Different slot-pole combinations are compared in view of attaining an optimal combination that provides minimum losses whilst satisfying the electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal constraints.
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel and On-Road Wind Noise: Comparison and Replication

2013-04-08
2013-01-1255
A KIA Soul was instrumented to measure the relative velocity (magnitude and yaw angle) at the front of the vehicle and in-cabin sound at a location close to the side glass near the A-pillar vortex impingement. Tests were conducted at a proving ground under a range of conditions from low wind conditions (~3 m/s) to moderate (7-8 m/s) wind speeds. For any given set of atmospheric conditions the velocity and sound data at any given position on the proving ground were noted to be very repeatable, indicating that the local wakes dominated the "turbulent" velocity field. Testing was also conducted in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel in smooth flow and with a number of novel turbulence generating methods. The resulting sounds were analyzed to study the modulation at frequencies likely to result in fluctuation strength type noise.
Technical Paper

The Unsteady Wind Environment of Road Vehicles, Part One: A Review of the On-road Turbulent Wind Environment

2007-04-16
2007-01-1236
This paper is the first of two papers that address the simulation and effects of turbulence on surface vehicle aerodynamics. This, the first paper, focuses on the characteristics of the turbulent flow field encountered by a road vehicle. The natural wind environment is usually unsteady but is almost universally replaced by a smooth flow in both wind tunnel and computational domains. In this paper, the characteristics of turbulence in the relative-velocity co-ordinate system of a moving ground vehicle are reviewed, drawing on work from Wind Engineering experience. Data are provided on typical turbulence levels, probability density functions and velocity spectra to which vehicles are exposed. The focus is on atmospheric turbulence, however the transient flow field from the wakes of other road vehicles and roadside objects are also considered.
Technical Paper

Pressure Fluctuations on Automotive Rear View Mirrors

2007-04-16
2007-01-0899
The function of a rear view mirror is a determining factor in its shape - resulting in a flat rear mirrored face. The resulting bluff body generates unsteady base pressures which generate unsteady forces, leading to movement of the mirror surface and potential image blurring. The objective of this paper was to experimentally determine the fluctuating base pressure on a standard and modified mirror. Half a full-size vehicle was utilised, fixed to the side wall of a wind tunnel. A dynamically responsive multi channel pressure system was used to record the pressures. The modification to the mirror consisted of a series of extensions to the mirror rim, to see if this method would attenuate the fluctuating base pressures. It was found that increasing the length of the extension changed the pressure pattern across the face, and the over all magnitude of the fluctuations reduced with increasing length of extension. It was recommended to further the work via phase measurements.
Technical Paper

Use of a Pressure-Based Technique for Evaluating the Aerodynamics of Vehicle Cooling Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0712
A pressure-based technique has been developed for the purpose of radiator cooling airflow measurement. The technique was effectively utilised to quantify the local time-averaged air velocity through radiator cores in a small wind tunnel. The pressure difference indicated by the technique was found to be a function of the normal component of the air velocity. This paper describes the development and use of the technique which is compact, robust and non-intrusive. By applying this technique, the airflow distribution across the radiator face has been measured for a complete vehicle in an aerodynamic wind tunnel and in an environmental chamber. Results are compared for the different test environments. The influence of airflow distribution on the Specific Dissipation (a parameter used for evaluating radiator cooling performance) is examined and results for propeller-based methods and pressure-based methods are compared.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Vehicle A-Pillar Aerodynamics using various Turbulence Models

2004-03-08
2004-01-0231
Vortices formed around the A-pillar region dictates the pressure distribution on the side panels of a passenger vehicle and also can lead to aerodynamic noise generation. This paper compares the suitability of various turbulence models in simulating the flow behind a vehicle A-pillar region under laboratory operating conditions. Commercial software's (FLUENT and SWIFT) were used to compare the performance of various turbulence models. In FLUENT, a simplified vehicle model with slanted A-pillar geometry was generated using GAMBIT and in SWIFT, the simplified vehicle model was generated using Fame Hybrid. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out using FLUENT under steady state conditions using various turbulence models (k-, k- Realize, k- RNG, k- and Spalart Allamaras). In SWIFT, k-, A-RSM and HTM2 turbulence models were used for the steady state simulations. Investigations were carried out at velocities of 60, 100 and 140km/h and at 0-degree yaw angle.
Journal Article

Modelling and Evaluation of Aircraft Contrails for 4-Dimensional Trajectory Optimisation

2015-09-15
2015-01-2538
Contrails and aircraft-induced cirrus clouds are reputed being the largest components of aviation-induced global warming, even greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) exhaust emissions by aircraft. This article presents a contrail model algorithm specifically developed to be integrated within a multi-objective flight trajectory optimization software framework. The purpose of the algorithm is to supply to the optimizer a measure of the estimated radiative forcing from the contrails generated by the aircraft while flying a specific trajectory. In order to determine the precise measure, a comprehensive model is employed exploiting the Schmidt-Appleman criterion and ice-supersaturation regions. Additional parameters such as the solar zenith angle, contrail lifetime and spread are also considered.
Technical Paper

