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Technical Paper

Airship and Hot Air Balloon Real Time Envelope Shape Prediction through a Cloth Simulation Technique

The flight simulation of airships and hot air balloons usually considers the envelope geometry as a fixed shape, whose volume is eventually reduced by ballonets. However, the dynamic pressure or helium leaks in airships, and the release of air to allow descent in hot air balloons can significantly change the shape of the envelope leading to potential dangerous situations. In fact, in case of semi-rigid and non-rigid airships a reduction in envelope internal pressure can reduce the envelope bending stiffness leading to the loss of the typical axial-symmetric shape. For hot air balloons thing goes even worse since the lost of internal pressure can lead to the collapsing of the balloon shape to a sort of vertically stretched geometry (similar to a torch) which is not able to sustain the attached basket and its payload.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation of Dampening Dynamic Profiles for the Application in Transient Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations

As computational methodologies become more integrated into industrial vehicle pre-development processes the potential for high transient vehicle thermal simulations is evident. This can also been seen in conjunction with the strong rise in computing power, which ultimately has supported many automotive manufactures in attempting non-steady simulation conditions. The following investigation aims at exploring an efficient means of utilizing the new rise in computing resources by resolving high time-dependent boundary conditions through a series of averaging methodologies. Through understanding the sensitivities associated with dynamic component temperature changes, optimised boundary conditions can be implemented to dampen irrelevant input frequencies whilst maintaining thermally critical velocity gradients.
Technical Paper

The Unsteady Wind Environment of Road Vehicles, Part Two: Effects on Vehicle Development and Simulation of Turbulence

This paper summarises the effects of turbulence on the aerodynamics of road vehicles, including effects on forces and aero-acoustics. Data are presented showing that a different design of some vehicles may result when turbulent flow is employed. Methods for generating turbulence, focusing on physical testing in full-size wind tunnels, are discussed. The paper is Part Two of a review of turbulence and road vehicles. Part One (Cooper and Watkins, 2007) summarised the sources and nature of the turbulence experienced by surface vehicles.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Wheel Slip Control System Using Electromechanical Brake Actuators

When presented with new technology that removes past constraints, it is often beneficial to revisit old learning's to see if they still hold, and to understand how these can be best applied to the new technology. Brake-By-Wire (BBW) systems replace all the mechanical linkages of conventional hydraulic brake systems with ‘dry’ electrical components [2],[3]. The advent of this technology poses the possibility of revisiting conventional ABS control systems by utilizing the continuous nature that BBW offers. Presented is a BBW model based wheel slip controller using a generic continuous time Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm [15]. The result being the first of many steps taken in understanding the full potential that BBW systems offer.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Vehicle A-Pillar Aerodynamics using various Turbulence Models

Vortices formed around the A-pillar region dictates the pressure distribution on the side panels of a passenger vehicle and also can lead to aerodynamic noise generation. This paper compares the suitability of various turbulence models in simulating the flow behind a vehicle A-pillar region under laboratory operating conditions. Commercial software's (FLUENT and SWIFT) were used to compare the performance of various turbulence models. In FLUENT, a simplified vehicle model with slanted A-pillar geometry was generated using GAMBIT and in SWIFT, the simplified vehicle model was generated using Fame Hybrid. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out using FLUENT under steady state conditions using various turbulence models (k-, k- Realize, k- RNG, k- and Spalart Allamaras). In SWIFT, k-, A-RSM and HTM2 turbulence models were used for the steady state simulations. Investigations were carried out at velocities of 60, 100 and 140km/h and at 0-degree yaw angle.
Journal Article

An Innovative Approach to Race Track Simulations for Vehicle Thermal Management

Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle validation process, the role of computational simulation is becoming increasingly prominent in efforts to ensure thermal safety. This gain in popularity has resulted from the cost and time advantages that simulation has compared to experimental testing. Additionally many of these early concepts cannot be validated through experimental means due to the lack of hardware, and must be evaluated via numerical methods. The Race Track Simulation (RTS) can be considered as the final frontier for vehicle thermal management techniques, and to date no coherent method has been published which provides an efficient means of numerically modeling the temperature behavior of components without the dependency on statistical experimental data.