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Technical Paper


Craters in galvannealed coatings on steel sheet are depressions caused by non-uniform diffusive growth. Correlations have been sought between “crater” densities in galvannealed sheet steel and friction, powdering, and paint adherence, as relevant to the appearance, corrosion resistance and processing of auto body panels. Crater densities were established on a series of samplings from major producers, and related to frictional measurements from a binder-radius simulator, powdering levels from bend testing, and paint adherence assessments from a stone-chipping test. Results suggest that increased crater density decreases powdering, but does not aid in lubrication. In fact, decreased powdering could be correlated with increased friction levels. A strong correlation was found between increased crater density and increased paint adherence.
Technical Paper

Influence of Foreground Illumination from Headlamps on Visibility and Preference

The present design standards for low beam headlamps offer significant flexibility regarding the distribution of light that they generate. Some headlamp systems produce significant amounts of foreground illumination, which increases the apparent brightness of the roadway surface close to the vehicle, and this increased brightness is seen as desirable by many individuals. Some individuals may prefer not only high but uniform foreground illumination. At almost any driving speed, however, any objects located in the visual foreground are too close to avoid with slowing or steering maneuvers. Further, published literature on the mechanisms for disability glare suggests that foreground illumination should have a negative impact in terms of the visibility of objects located well ahead in the visual field.
Technical Paper

Real-World Measurement of Headlamp Illumination

We summarize the development and initial deployment of a system that can be mounted along an intersection, curve, drive-in, or parking facility to efficiently gather relevant data about headlamp patterns that might relate to glare or visibility. The system can run autonomously to collect many vehicles per data collection period. The system includes a range finder to capture information when an approaching vehicle is at a specific location, a digital camera to store images of oncoming headlamp position (i.e., mounting height), two arrays of light sensors to measure the vertical headlamp illumination profile (e.g., angular position of headlamp beam cutoff or maximum luminous intensity), and a color-calibrated illuminance meter at the angular location of an oncoming driver's eyes. From the headlamp mounting height data and the vertical cutoff location data, an estimate of the headlamp aim distribution can be made.
Technical Paper

Luminance versus Luminous Intensity as a Metric for Discomfort Glare

Photometric performance specifications for vehicle headlamp specifications in North America are given in terms of luminous intensity values at various angular locations with the objective of providing sufficient illumination for forward visibility while controlling for glare toward oncoming and preceding vehicle drivers. Abundant evidence suggests that luminous intensity is an appropriate metric for characterizing the degree to which a headlamp can produce disability glare through veiling luminances under a wide range of viewing conditions. Notwithstanding that discomfort glare exhibits a differential spectral sensitivity from the photopic luminous efficiency function used to characterize light, luminous intensity does not always predict discomfort glare. For example, the luminance of the luminous element(s) can be more predictive of discomfort when headlamps are viewed from relative close distances.
Technical Paper

Public Perceptions of Vehicle Headlamps: Visibility and Glare

Recent technological developments have begun to add a number of new configurations for vehicle forward lighting to the realm of possibility, including high-intensity discharge and light-emitting diode headlamps, and adaptive forward-lighting systems. These systems can offer substantial differences in performance and appearance from conventional filament-based headlamps that have been ubiquitous for many decades. These differences have not gone unnoticed by the U.S. driving public. A review of newspaper articles published during the past several years was conducted in order to assess public perceptions of vehicle headlamps in terms of their ability to support visibility and their impacts on headlamp glare.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Adaptive Driving Beam Photometric Performance

Although adaptive driving beam headlight systems are not presently defined in North American headlighting standards, evidence for the potential safety benefits of these systems is increasing. Field measurements of the photometric performance of an adaptive driving bean system were made in response to simulated headlight and tail light conditions. Roadway geometries were varied and multiple measurements for many conditions were made to assess repeatability of measurements. The results of the testing are summarized in the context of validating the likely safety impacts of these systems and of providing recommendations for standardized measurement conditions to ensure reliability.
Technical Paper

Adaptive High Beam Systems: Visual Performance and Safety Effects

Present standards for vehicle forward lighting specify two headlamp beam patterns: a low beam when driving in the presence of other nearby vehicles, and a high beam when there is not a concern for producing glare to other drivers. Adaptive lighting technologies such as curve lighting systems with steerable headlamps may be related to increments in safety according to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, but isolating the effects of lighting is difficult. Recent analyses suggest that visibility improvements from adaptive curve lighting systems might reduce nighttime crashes along curves by 2%-3%. More advanced systems such as adaptive high-beam systems that reduce high-beam headlamp intensity toward oncoming drivers are not presently allowed in the U.S. The purpose of the present study is to analyze visual performance benefits and quantify potential safety benefits from adaptive high-beam headlamp systems.
Journal Article

Headlamp Levelness and Glare: Preliminary Analyses Based on Field Data

Vehicle headlamps are essential for driver safety at night, and technological evolution of headlamps over several decades has brought substantial improvements to driver visibility and comfort. Nonetheless, glare remains an important concern among many in the driving public, perhaps even more so in North America, where requirements for headlamps differ from those in much of the rest of the world. In most of the world, headlamps producing higher luminous flux are required to have automatic leveling and cleaning systems, thought to help reduce glare. The arrival of headlamp systems in the worldwide marketplace with luminous flux values just below those triggering requirements for leveling and cleaning systems will bring new questions about the causes of and countermeasures for glare.
Journal Article

