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Technical Paper

Impact of Sulfur on NOx Trap Catalyst Activity - Study of the Regeneration Conditions

Laboratory and engine tests were carried out to describe the sulphur effect on the NOx adsorbers catalysts efficiency for gasoline lean burn engines. Two main aspects were studied. The first one deals with the NOx storage efficiency of the adsorber under laboratory conditions, especially regarding the SO2 gas phase concentration. The rate of sulfur storing is greatly affected by the SO2 gas concentration. While 6.5 hours are required to get from 70 % NOx reduction to only 35 % when the gas mixture contains 10 ppm SO2, it takes 20 hours with 5 ppm SO2 and more than 60 hours with the 2 ppm SO2 condition. The relationship between the loss in NOx trap performance and SO2 concentration appears to have an exponential shape. The same amount of sulphur (0.8 % mass) is deposited onto the catalyst within 10 hours with the feed gas containing 10 ppm of SO2 and within 50 hours with 2 ppm SO2. Nevertheless, It was shown that the loss in NOx-Trap efficiency is not the same in these two cases.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Influence of LPG (Autogas) Composition on the Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption of 3 Bi-Fuelled Renault Vehicles

Studies using a bi-fuelled (autogas/gasoline) Renault Laguna vehicle meeting °the 1996 European exhaust emission legislation has demonstrated that over the European test cycle at 25°C the LPG operated vehicle provides substantial benefits of reduced emissions compared to unleaded reference gasoline. At lower test temperatures (i.e. 5°C) even larger reduction in emissions have been observed. Lower CO (up to 95% at -5°C and 65% at 25°C), HC (90% at -5°C and 40% at 25°C) emissions and lower ozone HC reactivity have been observed and could all offer significant environmental air-quality benefits for LPG. Various autogas mixtures have been tested including 70/30, 30/70 and 49/30/21 (% mass propane / butane / propene). Results show that NOx emissions for this vehicle appear dependent on autogas composition. The two gas mixtures containing only 30% butane gave about 50% more NOx at +25°C than the 70% butane autogas mixture.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Systematic Calibration of Heat Transfer Models on a Turbocharged GDI Engine Operating Map

In order to simulate the working process, an accurate description of heat transfer occurring between in-cylinder gases and combustion chamber walls is required, especially regarding thermal efficiency, combustion and emissions, or cooling strategies. Combustion chamber wall heat transfer models are dominated by zero-dimensional semi-empirical models due to their good compromise between accuracy, complexity and computational efficiency. Classic models such as those from Woschni, Annand or Hohenberg are still widely used, despite having been developed on rather ancient engines. While numerous authors have worked on this topic in the past decades, little information can be found concerning the systematic calibration process of heat transfer models. In this paper, a systematic calibration method based on experimental data processing is tested on the complete operating map of a turbocharged GDI engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Diluted Combustion in a Direct Injection CNG Engine Featuring Post- Euro-VI Fuel Consumption Targets

The present paper is concerned with part of the work performed by Renault, IFPEN and Politecnico di Torino within a research project founded by the European Commission. The project has been focused on the development of a dedicated CNG engine featuring a 25% decrease in fuel consumption with respect to an equivalent Diesel engine with the same performance targets. To that end, different technologies were implemented and optimized in the engine, namely, direct injection, variable valve timing, LP EGR with advanced turbocharging, and diluted combustion. With specific reference to diluted combustion, it is rather well established for gasoline engines whereas it still poses several critical issues for CNG ones, mainly due to the lower exhaust temperatures. Moreover, dilution is accompanied by a decrease in the laminar burning speed of the unburned mixture and this generally leads to a detriment in combustion efficiency and stability.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection of CNG on High Compression Ratio Spark Ignition Engine: Numerical and Experimental Investigation