Automated ATM System Enabling 4DT-Based Operations

2015-09-15
2015-01-2539
As part of the current initiatives aimed at enhancing safety, efficiency and environmental sustainability of aviation, a significant improvement in the efficiency of aircraft operations is currently pursued. Innovative Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) technologies and operational concepts are being developed to achieve the ambitious goals for efficiency and environmental sustainability set by national and international aviation organizations. These technological and operational innovations will be ultimately enabled by the introduction of novel CNS/ATM and Avionics (CNS+A) systems, featuring higher levels of automation. A core feature of such systems consists in the real-time multi-objective optimization of flight trajectories, incorporating all the operational, economic and environmental aspects of the aircraft mission.
Technical Paper

New Unconventional Airship Concept by Morphing the Lenticular Shape

2015-09-15
2015-01-2577
The aim of this paper is to develop a new concept of unconventional airship based on morphing a lenticular shape while preserving the volumetric dimension. Lenticular shape is known to have relatively poor aerodynamic characteristics. It is also well known to have poor static and dynamic stability after the certain critical speed. The new shape presented in this paper is obtained by extending one and reducing the other direction of the original lenticular shape. The volume is kept constant through the morphing process. To improve the airship performance, four steps of morphing, starting from the lenticular shape, were obtained and compared in terms of aerodynamic characteristics, including drag, lift and pitching moment, and stability characteristics for two different operational scenarios. The comparison of the stability was carried out based on necessary deflection angle of the part of tail surface.
Technical Paper

Airship and Hot Air Balloon Real Time Envelope Shape Prediction through a Cloth Simulation Technique

2015-09-15
2015-01-2578
The flight simulation of airships and hot air balloons usually considers the envelope geometry as a fixed shape, whose volume is eventually reduced by ballonets. However, the dynamic pressure or helium leaks in airships, and the release of air to allow descent in hot air balloons can significantly change the shape of the envelope leading to potential dangerous situations. In fact, in case of semi-rigid and non-rigid airships a reduction in envelope internal pressure can reduce the envelope bending stiffness leading to the loss of the typical axial-symmetric shape. For hot air balloons thing goes even worse since the lost of internal pressure can lead to the collapsing of the balloon shape to a sort of vertically stretched geometry (similar to a torch) which is not able to sustain the attached basket and its payload.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of a Wing-In-Ground-Effect (WIGE) Vehicle

2015-09-15
2015-01-2571
This paper introduces the Seabus SB-8, a new Wing-In-Ground-Effect (WIGE) craft designed for 8 - 10 passengers. The craft will be used for fast transportation across Port Phillip Bay in Melbourne, Australia. With a cruise speed of about 140 km/hr, it can cross the bay in 30 min as compared to 75 min for land transportation. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted on the design to determine aerodynamic properties at various angles of attack and operating heights. The influence of ground effect was also determined as well as the effect of Centre of Gravity (CG) position on longitudinal stability. Using flow visualization areas of potential flow separation were identified and interactions of wake vortices with different parts of the aircraft were determined. Note that some aspects of the design are proprietary.
Technical Paper

A Method of Flow Measurement About Full-Scale and Model-Scale Vehicles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0871
High-frequency pressure probes were used to map the airflow around a full-scale truck during on-road testing and around a model-scale truck during wind tunnel testing. Several configurations were tested during each type of testing. Results are presented for on-road ‘pass-by’ tests and detail velocity and coefficient of pressure variation alongside the truck at different heights. The wind tunnel data are results of flow mapping about a 10% scale model and show the velocity and coefficient of pressure distribution under and around the model truck for different configurations.
Technical Paper

Development of a Small-Scale Aeroacoustic Open Jet, Open Return Wind Tunnel for Cavity Noise and Component Testing

2000-03-06
2000-01-0867
A small-scale aeroacoustic wind tunnel has been designed and built to investigate tonal cavity noise in the frequency range applicable to passenger vehicles; 1 - 16 kHz. The tunnel is required for testing associated with an investigation into tonal cavity noise on passenger-vehicle wing mirrors. It was designed to operate in the low subsonic speed range (60 - 140 km/h) with a nozzle exit cross-sectional area of 0.02 m2 and a 4:1 aspect ratio. The design was intended to achieve a smooth, quiet flow facility. In this paper the design process is summarised and the factors leading to particular design decisions are detailed. An initial evaluation has shown that only minimal changes are required to achieve very smooth, even flow at the nozzle exit at all required test speeds. The acoustic design needs further work as there is a significant amount of flow noise at the nozzle exit between 1 and 13 kHz.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Control Law Design for Aircraft with Reduced Tail Size

2001-09-11
2001-01-3003
The design of a longitudinal stability augmentation system (SAS) for an aircraft with reduced tail size in the preliminary design phase is presented. Reducing tail size will reduce drag and weight and result in better fuel consumption, but it will reduce the level of stability. A control law is designed to give the aircraft the same stability level as that with the initial tail size. The feedback gains of the control law is computed with the equivalent stability derivative criteria of and CmαCmq . The paper also gives an overview of classical root locus and pole placement method and demonstrates that equivalent stability derivative criteria is suitable for preliminary aircraft design applications. Moreover, the control laws are also synthesized using robust control LQG/LTR which can be elaborated more in the detail design phase.
Technical Paper