Application of Synthetic Jets to Enhance the Performance of a Vertical Tail

The performance enhancement of a vertical tail provided by aerodynamic flow control could allow for the size of the tail to be reduced while maintaining similar control authority. Decreasing tail size would create a reduction in weight, drag, and fuel costs of the airplane. The application of synthetic jet actuators on improving the performance of the vertical tail was investigated by conducting experiments on 1/9th and 1/19th scale wind tunnel models (relative to a Boeing 767 tail) at Reynolds numbers of 700,000 and 350,000, respectively. Finite-span synthetic jets were placed slightly upstream of the rudder hinge-line in an attempt to reduce or even eliminate the flow separation that commences over the rudder when it was deflected to high angles. Global force measurements on the 1/9th scale model showed that the flow control is capable of increasing side force by a maximum of 0.11 (19%). The momentum coefficient that created this change was relatively small (Cμ = 0.124%).
Journal Article

Vehicle Lighting and Modern Roundabouts: Implications for Pedestrian Safety

Modern roundabout facilities are increasing in number throughout North America and the world. Appropriate vehicle lighting, including the application of intelligent headlighting systems, might help support safe, efficient driving behavior while navigating through these new intersection types. We present the results of a field study conducted to compare different vehicle lighting systems in terms of drivers' ability to detect and identify pedestrian activity, under different amounts of illumination from fixed outdoor lighting systems. The results are compared to analytical predictions of visibility using a validated visual performance model.
Technical Paper

Influence of Oncoming Light Exposure on Safety Outcomes in a Naturalistic Driving Study

Recent naturalistic driving studies provide a useful means for gathering information about the potential role of lighting in driving safety. The Naturalistic Driving Study carried out through the Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) includes real-time driving data for crashes, near-crashes and baseline driving events for more than 3000 drivers across the United States. Among the data collected are oncoming illuminance recordings that can be used to estimate glare exposure for the drivers in the study. Data for crash events occurring at night were compared to those for baseline driving under similar conditions and by drivers of similar ages. The resulting light exposure data indicate that oncoming glare is likely to be only a very small factor associated with nighttime crashes, but that the influence of glare may increase for older drivers.
Journal Article

Visual Recovery and Discomfort Following Exposure to Oncoming Headlamps

A field experiment was performed to measure the effects of oncoming illuminance profiles with different photometric and temporal characteristics on visual recovery and subjective discomfort. Target detection time was correlated with the dosage, and rated discomfort was correlated with the peak illuminance of each profile. Older subjects generally had longer recovery times, but there were no differences between the age groups in terms of rated discomfort. The results suggest that discomfort glare is not predictive of visual disability and that control of luminous intensity at isolated points within the distribution of headlamps alone is not sufficient to minimize glare recovery.
Technical Paper

Visibility from Vehicle Headlamps and Roadway Lighting in Urban, Suburban and Rural Locations

In real world driving conditions, illumination from vehicle headlamps and, when present, from fixed roadway lighting combines to provide visibility for the driver. We present analyses of visibility along a representative roadway intersection scenario with median and market-weighted headlamp beam patterns including halogen and high intensity discharge headlamp beam patterns, and high beam headlamp beam patterns. Also investigated are interactions with the spatial extent of roadway lighting, either as part of a continuous lighting system or as a single roadway luminaire at the intersection junction, and the role of ambient illuminance from urban environments. The results of the analyses show the large influence of ambient illuminance from urban areas on the visibility of relevant targets, and show differential advantages of different headlamp beam patterns for different target locations where pedestrians might be encountered.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of After-Market Light Emitting Diode Headlight Bulbs

Taking advantage of growing consumer interest in light emitting diode (LED) headlights, an increasing number of after-market LED replacement bulbs is available on the market. They are designed to have similar socket shapes and sizes as halogen bulbs, in order to fit into existing headlight housings. Although none of these LED replacement bulbs conform to present federal headlighting regulations, and some are labeled for "off road use" only, others claim to meet current regulations. Regardless, many different LED bulbs can be easily purchased and installed by vehicle owners, who may or may not be aware of their regulatory status. Several different LED replacement bulb kits, each designed to replace a conventional 55-W H11 halogen bulb, were purchased and tested in three different low-beam headlight units.
Technical Paper

Influence of LED Spectral Characteristics on Glare Recovery

Headlight glare is a major concern of the driving public. In the past couple of years there have been concerns expressed about the use of light emitting diode (LED) lighting technologies and possible impacts LEDs may have on people, including circadian disruption, retinal hazards, and glare. Under typical use cases, vehicle headlight exposures are insufficient to cause circadian disruption or retinal damage, but can result in disability and discomfort glare, as well as glare recovery. In general, white LEDs used for illumination have greater short-wavelength content than halogen lamps used in many headlights, and short wavelengths have been implicated in visual discomfort from bright lights at night. Previous literature is inconsistent regarding whether the spectral (color) content of a glare source affects the amount of recovery time needed to see objects, following exposure to a bright light such as a vehicle headlight.
Technical Paper

Investigating the Influence of Headlight Glare and Aim on Risk-Related Driving Behavior

Nighttime driving cannot be accomplished without vehicle headlighting. A growing body of evidence demonstrates the role of lighting on visual performance and in turn on nightttime driving safety in terms of crashes. Indirect impacts of lighting via comfort or other factors are less well understood, however. A two-part field study using real-world drivers of an instrumented vehicle was conducted to assess the potential role of oncoming headlight glare as a factor in driving behaviors that might be related to increased crash risks. In the first part of the study, drivers' behaviors when navigating through roadway intersections having different levels of crash risk were recorded in order to identify responses that were correlated with the risk level. In the second part, drivers were exposed to different levels of glare from oncoming headlights; several of the same risk-related behaviors identified in the first part of the study were exhibited.