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Technical Paper

The Use of a Variable-Stability Vehicle in Handling Research

1965-02-01
650659
This paper describes the use of the GMR variable stability passenger car in a brief study of driver performance in a maneuvering task. The study was part of a pilot program for evaluation of test methods and equipment for future and more extensive human factors evaluations. Three distinct types of passenger car directional control characteristics were simulated, and each configuration was driven by each of six different drivers through a complex course. The results of the investigation are presented in terms of the average driver performance with each vehicle configuration.
Technical Paper

Smog Chemistry Points the Way to Rational Vehicle Emission Control

1965-02-01
650641
The results of studies of atmospheric chemistry of smog formation serve as guidelines for determining a rational basis for control of vehicle emissions. These guidelines indicate the desirability of reactive hydrocarbon reduction and the futility of nitric oxide reduction from vehicles. A system of classifying hydrocarbons as to their reactivity in smog formation is presented. Its application, in combination with, gas chromatographic analyses, to both exhaust hydrocarbon and evaporative hydrocarbon vehicle emissions is illustrated. Utilization of this approach for determining the importance of exhaust versus evaporative hydrocarbon emissions, and for measuring efficacy of control by changes in both vehicles and fuel composition is recommended.
Technical Paper

The General Motors Research GT-309 Gas Turbine Engine

1965-02-01
650714
The GT-309 regenerative gas turbine engine is the latest in the series of heavy duty vehicular gas turbine engines developed by the General Motors Research Laboratories. This new engine incorporates a major engineering advance, which not only improves part-load fuel economy to the point that rivals the diesel installed economy, but also provides engine braking equal to the rated output of the engine. These improvements result from a novel system called Power Transfer, which connects the gasifier and power turbine shafts through a controlled torque coupling. This paper describes the system, its several applications, and development and evaluation studies.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Behavior of Small Wires Parallel to Flow

1962-01-01
620412
Convective heat transfer coefficients were determined for thermocouple junctions oriented parallel to the gas flow for Reynolds numbers (based on wire diameter) from 163 to 17,500. Chromel-alumel wires of 0.013-0.051 in. diameter were tested in air and products of natural gas combustion at temperatures of 60, 500, and 1000 F. Transient response was used to determine the heat transfer coefficient, and all data were corrected for variation of metal specific heat and radiant heat transfer. The affect on apparent heat transfer coefficient was determined for variations in junction weld-bead size, junction length, and wire separation. An empirical equation has been derived relating Nusselt number and Reynolds number that fits 92% of the test data within ± 10%.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion Phenomena as Studied in Free Piston Gasifiers

1963-01-01
630449
Paper deals with abnormal combustion initially existing in the Hyprex gasifier. It was found that this was mainly due to a long ignition delay period. To correct this situation, the fuel injection system was redesigned to permit later injection at higher compression pressures with good injection characteristics.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Hydrocarbon and Nitrogen Oxide Concentrations with an Ethyl Alcohol-Gasoline Fuel

1964-01-01
640651
The exhaust hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide concentrations of a single-cylinder engine, operating on a 25% (wt.) ethyl alcohol – 75% gasoline fuel, are compared to those operating on gasoline. For comparisons at the same airfuel ratio but lower than 15.3, the addition of ethyl alcohol to gasoline reduces the exhaust hydrocarbon concentrations and increases the nitrogen oxide concentrations. At the same air-fuel ratio but higher than 15.3, the addition of ethyl alcohol reduces both the hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide concentrations. However, tests with automobiles, operating at the same air-fuel ratio with both fuels, indicate that the addition of ethyl alcohol causes an increase in “surge” and, in some cases, results in a power loss. To overcome these performance problems, the ethyl alcohol-gasoline fuel should be operated at about the same percent theoretical air as gasoline.
Technical Paper

Ammonia as an Engine Fuel

1965-02-01
650052
Studies were conducted using spark-ignited reciprocating engines to evaluate ammonia as an alternate fuel for certain military applications. Conventional engines were found to perform poorly on ammonia. Several practical methods for improving engine performance while burning ammonia are described which include increased spark energy, increased compression ratio, engine supercharging, and hydrogen addition to the fuel. Dissociation of ammonia was investigated as a practical means for supplying hydrogen to an engine. The study indicates that satisfactory engine performance can be obtained while burning ammonia. Auxiliary equipment and controls necessary for vehicular use will require development.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of Automotive Fluids on Elastomer Seal Materials Using Immersion Tests*