CNG is one of the most promising alternate fuels for passenger car applications. CNG is affordable, is available worldwide and has good intrinsic properties including high knock resistance and low carbon content. Usually, CNG engines are developed by integrating CNG injectors in the intake manifold of a baseline gasoline engine, thereby remaining gasoline compliant. However, this does not lead to a bi-fuel engine but instead to a compromised solution for both Gasoline and CNG operation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of a direct injection spark ignition engine derived from a diesel engine core and dedicated to CNG combustion. The main modification was the new design of the cylinder head and the piston crown to optimize the combustion velocity thanks to a high tumble level and good mixing. This work was done through computations. First, a 3D model was developed for the CFD simulation of CNG direct injection.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Benefits of Dual Cam Phasers, Lean Mixture and EGR on the Operating Range and Fuel Economy of a PFI NVO CAI Engine

Among the existing concepts that help to improve the efficiency of spark-ignition engines at part load, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. This combustion concept is based on the auto-ignition of an air-fuel-mixture highly diluted with hot burnt gases to achieve high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through low temperature combustion. To minimize the costs of conversion of a standard spark-ignition engine into a CAI engine, the present study is restricted to a Port Fuel Injection engine with a cam-profile switching system and a cam phaser on both intake and exhaust sides. In a 4-stroke engine, a large amount of burnt gases can be trapped in the cylinder via early closure of the exhaust valves. This so-called Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) strategy has a key parameter to control the amount of trapped burnt gases and consequently the combustion: the exhaust valve-lift profile.
Technical Paper

A Physical 0D Combustion Model Using Tabulated Chemistry with Presumed Probability Density Function Approach for Multi-Injection Diesel Engines

This paper presents a new 0D phenomenological approach to predict the combustion process in diesel engines operated under various running conditions. The aim of this work is to develop a physical approach in order to improve the prediction of in-cylinder pressure and heat release. The main contribution of this study is the modeling of the premixed part of the diesel combustion with a further extension of the model for multi-injection strategies. In phenomenological diesel combustion models, the premixed combustion phase is usually modeled by the propagation of a turbulent flame front. However, experimental studies have shown that this phase of diesel combustion is actually a rapid combustion of part of the fuel injected and mixed with the surrounding gas. This mixture burns quasi instantaneously when favorable thermodynamic conditions are locally reached. A chemical process then controls this combustion.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Analysis of Conrod Bearing

For many years, bearing suppliers have been using the specific pressure to evaluate the fatigue risk of conrod bearings. However, modern engines have made the bearing more sensitive to various phenomena such as the thermal expansion or the elasticity of the conrod housing. These effects modify the stresses in the bearing layers and consequently fatigue risk. In this paper, we propose a new way to determine the bearing fatigue resistance. To achieve that, we analyze the elastic and plastic behavior of the bearing along the engine life. We detail and provide the analytical relationships which determine stresses in the overlay and in the substrate of the bearing in order to analyze their fatigue resistance. Various physical loads are taken into account such as the thermal load, the hydrodynamic pressure field, the fitting load, the free spread load. A good knowledge of the relationships between those physical phenomena helps to understand the mechanical behavior of the bearing.
Technical Paper

Study of Intake Ports Design for Ultra Low Cost (ULC) Gasoline Engine Using STAR-CD

In this study, different designs of intake ports for two-stroke Ultra Low Cost Gasoline Direct Injection Engine (ULC-GE) has been analyzed to conclude on best design using steady state analysis in STAR-CD. The four types of intake ports design with two cylinders, each having fourteen ports, have been studied. The basic differences in designs are horizontal inlet entry (perpendicular to cylinder axis) and vertical inlet entry (in-line with cylinder axis) having rotation of flow clockwise and anticlockwise. Each type is further differentiated in eight cases with varying distances between axis of two-cylinder as 85mm, 88mm, 91 mm, 94 mm, 97 mm, 100 mm, 105 mm and 112 mm. These designs are analyzed for four different pressure drops as 10 mbar, 50 mbar, 100 mbar and 150 mbar.
Technical Paper

