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Technical Paper

Obstacle Detection for Power Operated Window-Lift and Sunroof Actuation Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0466
In order to prevent injuries due to automatic functions like express- and comfort-opening/closing of power operated window-lift and sunroof systems, mechanisms for detecting obstacles have to be established. The main related regulations are the 74/60/ECC and the FMVSS 118. In this paper we present a unified approach for smart actuators that bases on monitoring the rotational speed of the armature. The advantages have been worked out with the aid of system simulation and proven with tests under realistic and extreme scenarios. The presented results are mainly focused on a sunroof project, which is upcoming for an European car platform in 2001 and is specified to fulfill both regulations simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Time Triggered CAN (TTCAN)

2001-03-05
2001-01-0073
Connecting microcontrollers, sensors and actuators by several communication systems is state of the art within the electronic architectures of modern vehicles. The communication among these components is widely based on the event triggered communication on the Controller-Area-Network (CAN) protocol. The arbitrating mechanism of this protocol ensures that all messages are transferred according to the priority of their identifiers and that the message with the highest priority will not be disturbed. In the future some mission critical subnetworks within the upcoming generations of vehicle systems, e.g. x-by-wire systems (xbws), will additionally require deterministic behavior in communication during service. Even at maximum bus load, the transmission of all safety related messages must be guaranteed. Moreover it must be possible to determine the point of time when the message will be transmitted with high precision.
Technical Paper

Greater Safety Through Optimized Light Dispersion in Less Space - Obtained by the Consistent Use of Plastics in Producing Headlamps

1987-02-01
870302
Aerodynamic styling is playing an increasing role in the design of today's passenger cars. The profile sections of the frontends of cars imply that the available installation space for the headlamps - particularly its overall depth and height is decreased in size. New types of headlamps had to be developed. One result of extensive investigations are stepped reflectors with up to six paraboloids with different focal lengths arranged around the same focal point. This type of reflector (called homofocular reflector) cannot be formed from sheet steel but from plastic by injection molding. Depending on thermal, mechanical and geometric boundary conditions three different reflector materials can be used: lacquered thermosets, unlacquered thermoplastics by one or two material injection moldings. Similar to sheet steel the use of glass lenses reduces considerably the freedom of the designer. This disadvantage of offset by the use of plastic lenses.
Technical Paper

Impact of Bit Representation on Transport Capacity and Clock Accuracy in Serial Data Streams

1989-02-01
890532
All networking systems proposed for the automobile are serial in nature. Most of these systems are also multimaster. A requirement common to all of these systems is the ability to separate framing information from data. This is achieved by some form of code violation for the framing bits which violates the code form for standard data bits. In the Manchester and PWM bit representations this code violation can be signalled within a single bit, NRZ requires more bits. The concept of code violation is also used for signalling errors within a message frame. Clock tolerance is dependent on the length of time over which synchronisation between the serial bit stream and receiving circuitry must be maintained. With a given physical bus line bandwidth, the transport capacity of a protocol is a function of the number of time slots needed to transfer a given number of data bytes.
Technical Paper

Serial WireRing - High-Speed Interchip Interface

2012-04-16
2012-01-0198
A new high-performance interchip interface, called Serial WireRing, is introduced. It combines technically mature and established methods, whereby Serial WireRing provides a simple, robust and very inexpensive solution to replace the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). Serial WireRing uses a daisy chain ring topology, realized by unidirectional point-to-point connections from device to device. Serial WireRing is realized by a simple “wire ring” with CMOS, LVDS, optical or any other suitable signaling, even mixed. Therefore it has a very low pin count. In order to minimize the latency each slave transmits the data that it receives with 1 bit delay only. In order to avoid clock/data skew, the serial data and clock are merged into one bitstream. A corresponding clock is extracted at each receiver by a clock and data recovery circuit, driven by a simple internal oscillator.
Technical Paper

Safety and Security Considerations of New Closure Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-1304
A closure system for automotive security and driver comfort has been developed. The system combines a passive entry system and an electronic door latch system. The passive entry system utilises a single chip transponder for vehicle immobilisation, passive entry and remote control functionality. The form factor free transponder enables the integration into a key fob or a smart card. The system can be activated by either pulling the door handle or by using a push button transponder. Due to the inductive coupling between the transponder and the vehicle mounted antennas, the vehicle door or trunk opens on successful verification as if there were no locks. Additionally, inside the vehicle, the transponder can be used as a far range immobiliser. The electronic door latch system utilises electronically controlled latches.
Technical Paper

Software Controlled Homogeneity Analysis of Headlamp Light Distribution

1999-03-01
1999-01-0700
This paper will describe the procedures that will enhance the possibilities of qualitative evaluation of headlamp light distributions. A basis will be the description of a light distribution coming only from reflector geometries, i.e. headlamps with clear outer lens design. Further steps of evaluation, as visualization and homogeneity analysis become more and more important for a headlamp evaluation. The recently developed tools can support both the headlamp manufacturer and the car manufacturer in finding a common understanding in headlamp performance of a projected car at a very early stage of development.
Technical Paper

J2716 SENT - Single Edge Nibble Transmission, Updates and Status

2011-04-12
2011-01-1034
The SAE J2716 SENT (Single Edge Nibble Transmission) Protocol has entered production with a number of announced products. The SENT protocol is a point-to-point scheme for transmitting signal values from a sensor to a controller. It is intended to allow for high resolution data transmission with a lower system cost than available serial data solution. The SAE SENT Task Force has developed a number of enhancements and clarifications to the original specification which are summarized in this paper.
Technical Paper

Luminance Measurement, Contrast Sensitivity, Homogeneity: New Approaches of Defining the Quality of Headlamps

1998-02-23
980324
The conventional measurements to describe the photometric quality of headlamps usually only comprise the luminous flux and the illuminance (resp. the luminous intensity) in several measuring points given by Type Approval Legislation. Practically, these photometric measurements do not describe the visual impression of a headlamp light distribution sufficiently, neither in lab nor in real street geometry. With the clear outer lens headlamps introduced recently, filament images are projected directly onto the screens or streets, thus giving new impulses to research. Starting from the established photometric practice, other types of measurements and physiological fundamentals will be discussed. The basic tools to make physical measurement and physiological impression comparable, e.g. in terms of homogeneity, are shown.
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