Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Methods and Analysis of Fuel Injection, Mixture Preparation and Charge Stratification in Different Direct Injected SI Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-0970
Direct gasoline injection is one major approach in reducing fuel consumption to fulfill the stages of CO2 reduction commitments in Europe from today until 2008. One effort is to unthrottle the gasoline engine during idle and partial load utilizing charge stratification. This may be realized by using different combustion concepts. This paper shows the analysis of mixture preparation for three different types of direct injected gasoline engines. Each engine was driven with two injectors which have two different atomization concepts. The engine types draw a clear dividing line between their combustion concepts. The injectors were analyzed in a pressure chamber, in an optical engine, and in an actual 1-cylinder engine. The formation of wall-film in wall-guided combustion systems will be discussed. Several important injector and engine parameters for fuel direct injection are pointed out.
Technical Paper

Integrated Barometric Pressure Sensor with SMD Packaging: Example of Standardized Sensor Packaging

1996-02-01
960756
A single-chip integrated barometric pressure sensor using bulk silicon micromachining will be presented in this paper. The sensor chip incorporates the complete signal evaluation and trimming of the temperature coefficients and manufacturing tolerances. Sensor chips are mounted onto 6″ × 4″ thick film substrates for batch processing during assembly and trimming. The separated, individual devices can be used for surface mounting (SMD) on a printed circuit board (PCB). Specifications for the sensor functions, as well as the assembly and packaging concept, will be discussed. Assembly, trimming and packaging are the most expensive production steps in the manufacture of sensors. In order to reduce the costs for sensors, we are introducing a standardization of sensor assembly and trimming with batch processing capability: after dicing, the integrated sensor chip is attached to a 6″ × 4″ thick film ceramic substrate with standard die-attaching glue.
Technical Paper

Common Rail - An Attractive Fuel Injection System for Passenger Car DI Diesel Engines

1996-02-01
960870
Passenger car DI Diesel engines need a flexible fuel injection system. Bosch develops a common rail system for this purpose. Besides variation of fuel quantity and start of injection, it permits to choosing freely injection pressure inthe rangeof 150 to 1400 barand injecting fuel in several portions. These new means will contribute to further improvements of DI engines concerning noise, exhaust emissions and engine torque.
Technical Paper

Common Rail Injection System for Commercial Diesel Vehicles

1997-02-24
970345
Common Rail provides additional flexibility for the design and application of a diesel injection system. Contrary to conventional injection systems pressure generation and injection are decoupled in the common rail system. The injection pressure can be selected independent of engine speed and injected fuel quantity within certain limits. The fuel combustion and the corresponding noise can be improved by increasing the fuel pressure up to 1400 bar and introducing pilot injection or multiple injection. Furthermore the common rail system can replace conventional injection systems without requiring major engine modifications. BOSCH will provide this new injection system for the whole range of applications from light duty (30 kW per cylinder) to heavy duty vehicles (50 kW per cylinder).
Technical Paper

Automotive Specific Application of Sensor-Systems with Suitable Technologies and Appropriate Housings

1988-02-01
880555
If a sensor shall be applied in motor vehicles, all the components of the sensor must fulfil special requirements. Particular attention must be paid to the installation of the sensitive element and to the adaptation to which the sensor is to be put. The objective of this paper is to illustrate these demands more closely using three different types of sensors as examples: a displacement sensor, a pressure sensor and an acceleration sensor.
Technical Paper

Experimental Measurement Techniques to Optimize Design of Gasoline Injection Valves

1992-02-01
920520
In order to reduce the spark-ignition engine exhaust-gas emission and fuel consumption, it is essential that the required air/fuel ratio is maintained under all operating conditions. An important contribution to this claim is delivered by the injection valve by metering the fuel precisely and producing fine atomization. In this report experimental methods to get specific measuring information and methods for optimizing flow in injection valves are described. Original valves as well as large-scale models were used for the investigations concerning the steady and unsteady-flow characteristics, and were equipped with a number of different sensors. Holograms of the short-time recording of the spray cone are generated and used for the quantification of the atomization quality when injecting into atmospheric pressure and into vacuum, thus complying with the conditions encountered in the engine intake-manifold.
Technical Paper

Interaction of Nonlinear Dynamics and Unsteady Flow in Fuel Injectors

1992-02-01
920621
Rapid opening, closing and rebounds of needle from seat and stopper plate give rise to fluid transients in fuel injectors, which are strongly coupled to the dynamics of needle and body motions. A mathematical model, based on unsteady compressible flow in the injector and steady incompressible flow in inlet and outlet section in conjunction with the equation of motion for needle and body, allows the quantitative description of the injector operation cycle. Agreement between prediction and experiment in terms of needle motion, needle velocity and pressure history is good. The mathematical model is used to show the effects, which various contributions to the hydrodynamic interaction force have on the needle motion, on pressure history and on injected mass.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Equipment for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines for U. S. 1991/1994 Emission Limits