Intake System Diagnosis for Diesel Engine with Dual-Loop EGR

This paper proposes a method to detect an intake manifold leakage for a Diesel engine with a dual loop EGR system. The intake manifold leak has a strong impact on the engine performances by changing the intake manifold burned gas ratio. This fault is analyzed according to the control structure used and also according to the EGR operating mode. The paper proposes a diagnosis algorithm to detect the intake manifold leak in sequential or simultaneous use of the two EGR paths. The sensors considered are the mass air flow meter, the intake manifold pressure sensor, the exhaust equivalence ratio sensor and the differential pressure sensor (across the HP EGR valve). The diagnosis is based on a criteria that uses the redundancy between these sensors and air system models or estimators. The diagnosis threshold depends on the engine operating conditions as well as the sensor or model dispersions.
Technical Paper

Air System Conception for a Downsized Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

This paper introduces a research work on the air loop system for a downsized two-stroke two-cylinder diesel engine conducted in framework of the European project dealing with the POWERtrain for Future Light-duty vehicles - POWERFUL. The main objective was to determine requirements on the air management including the engine intake and exhaust system, boosting devices and the EGR system and to select the best possible technical solution. With respect to the power target of 45 kW and scavenging demands of the two-cylinder two-stroke engine with a displacement of 0.73 l, a two-stage boosting architecture was required. Further, to allow engine scavenging at any operation, supercharger had to be integrated in the air loop. Various air loop system layouts and concepts were assessed based on the 1-D steady state simulation at full and part load with respect to the fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Highly Premixed Combustion for Pollutant Control in an Automotive Two-Stroke HSDI Diesel Engine

An innovative alternative to overcome the load limits of the early injection highly premixed combustion concept consists of taking advantage of the intrinsic characteristics of two-stroke engines, since they can attain the full load torque of a four-stroke engine as the addition of two medium load cycles, where the implementation of this combustion concept could be promising. In this frame, the main objective of this investigation focuses on evaluating the potential of the early injection HPC concept using a conventional diesel fuel combined with a two-stroke poppet valves engine architecture for pollutant control, while keeping a competitive engine efficiency. On a first stage, the HPC concept was implemented at low engine load, where the concept is expected to provide the best results, by advancing the start of injection towards the compression stroke and it was confirmed how it is possible to reduce NOX and soot emissions, but increasing HC and CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Semi-Empirical 0D Modeling for Engine-Out Soot Emission Prediction in D.I. Diesel Engines

Due to its harmful effect on both human health and environment, soot emission is considered as one of the most important diesel engine pollutants. In the last decades, the industrial engine manufacturers have been able to strongly reduce its engine-out value by many different techniques, in order to respect the stricter emission norms. Simulation modeling has played and continues to play a key role for this purpose in the engine control system development. In this context, this paper proposes a new soot emission model for a direct injection diesel engine. This soot model is based on a zero-dimensional semi-physical approach coupled with a crank-angle resolved combustion model and a thermodynamic calculation of the burned gas products temperature. Furthermore, a multi linear regression model has been used to estimate the soot emissions as function of significant physical combustion parameters.
Technical Paper

Compressor Efficiency Extrapolation for 0D-1D Engine Simulations

0D-1D codes allow researchers to obtain a prediction of the behavior of internal combustion engines with little computational effort. One of the submodels of such codes is devoted to the centrifugal compressor. This model is often based on the compressor performance maps, therefore requiring the extrapolation of the maps so that all possible operating conditions are covered. Particularly, a suitable extrapolation of isentropic efficiency map is sought. This work first examines different available methods for compressor efficiency extrapolation into off-design conditions. No method is found to provide satisfactory results at all extrapolated regions: low and high compressor speeds and low compression ratio at measured speeds. Hence, a new method is proposed and its accuracy is assessed with the aid of compressor off-design measurements.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Automotive Turbocharger Turbine Performance Maps Extrapolation

Engine downsizing is potentially one of the most effective strategies being explored to improve fuel economy. A main problem of downsizing using a turbocharger is the small range of stable functioning of the turbocharger centrifugal compressor at high boost pressures, and hence the measurement of the performance maps of both compressor and turbine. Automotive manufacturers use mainly numerical simulations for internal combustion engines simulations, hence the need of an accurate extrapolation model to get a complete turbine performance map. These complete maps are then used for internal combustion engines calibration. Automotive manufacturers use commercial softwares to extrapolate the turbine narrow performance maps, both mass flow characteristics and the efficiency curve.
Technical Paper

