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Technical Paper

Acceleration Sensor in Surface Micromachining for Airbag Applications with High Signal/Noise Ratio

1996-02-01
960758
Employing novel surface micromachining techniques, a highly miniaturized, robust device has been fabricated. The accelerometer fulfills all requirements of state-of-the-art airbag systems. The present paper reports on the manufacturing and assembly process as well as the performance of the sensor. The capacitive sensing element consists of a moveable proof mass of polysilicon on a single crystalline silicon substrate. A lateral acceleration displaces the proof mass and a capacitive signal is generated at a comb electrode configuration. An external IC circuit provides the signal evaluation and conditioning in a closed loop mode, resulting in low temperature dependency of sensor characteristics and a wide frequency response. The sensor is fabricated by standard IC processing steps combined with additional surface micromachining techniques. A special deposition process in an epitaxial reactor allows the fabrication of moveable masses of more than 10 µm thickness.
Technical Paper

Integrated Barometric Pressure Sensor with SMD Packaging: Example of Standardized Sensor Packaging

1996-02-01
960756
A single-chip integrated barometric pressure sensor using bulk silicon micromachining will be presented in this paper. The sensor chip incorporates the complete signal evaluation and trimming of the temperature coefficients and manufacturing tolerances. Sensor chips are mounted onto 6″ × 4″ thick film substrates for batch processing during assembly and trimming. The separated, individual devices can be used for surface mounting (SMD) on a printed circuit board (PCB). Specifications for the sensor functions, as well as the assembly and packaging concept, will be discussed. Assembly, trimming and packaging are the most expensive production steps in the manufacture of sensors. In order to reduce the costs for sensors, we are introducing a standardization of sensor assembly and trimming with batch processing capability: after dicing, the integrated sensor chip is attached to a 6″ × 4″ thick film ceramic substrate with standard die-attaching glue.
Technical Paper

Advanced Planar Oxygen Sensors for Future Emission Control Strategies

1997-02-24
970459
This paper presents advanced planar ZrO2 oxygen sensors being developed at Robert Bosch using a modified tetragonal partially stabilized zirconia (TZP) with high ionic conductivity, high phase stability and high thermo-mechanical strength. Green tape technology combined with highly automated thickfilm techniques allows robust and cost effective manufacturing of those novel sensing elements. Standardization of assembling parts reduces the complexity of the assembly line even in the case of different sensing principles. The sensor family meets the new requirements of modern ULEV strategies like fast light off below 10 s and linear control capability as well as high quality assurance standards. High volume production will start in 1997 for European customers.
Technical Paper

Integrated Silicon Pressure Sensor for Automotive Application with Electronic Trimming

1995-02-01
950533
An integrated manifold pressure sensor using bulk silicon micromachining techniques is presented. The sensor incorporates the entire signal amplification, temperature compensation, and circuitry for electronic trimming of the sensor chip. The chip circuitry and the manufacturing and assembly process will be discussed. Trimming of the sensitivity and offset production tolerances as well as the temperature coefficients of sensitivity and offset is performed using an electrical trim method. A binary coded digital compensation information is serially fed into an on-chip control unit. The individual bits are decoded and sent to the gates of a bank of trimming thyristors. Once the correct binary code has been selected so that the sensor characteristic is centered in the specified range, the programming voltage is increased and the data is irreversibely stored similarly to the zener zapping method.
Technical Paper

Greater Safety Through Optimized Light Dispersion in Less Space - Obtained by the Consistent Use of Plastics in Producing Headlamps

1987-02-01
870302
Aerodynamic styling is playing an increasing role in the design of today's passenger cars. The profile sections of the frontends of cars imply that the available installation space for the headlamps - particularly its overall depth and height is decreased in size. New types of headlamps had to be developed. One result of extensive investigations are stepped reflectors with up to six paraboloids with different focal lengths arranged around the same focal point. This type of reflector (called homofocular reflector) cannot be formed from sheet steel but from plastic by injection molding. Depending on thermal, mechanical and geometric boundary conditions three different reflector materials can be used: lacquered thermosets, unlacquered thermoplastics by one or two material injection moldings. Similar to sheet steel the use of glass lenses reduces considerably the freedom of the designer. This disadvantage of offset by the use of plastic lenses.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Error Correction Method for Smart Sensor Applications in the Motor Vehicle

1993-03-01
930357
In conventional sensor systems, mechanical and electronic components are generally operating at separated locations. Smart sensors integrate mechanical and electronic elements to a single system, thus offering new facilities for a common error compensation. In this concept, a unit-specific temperature dependence and a non-linear characteristic curve of the mechanical sensor element can be tolerated, thus saving a lot of costs in the manufacturing process of the mechanical components. The behaviour of the mechanical sensor element is described by a two-dimensional sensor correction function: Given the output of the mechanical sensor element and a measured value for the temperature, the true measurement value can be calculated by an error correction unit. In this paper, different error correction methods are examined and evaluated which can be used for a wide range of sensor types. They are applied to the example of a short-circuit ring displacement sensor.
Technical Paper

Hitch System Comparison — Mechanical, Hydraulic, Electronic

1984-09-01
841130
Modern agricultural tractors are equipped with a hitch control system. These may be mechanical-hydraulic, hydraulic-hydraulic, or electronic-hydraulic. With the variety of design options open to the tractor manufacturer, it is important to select the system which best fits the manufacturer and end user. This paper presents a comprehensive comparison of each system. Robert Bosch has had many years experience in the design and manufacture of components for hitch systems, and hopes to help designers choose the approach best suited for them.
Technical Paper

Investigation into the Formation and Prevention of Internal Diesel Injector Deposits

2008-04-14
2008-01-0926
1 High precision high pressure diesel common rail fuel injection systems play a key role in emission control, fuel consumption and driving performance. Deposits have been observed on internal injector components, for example in the armature assembly, in the slots of the piston and on the nozzle needle. The brownish to colourless deposits can adversely impact driveability and result in non-compliance with the Euro 4 or Euro 5 emission limits. The deposits have been extensively studied to understand their composition and their formation mechanism. Due to the location of these deposits, the influence of combustion gas can be completely ruled out. In fact, their formation can be explained by interactions of certain diesel fuel additives, including di- and mono-fatty acids. This paper describes the methodology used and the data generated that support the proposed mechanisms. Moreover, approaches to avoid such interactions are discussed.
Technical Paper

PVD-Wear Resistant Coatings of Homogeneous and Graded Ti(C,N): Residual Stresses and Mechanical Performance under Hertzian Load

2002-03-19
2002-01-1407
Ceramic protective coatings on cutting tools for steel machining are state of the art in industrial applications. Several concepts to improve the efficiency of machining processes as for instance high-speed or dry cutting yield increasing demands regarding the wear and corrosion resistance of the protective tool coatings. The generic process characteristics of PVD-coating techniques offer opportunities to tailor the coatings in terms of microstructure and residual stress states by adjusting appropriate process parameters. Besides chemical composition and microstructure the residual stresses in the coatings strongly influence their in-service performance and, are therefore important to assess and to correlate with process parameters.
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