1966-02-01
660395
Effective performance of functional automotive components requires fluid sealing under compatible conditions. One method of determining this compatibility is through the use of immersion testing under a variety of conditions that simulate those experienced in actual use. By measuring the changes in the physical properties of the seal materials after immersion a judgment can be made regarding seal/fluid compatibility which will be encountered later in actual use. A series of immersion tests using representative seal materials and automotive fluids; namely, gear oils, transmission fluids, and motor oils were conducted within the framework of the Technical Committee on Automotive Rubber, jointly sponsored by SAE-ASTM.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effect of Fluids on Automatic Transmission Rotating Shaft Seal Elastomers

1966-02-01
660396
The Total Immersion Test (ASTM D 471) for seal elastomers, used in evaluating the compatibility of fluids and seals for automatic transmissions, does not, produce hardness and volume change results similar to those found for rotating shaft seals in service. The Tip Cycle Test was devised to provide better agreement with service results. In the test, one side of the seal is exposed to air, and the other alternately to fluid and to air-fluid vapor. Rotating shaft seals were evaluated in both car and dynamometer transmission tests, and in various bench tests. Agreement was poor between transmission tests and both the Total Immersion and the Dip Cycle Tests. Good agreement was found with the Tip Cycle Test.
Technical Paper

Hydrodynamic Sealing with Radial Lip Seals

1966-02-01
660379
Conventional radial lip oil seals can be made more effective by utilizing helical grooving beneath the contact lip surface. Miniature hydrodynamic pumps so formed aid the radial lip seal in containing the oil by generating fluid forces opposite in direction to the leakage flow forces. This seal-shaft combination has been termed the Hydroseal. Four factorial experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of helix angle, groove depth, groove width, and number of grooves on sealing performance. The criterion used as a basis for selecting the optimum design were leakage, wear, hardening of the sealing surface, and pumping capacity. These data indicated that the best hydroseal design was one with three grooves, 0.0003 in. deep, 0.014 in. wide, having a helix angle of 45 deg.
Technical Paper

The GMR Sealometer A New Machine for Oil Seal Evaluation

1966-02-01
660381
The Sealometer is used for evaluating the performance of lip type oil seals and provides a dimensionless number derived from measuring the increase in temperature of a test shaft operating in a lip seal for a given time interval. With the Sealometer it is possible to study parameters that affect seal performance. As a quality control instrument, the machine provides accurate data for design. Sealometer evaluation offers a quick method of determining the life expectancy of a particular design for a particular application and eliminates the need for long life test programs.
Technical Paper

Digital Data Acquisition and Computer Data Reduction for the California Exhaust Emission Test

1966-02-01
660406
The tedious, time consuming task of hand reducing data from the California exhaust emission test has been alleviated through the use of digital data acquisition equipment and a digital computer. Analog signals from exhaust gas analyzers and an engine speed transducer are converted to digital measurements which are recorded on tape and submitted to a digital computer for data analysis and computation of results. In the data analysis, the computer identifies the required driving modes from engine speed changes, taking into account the sample delay time. “Reported” composite emissions determined by the automatic data reduction method agree within 5% with results determined by careful hand analysis of analog strip chart recordings. The results determined by the automatic data reduction system are more consistent and accurate because human errors prevalent in hand analysis have been eliminated, and because nonlinear analyzer response is accounted for.
Technical Paper

Fluid Composition Affects Leakage from Automatic Transmissions

1966-02-01
660397
Tests were conducted using older model cars with automatic transmissions to determine the effect of fluid composition on leakage past the rotating shaft seals. It was found that seal leakage was reduced or stopped by changing to seal-swelling fluids, and increased with seal-shrinking fluids. Leakage was also reduced by adding aromatic additives to existing fluids in the transmissions. Seal volume and hardness change results from bench tests support the car data.
Technical Paper

Use of a Weighted-Impulse Criterion for Estimating Injury Hazard

1966-02-01
660793
This paper describes the usage of an exponential weighting factor for appraising deceleration or force impulses registered on dummies or impacting hammers in safety testing. The proposed impulse-integration procedure, it is shown, takes into account in a more rational way, and in better conformity with published injury tolerance data, the relative importance of time and intensity of the pulse than do the “peak g” or impulse-area criteria. Use of the new Severity Index for assessment of head impact pulses is illustrated. It is shown to be of special value in comparing the relative severity of pulses which differ markedly in shape (because of structural differences in the component being struck) and it is pointed out that without a weighting factor of this nature, laboratory impact tests can yield incorrect ranking of the relative safety merit of alternative designs. Automated methods for quick calculation of the Severity Index are possible.
Technical Paper

