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Technical Paper

In-Use Compliance Opportunity for Diesel Powertrains

2018-04-03
2018-01-0877
In-use compliance under LEV III emission standards, GHG, and fuel economy targets beyond 2025 poses a great opportunity for all ICE-based propulsion systems, especially for light-duty diesel powertrain and aftertreatment enhancement. Though diesel powertrains feature excellent fuel-efficiency, robust and complete emissions controls covering any possible operational profiles and duty cycles has always been a challenge. Significant dependency on aftertreatment calibration and configuration has become a norm. With the onset of hybridization and downsizing, small steps of improvement in system stability have shown a promising avenue for enhancing fuel economy while continuously improving emissions robustness. In this paper, a study of current key technologies and associated emissions robustness will be discussed followed by engine and aftertreatment performance target derivations for LEV III compliant powertrains.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Droplet Size and Velocity in Clustered Diesel Sprays under High-Pressure and High-Temperature Conditions

2010-10-25
2010-01-2240
An experimental study on the interaction of sprays from clustered orifices is presented. Droplet size and velocity information has been gained by means of Phase Doppler Anemometry for different nozzle configurations varying the diverging opening angle between clustered sprays from 0° to 15°. These nozzles were investigated under high-pressure (50 bar) and high-temperature (800 K) conditions in a pressure chamber and the results are compared to two standard nozzles with flow rates corresponding either to the flow rate of the cluster nozzle configuration or half of the flow rate of this configuration. Two injection pressures, 600 bar and 1100 bar, were used to investigate all nozzles. This investigation completes the characterization of sprays from the cluster nozzles presented in an earlier work. Findings obtained therein were used to choose the measurement procedure for the present investigation and also to determine the spray width in order to obtain the spray angle.
Technical Paper

Borderline Design of Crankshafts Based on Hybrid Simulation Technology

2009-06-15
2009-01-1918
This paper introduces different modeling approaches of crankshafts, compares the refinement levels and discusses the difference between the results of the crankshaft durability calculation methodologies. A V6 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the refinement levels depending on the deviation between the signals such as main bearing forces and deflection angle. Although a good correlation is observed between the results in low speed range, the deviation is evident through the mid to high speed ranges. The deviation amplitude differs depending on the signal being observed and model being used. An inline 4 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the durability results. The analysis results show that the durability potential is underestimated with a classical crankshaft calculation approach which leads to a limitation of maximum speed of 5500 rpm.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Soot Formation of Sprays from Cluster Nozzles for DI Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0855
One of the basic topics in the design of new injection systems for DI Diesel engines is to decrease the soot emissions. A promising approach to minimize soot production are nozzles with clustered holes. A basic idea of the Cluster Configuration (CC) nozzles is to prevent a fuel rich area in the center of the flame where most of the soot is produced, and to minimize the overall soot formation in this way. For this purpose each hole of a standard nozzle is replaced by two smaller holes. The diameter of the smaller holes is chosen so that the flow rate of all nozzles should be equal. The basic strategy of the cluster nozzles is to provide a better primary break up and therefore a better mixture formation caused by the smaller nozzle holes, but a comparable penetration length of the vapor phase due to merging of the sprays. Three possible arrangements of the clustered holes are investigated in this study. Both the cluster angle and the orientation to the injector axis are varied.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Spray Angle on Pollutant Formation and Combustion Efficiency for a PCCI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1445
In Common-Rail DI Diesel Engines, a low combustion temperature process is considered as one of the most important possibilities to achieve very small emissions and optimum performance. To reduce NOx and Soot strongly, it is necessary to achieve a homogenization of the mixture in order to avoid the higher local temperatures which are responsible for the NOx formation [1]. Through the homogenization it is also possible to obtain a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio in order to significantly reduce the Soot emissions. One way to achieve this homogeneous condition is to start injection very early together with the use of higher EGR rates. The direct effect of these conditions cause a longer ignition delay (this is the time between start of the injection and auto-ignition during physical and chemical sub processes such as fuel atomization, evaporation, fuel air mixing and chemical pre-reactions take place) so that the mixture formation has more time to achieve a homogeneous state.
Technical Paper

Droplet Velocity Measurements in Direct-Injection Diesel Sprays Under High-Pressure and High-Temperature Conditions by Laser Flow Tagging

2008-04-14
2008-01-0944
The droplet velocity is an important parameter for breakup, evaporation, and combustion of Diesel sprays, but it is very difficult to measure it by widely used laser diagnostic techniques like PDA, PIV and LCV under realistic high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. This is basically caused by laser beam steering and multiple scattering of light due to very high droplet densities, in particular close to the nozzle. It was demonstrated recently, that these problems can be greatly reduced by the laser flow tagging (LFT) technique. For this purpose, the model fuel is doped with a phosphorescent tracer. A number of droplet groups within the spray are tagged by illuminating them with focused beams of a pulsed laser, and their velocities are measured by recording the phosphorescence twice after each laser pulse using a double-frame ICCD.
Technical Paper