Airflow Parameters Near the Differential of a Rear Drive Passenger Car

2001-03-05
2001-01-1015
The paper presents experimental analysis of the airflow around the differential center housing of a rear drive full-scale passenger car. The study included investigation of local airflow total and static pressure, as well as surface flow visualization. Estimation of the local airflow velocity is based on the measured pressure coefficients. The experiments were carried out at different test facilities: in a climatic wind tunnel, in a full-scale wind tunnel and on-road. Influence of side wind was modeled by the yawing of the car in the full-scale wind tunnel. The results show the asymmetrical structure of the flow in both, vertical and horizontal planes. Estimated longitudinal relative local velocity decreases from maximum Vr ≈ 0.4 at the lower surface of the center housing, to about Vr ≈ 0 above the upper surface. Side wind increases airflow velocity around the center housing within the investigated yaw range ± 20°
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel Tests of Vehicle Cooling System Performance at High Blockage

2000-03-06
2000-01-0351
Wind tunnels provide a convenient, repeatable method of assessing vehicle engine cooling, yet important draw-backs are the lack of a moving ground and rotating wheels, blockage constraints and, in some tunnels, the inability to simulate ambient temperatures. A series of on-road and wind-tunnel experiments has been conducted to validate a process for evaluating vehicle cooling system performance in a high blockage aerodynamic wind tunnel with a fixed ground simulation. Airflow through the vehicle front air intake was measured via a series of pressure taps and the wind-tunnel velocity was adjusted to match the corresponding pressures found during the road tests. In order to cope with the inability to simulate ambient temperatures, the technique of Specific Dissipation (SD) was used (which has previously been shown to overcome this problem).
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Cooperative and Non-Cooperative RPAS Detect-and-Avoid

2015-09-15
2015-01-2470
A unified approach to cooperative and non-cooperative Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) is a key enabler for Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) to safely and routinely access all classes of airspace. In this paper state-of-the-art cooperative and non-cooperative DAA sensor/system technologies for manned aircraft and RPAS are reviewed and the associated multi-sensor data fusion techniques are discussed. A DAA system architecture is presented based on Boolean Decision Logics (BDL) for selecting non-cooperative and cooperative sensors/systems including both passive and active Forward Looking Sensors (FLS), Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B). After elaborating the DAA system processes, the key mathematical models associated with both non-cooperative and cooperative DAA functions are presented.
Technical Paper

Image Processing Based Air Vehicles Classification for UAV Sense and Avoid Systems

2015-09-15
2015-01-2471
The maturity reached in the development of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) systems is making them more and more attractive for a vast number of civil missions. Clearly, the introduction of UAVs in the civil airspace requiring practical and effective regulation is one of the most critical issues being currently discussed. As several civil air authorities report in their regulations “Sense and Avoid” or “Detect and Avoid” capabilities are critical to the successful integration of UAV into the civil airspace. One possible approach to achieve this capability, specifically for operations beyond the Line-of-Sight, would be to equip air vehicles with a vision-based system using cameras to monitor the surrounding air space and to classify other air vehicles flying in close proximity. This paper presents an image-based application for the supervised classification of air vehicles.
Technical Paper

A 3D User and Maintenance Manual for UAVs and Commercial Aircrafts Based on Augmented Reality

2015-09-15
2015-01-2473
Traditional User/Maintenance Manuals provide useful information when dealing with simple machines. However, when dealing with complex systems of systems and highly miniaturized technologies, like UAVs, or with machines with millions of parts, a commercial aircraft is a case in point, new technologies taking advantage of Augmented Reality can rapidly and effectively support the maintenance operations. This paper presents a User/Maintenance Manual based on Augmented Reality to help the operator in the detection of parts and in the sequence to be followed to assemble/disassemble systems and subsystems. The proposed system includes a handheld device and/or an head mounted display or special goggles, to be used by on-site operators, with software management providing data fusion and overlaying traditional 2D user/maintenance manual information with an augmented reality software and appropriate interface.
Technical Paper

Development of a Template Safety Case for Unmanned Aircraft Operations Over Populous Areas

2015-09-15
2015-01-2469
One of the primary hazards associated with the operation of Unmanned Aircraft (UA) is the controlled or uncontrolled impact of the UA with terrain or objects on the terrain (e.g., people or structures). National Aviation Authorities (NAAs) have the responsibility of ensuring that the risks associated with this hazard are managed to an acceptable level. The NAA can mandate a range of technical (e.g., design standards) and operational (e.g., restrictions on flight) regulatory requirements. However, work to develop these regulations for UA is ongoing. Underpinning this rule-making process is a safety case showing how the regulatory requirements put in place ensure that the UA operation is acceptably safe for the given application and environment.
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