System Optimization for a 2-Stroke Diesel Engine with a Turbo Super Configuration Supporting Fuel Economy Improvement of Next Generation Engines

The objective of this paper is to present the results of the GT Power calibration with engine test results of the air loop system technology down selection described in the SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0831. Two specific boosting systems were identified as the preferred path forward: (1) Super-turbo with two speed Roots type supercharger, (2) Super-turbo with centrifugal mechanical compressor and CVT transmission both downstream a Fixed Geometry Turbine. The initial performance validation of the boosting hardware in the gas stand and the calibration of the GT Power model developed is described. The calibration leverages data coming from the tests on a 2 cylinder 2-stroke 0.73L diesel engine. The initial flow bench results suggested the need for a revision of the turbo matching due to the big gap in performance between predicted maps and real data. This activity was performed using Honeywell turbocharger solutions spacing from fixed geometry waste gate to variable nozzle turbo (VNT).
Technical Paper

Coupled Fluid-Solid Simulation for the Prediction of Gas-Exposed Surface Temperature Distribution in a SI Engine

The current trend of downsizing used in gasoline engines, while reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, imposes severe thermal loads inside the combustion chamber. These critical thermodynamic conditions lead to the possible auto-ignition (AI) of fresh gases hot-spots around Top-Dead-Center (TDC). At this very moment where the surface to volume ratio is high, wall heat transfer influences the temperature field inside the combustion chamber. The use of a realistic wall temperature distribution becomes important in the case of a downsized engine where fresh gases hot spots found near high temperature walls can initiate auto-ignition. This paper presents a comprehensive numerical methodology for an accurately prediction of thermodynamic conditions inside the combustion chamber based on Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT).
Technical Paper

Modeling of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for GDI Engines

A new simulation approach to the modeling of the whole fuel injection process within a common-rail fuel injection system for direct-injection gasoline engines, including the pressure-swirl atomizer and the conical hollow-cone spray formed at the nozzle exit, is presented. The flow development in the common-rail fuel injection system is simulated using an 1-D model which accounts for the wave dynamics within the system and predicts the actual injection pressure and injection rate throughout the nozzle. The details of the flow inside its various flow passages and the discharge hole of the pressure-swirl atomizer are investigated using a two-phase CFD model which calculates the location of the liquid-gas interface using the VOF method and estimates the transient formation of the liquid film developing on the walls of the discharge hole due to the centrifugal forces acting on the swirling fluid.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Exhaust Manifold Junction Geometry on its Fluid-Dynamic Behavior

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study on the exhaust junctions geometry. Twelve three-branch junctions of different geometry have been tested on a single cylinder engine. The parameters studied have been exhaust junction outlet-to-inlet diameter ratio, length, angle between inlet branches and the existence of a reed separating inlet branches. An analysis of the pressure waves amplitude (incident, reflected and transmitted) obtained from instantaneous pressure measurements in some locations around the junction has been carried out. The analysis of results shows that junction length has a low influence on its behavior. The ratio between inlet and outlet branches diameters increases both reflection and directionality (avoiding pressure wave transmission to the adjacent branch). The existence of a reed separating the inlet flows may increase directionality with moderate pressure losses if the throat area is not reduced.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Characteristics and on the Reproducibility of the Flow issuing from a High-Pressure Direct-Injection Nozzle

This paper presents an investigation on the experimental determination of some characteristics of the flow issuing from a swirl injector dedicated to direct-injection spark-ignited engines. The reproducibility, from one injection to another, of the temporal evolution of the liquid flow characteristics during the opening of the injector was investigated. This was achieved by using a high-speed film camera set at 8,000 images/s. The resulting visualizations allowed us to measure the evolution of the penetration length and velocity as well as of the liquid cone angle. It was found that the spray produced is a low momentum spray whose penetration length and velocity are small. The good reproducibility of the temporal evolution of the liquid flow characteristics has been obtained, except for the liquid cone angle during the opening stage. A fast-shutter video camera was also used to make images of the early development of the issuing liquid flow.