1989-02-01
890851
The particulate emissions can be reduced by increasing injection pressure. The NOx-emission can be lowered to the required amount with a retarded injection-begin. These measures raise fuel consumption by approximately 8-10 %. To avoid blue smoke from the cold engine, it is advantageous that the fuel injection is advanced during the warm-up period. These statements apply for injection systems with unit injectors as well as for pump-line-nozzle-systems. In this paper, the pump-line-nozzle-system will be described. With this system, injection pressures of 1200 to 1400 bar at the injection nozzle are reached. The injection-begin can be changed with a control-sleeve in-line pump. The injection-begin and fuel quantity can be flexibly and accurately adjusted by means of an electronic governor.
Technical Paper

Investigation into the Formation and Prevention of Internal Diesel Injector Deposits

2008-04-14
2008-01-0926
1 High precision high pressure diesel common rail fuel injection systems play a key role in emission control, fuel consumption and driving performance. Deposits have been observed on internal injector components, for example in the armature assembly, in the slots of the piston and on the nozzle needle. The brownish to colourless deposits can adversely impact driveability and result in non-compliance with the Euro 4 or Euro 5 emission limits. The deposits have been extensively studied to understand their composition and their formation mechanism. Due to the location of these deposits, the influence of combustion gas can be completely ruled out. In fact, their formation can be explained by interactions of certain diesel fuel additives, including di- and mono-fatty acids. This paper describes the methodology used and the data generated that support the proposed mechanisms. Moreover, approaches to avoid such interactions are discussed.
Technical Paper

Model Based Engine Speed Evaluation for Single-Cylinder Engine Control

2012-10-23
2012-32-0044
In order to fulfil emission legislation and achieve good drivability of combustion-engine-powered vehicles, information about the air charge and feedback about the engine condition is necessary. In current systems, different sensors are used, e.g. the MAP (manifold air pressure) sensor and a lambda sensor. Aiming at reducing costs, efforts are being made to reduce the number of sensors while still retrieving the necessary information. Various engine speed based functions are state-of-the-art for automotive engines, e.g. for fuel-calibration, misfire-detection etc. Those functions evaluate the engine speed fluctuations during a working cycle induced by combustion. For multiple-cylinder engines, those influences are overlapping, therefore evaluation possibilities are limited. The work presented is based on the effect that at a single-cylinder engine, there is no overlap of combustion influences of various cylinders on the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

The Role of Climatic Conditions on Disc Brake Noise

2006-10-08
2006-01-3209
Since the brake colloquium in 2004 the role of climatic conditions and their relations to noise occurrence, sound pressure level and friction coefficient level is widely discussed in the US and European working groups on brake noise. A systematic study has been started to investigate the influence of relative humidity, absolute humidity and temperature on brake noise and the corresponding friction coefficient level. In this study an enormous effort was taken to keep the influences of the brake parameters, e.g. lining material, Eigenfrequencies and dimensions of the different components as small as possible to investigate the climatic influence only. Strategic humidity and temperature levels were tested according to the Mollier-Entropy-Enthalpy-Diagram which are corresponding to the seasons in the various international regions. A regression analysis evaluates the correlation and the influence of each parameter to noise and friction coefficient level.
Technical Paper

Spray Formation of High Pressure Swirl Gasoline Injectors Investigated by Two-Dimensional Mie and LIEF Techniques

1999-03-01
1999-01-0498
Two-dimensional Mie and LIEF techniques were applied to investigate the spray formation of a high pressure gasoline swirl injector in a constant volume chamber. The results obtained provide information on the propagation of liquid fuel and fuel vapor for different fuel pressures and ambient conditions. Spray parameters like tip penetration, cone angles and two new defined parameters describing the radial fuel distribution were used to quantify the fuel distributions measured. Simultaneous detection of liquid and vapor fuel was applied to study the influence of ambient temperature, injector temperature and ambient pressure on the evaporating spray.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Pressure Estimation from Structure-Borne Sound

2000-03-06
2000-01-0930
We propose a novel method to real-time in-cylinder pressure estimation by processing structure-borne sound measurements. It has been shown that knowledge of the in-cylinder pressure opens the door to robust misfire detection and sophisticated closed loop engine control schemes. However, the costs of such sensors have inhibited their use in production engines. On the other hand, acceleration sensors are of low cost and already mounted on modern production engines for knock detection. Since structure-borne sound is measured on the surface of the engine, all cylinders are simultaneously observed by one sensor. A simple physically based model, describing the speed dependence of the transfer behavior from each in-cylinder pressure to structure-borne sound is developed. Based on this model, a method for identifying the parameterized transfer function speed independently is developed.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Dynamic Transport of Multi-Component Exhaust Gases in Oxygen Sensors

2007-04-16
2007-01-0931
Today's wide range oxygen sensors are based on the limiting current principle, where an applied voltage induces electrochemical reactions in a ceramic cell. Since the diffusive transport of exhaust gas to the electrodes is limited by a transport barrier, the resulting electric current can be related to the exhaust gas composition. A model is presented which describes the transient transport of gas mixtures from the bulk exhaust gas to the electrodes of an oxygen sensor at variable pressure and composition. The internal structure of the transport barrier was accounted for by geometrical parameters. A variety of numerical results are compared with experimental data.
Technical Paper