Friction Characteristics of Controlled-Slip Differential Lubricants

1966-02-01
660778
Controlled-slip differentials (CSD) improve car operation under wheel slipping conditions. The performance of CSD's is dependent upon two criteria associated with clutch friction: “chatter” and “effectiveness.” “Chatter” is an undesirable noise which may occur during differential action. “Effectiveness” is a measure of the ability of the CSD clutches to transfer torque, during wheel slippage, to the wheel with the greater traction. The objective of this investigation was to definitely establish the cause of chatter, measure CSD effectiveness, and relate friction characteristics of lubricants to CSD operation. In tests with an instrumented car, it was found that both chatter and effectiveness are strongly influenced by the lubricant. Chatter occurred with lubricants that produced an increase in clutch friction with decreasing sliding speed. Chatter did not occur with lubricants containing friction modifiers which produced a decrease in clutch friction with decreasing sliding speed.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing the Measurement of Tire Uniformity

1965-02-01
650734
Tire nonuniformities are a major source of vibration problems in vehicles. There is considerable disagreement on which tire uniformity parameters are important to vehicle noise and vibration problems, and on how these uniformity parameters should be measured. This paper is concerned primarily with the effects of the nonuniformities of the tire structure which cause contact patch force variations as the tire is rolled in a straight line at constant axle height. Experimental results showing the effects of mean radial load and roll size on these structural, or static, nonuniformities are presented which indicate that these force variations should be measured on a large roll at rated load. Mathematical analyses of certain vehicle vibrations show that radial and lateral force variation are important uniformity parameters. The amplitude of the first harmonic of these force variations contributes to vehicle shake.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil MS Test Sequences IIA and IIIA

1965-02-01
650867
Engine oil test Sequences IIA and IIIA have been developed to replace Sequences I, II, and III. These new sequences are designed to evaluate lubricants for use in current passenger car engines under severe (MS) service conditions. Lubricant performance is evaluated with respect to scuffing wear, rust, corrosion, deposits, and rumble. The Sequence IIA and IIIA test procedure involves major changes which affect the evaluation of engine rusting and provides improved correlation between test results and short-trip service. Average engine rust ratings correlate with service data within ±0.5 numbers. The new test also provides better repeatability and reproducibility in a significantly shorter schedule. The rust repeatability and reproducibility is less than ±0.2 and ±0.6 numbers, respectively. Test time has been reduced 52%.
Technical Paper

Force and Moment Characteristics of Rolling Tires

1964-01-01
640028
The primary forces and moments which affect the directional control properties of wheeled vehicles are those between the road and the rolling tire. These forces and moments are nonlinear functions of a large number of parameters including slip angle, camber angle, vertical load, tire-road friction coefficient, and traction forces, among others. A new apparatus particularly suited to the measurement of the steady state tire properties most significant in handling studies is described. The forces and moments of interest are defined and typical results fora7.60-15 tire are presented to illustrate the effects of slip angle, camber angle, vertical load, inflation pressure, and wheel torque on lateral force and aligning torque.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Resistance of Trim Materials

1963-01-01
630110
As the design of automobiles changed over the past seventy years, manufacturers have increased the usage of decorative trim to further enhance the beauty of styling concepts. As new trim materials were introduced and parts became more complicated in design, producers have continued their efforts to produce decorative trim parts which remain attractive during the service life of the automobile. The service performance of trim materials in several geographic locations, the use of accelerated tests to predict service performance, recent developments in improving the durability of plated parts, and requirements for producing quality exterior decorative trim are reviewed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Considerations in the Design and Development of Turbines for Automotive Gas Turbine Engines

1963-01-01
630115
The conflicts in the design of turbines for an automotive gas turbine engine are examined. Considerations of stress, efficiency, engine and vehicle acceleration requirements, and compatibility of the flow path are shown to impose a number of opposing requirements. The philosophies used to compromise the conflicts in two successive engine designs are presented. Following a discussion of turbine test facilities, test results are presented for a typical turbine.
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