A New Euler/Lagrange Approach for Multiphase Simulations of a Multi-Hole GDI Injector

2015-04-14
2015-01-0949
Compared to conventional injection techniques, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has a lot of advantages such as increased fuel efficiency, high power output and low emission levels, which can be more accurately controlled. Therefore, this technique is an important topic of today's injection system research. Although the operating conditions of GDI injectors are simpler from a numerical point of view because of smaller Reynolds and Weber numbers compared to Diesel injection systems, accurate simulations of the breakup in the vicinity of the nozzle are very challenging. Combined with the complications of experimental techniques that could be applied inside the nozzle and at the nozzle exit, this is the reason for the lack of understanding the primary breakup behavior of current GDI injectors.
Journal Article

A Sectoral Approach to Modelling Wall Heat Transfer in Exhaust Ports and Manifolds for Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0202
A new approach is presented to modelling wall heat transfer in the exhaust port and manifold within 1D gas exchange simulation to ensure a precise calculation of thermal exhaust enthalpy. One of the principal characteristics of this approach is the partition of the exhaust process in a blow-down and a push-out phase. In addition to the split in two phases, the exhaust system is divided into several sections to consider changes in heat transfer characteristics downstream the exhaust valves. Principally, the convective heat transfer is described by the characteristic numbers of Nusselt, Reynolds and Prandtl. However, the phase individual correlation coefficients are derived from 3D CFD investigations of the flow in the exhaust system combined with Low-Re turbulence modelling. Furthermore, heat losses on the valve and the seat ring surfaces are considered by an empirical model approach.
Journal Article

A Study on Hypoid Gears NVH Robustness

2017-06-05
2017-01-1776
Hypoid gears transmission error (TE) is a metric that is usually used to evaluate their NVH performance in component level. The test is usually done at nominal position as well as out of positions where the pinion and gear are moved along their own axis and also along offset direction to evaluate sensitivity of the measured TE to positional errors. Such practice is crucial in practical applications where the gear sets are inevitably exposed to off position conditions due to a) housing machining and building errors, b) deflections of housing, bearings, etc. under load and c) thermal expansions or contractions of housing due to ambient temperature variations. From initial design to development stage, efforts should be made to design the gear sets to be robust enough to all combinations of misalignments emanated from all three mentioned categories.
Journal Article

Effects of Cavitation and Hydraulic Flip in 3-Hole GDI Injectors

2017-03-28
2017-01-0848
The performance of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines is governed by multiple physical processes such as the internal nozzle flow and the mixing of the liquid stream with the gaseous ambient environment. A detailed knowledge of these processes even for complex injectors is very important for improving the design and performance of combustion engines all the way to pollutant formation and emissions. However, many processes are still not completely understood, which is partly caused by their restricted experimental accessibility. Thus, high-fidelity simulations can be helpful to obtain further understanding of GDI injectors. In this work, advanced simulation and experimental methods are combined in order to study the spray characteristics of two different 3-hole GDI injectors.
Journal Article

Coking Phenomena in Nozzle Orifices of Dl-Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0837
Within a public founded project test cell investigations were undertaken to identify parameters which predominantly influence the development of critical deposits in injection nozzles. A medium-duty diesel engine was operated in two different coking cycles with a zinc-free lubricant. One of the cycles is dominated by rated power, while the second includes a wide area of the operation range. During the experiments the temperatures at the nozzle tip, the geometries of the nozzle orifice and fuel properties were varied. For a detailed analysis of the deposits methods of electron microscopy were deployed. In the course of the project optical access to all areas in the nozzle was achieved. The experiments were evaluated by means of the monitoring of power output and fuel flow at rated power. The usage of a SEM (scanning electron microscope) and a TEM (transmission electron microscope) revealed images of the deposits with a magnification of up to 160 000.
Journal Article

Virtual 48 V Mild Hybridization: Efficient Validation by Engine-in-the-Loop

2018-04-03
2018-01-0410
New 12 V/48 V power net architectures are potential solutions to close the gap between customer needs and legislative requirements. In order to exploit their potential, an increased effort is needed for functional implementation and hardware integration. Shifting of development tasks to earlier phases (frontloading) is a promising solution to streamline the development process and to increase the maturity level at early stages. This study shows the potential of the frontloading of development tasks by implementing a virtual 48 V mild hybridization in an engine-in-the-loop (EiL) setup. Advanced simulation technics like functional mock-up interface- (FMI) based co-simulation are utilized for the seamless integration of the real-time (RT) simulation models and allow a modular simulation framework as well as a decrease in development time.
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