IMEP-Estimation and In-Cylinder Pressure Reconstruction for Multicylinder SI-Engine by Combined Processing of Engine Speed and One Cylinder Pressure

2005-04-11
2005-01-0053
In order to optimize the performance and emission of engines, advanced control and diagnostic systems require detailed feedback information about the combustion process. In this context, cost-effective solutions are of interest. The contribution describes a method for reconstructing cylinder-individual features of each combustion cycle by processing the instantaneous fluctuations of the engine speed and the in-cylinder pressure of one cylinder. Model-based torque estimation, analyzing both of the signals simultaneously, provides an accurate estimation of the mean indicated pressure. Using this method, a new algorithm for advanced misfire detection is presented. Furthermore, a new pressure model with a feasible number of parameters is proposed. It is combined with the torque estimation in order to reconstruct the unknown pressure traces of the cylinders not equipped with sensors.
Technical Paper

A Review of the Requirements for Injection Systems and the Effects of Fuel Quality on Particulate Emissions from GDI Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1710
Particulate emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been an important topic of recent research interest due to their known environmental effects. This review paper will characterise the influence of different gasoline direct injection fuel systems on particle number (PN) emissions. The findings will be reviewed for engine and vehicle measurements with appropriate driving cycles (especially real driving cycles) to evaluate effects of the fuel injection systems on PN emissions. Recent technological developments alongside the trends of the influence of system pressure and nozzle design on injector tip wetting and deposits will be considered. Besides the engine and fuel system it is known that fuel composition will have an important effect on GDI engine PN emissions. The evaporation qualities of fuels have a substantial influence on mixture preparation, as does the composition of the fuel itself.
Technical Paper

J2716 SENT - Single Edge Nibble Transmission, Updates and Status

2011-04-12
2011-01-1034
The SAE J2716 SENT (Single Edge Nibble Transmission) Protocol has entered production with a number of announced products. The SENT protocol is a point-to-point scheme for transmitting signal values from a sensor to a controller. It is intended to allow for high resolution data transmission with a lower system cost than available serial data solution. The SAE SENT Task Force has developed a number of enhancements and clarifications to the original specification which are summarized in this paper.
Journal Article

Direct Coil Cooling of a High Performance Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM) for EV/HEV Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1209
This paper presents the development of a novel direct coil cooling approach which can enable high performance for electric traction motor, and in further significantly reduce motor losses. The proposed approach focuses on bypassing critical thermal resistances in motor by cooling coils directly in stator slots with oil flow. Firstly, the basic configuration and features are shown: sealed stator slots to air gap, pressure reservoirs on both side of the slots and slot channels for oil flow. The key to enhance thermal performance of the motor here is based on introducing fluid guiding structure in the slot channels. Next, heat transfer in the channel with guiding structure is investigated by CFD and compared with bare slot channel without guiding structure. For studying the effectiveness of proposed cooling concept, numerical analysis is conducted to compare it with HEV favored oil impingement cooling.
Journal Article

Online Engine Speed Based Adaptation of Air Charge for Two- Wheelers

2013-10-15
2013-32-9037
Regarding the strongly growing two-wheeler market fuel economy, price and emission legislations are in focus of current development work. Fuel economy as well as emissions can be improved by introduction of engine management systems (EMS). In order to provide the benefits of an EMS for low cost motorcycles, efforts are being made at BOSCH to reduce the costs of a port fuel injection (PFI) system. The present paper describes a method of how to reduce the number of sensors of a PFI system by the use of sophisticated software functions based on high-resolution engine speed evaluation. In order to improve the performance of a system working without a MAP-sensor (manifold air pressure sensor) an air charge feature (ACFn) based on engine speed is introduced. It is shown by an experiment that ACFn allows to detect and adapt changes in manifold air pressure. Cross-influences on ACFn are analyzed by simulations and engine test bench measurements.
Journal Article

Online Engine Speed based Altitude Adaptation of Air Charge and Limp Home for Two-Wheelers

2014-11-11
2014-32-0067
Cost reduction of engine management systems (EMS) for two-wheeler applications is the key to utilize their potentials compared to carburetor bikes regarding emissions, fuel economy and system robustness. In order to reduce the costs of a system with port fuel injection (PFI) Bosch is developing an EMS without a manifold air pressure (MAP) sensor. The pressure sensor is usually used to compensate for different influences on the air mass, which cannot be detected via the throttle position sensor (TPS) and mean engine speed. Such influences are different leakage rates of the throttle body and changing ambient conditions like air pressure. Bosch has shown in the past that a virtual sensor relying on model based evaluation of engine speed can be used for a detection of leakage air mass in idling to improve the pre-control of the air-fuel ratio. This provides a functionality which so far was only possible with an intake pressure sensor.
X