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Technical Paper

Methods and Analysis of Fuel Injection, Mixture Preparation and Charge Stratification in Different Direct Injected SI Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-0970
Direct gasoline injection is one major approach in reducing fuel consumption to fulfill the stages of CO2 reduction commitments in Europe from today until 2008. One effort is to unthrottle the gasoline engine during idle and partial load utilizing charge stratification. This may be realized by using different combustion concepts. This paper shows the analysis of mixture preparation for three different types of direct injected gasoline engines. Each engine was driven with two injectors which have two different atomization concepts. The engine types draw a clear dividing line between their combustion concepts. The injectors were analyzed in a pressure chamber, in an optical engine, and in an actual 1-cylinder engine. The formation of wall-film in wall-guided combustion systems will be discussed. Several important injector and engine parameters for fuel direct injection are pointed out.
Technical Paper

Methods for the Efficient Development and Optimization of Automotive Electrical Systems

1997-02-24
970301
In the last years, the requirements for electrical energy systems in motor vehicles have increased considerably. In the past, many studies were focused on single components of the electrical system. However, to shorten the development process, reduce costs, improve reliability and also to optimize the fuel consumption due to the electrical system, the electrical system must be regarded as a whole. The Robert Bosch GmbH has developed a simulation environment, which is intended to improve the development process of new vehicle electrical systems by means of computer simulation. On the basis of a freely selectable driving cycle and various driver models, it is possible to simulate the behavior of electrical energy supply structures. The model of the electrical system is coupled to a dynamic model of the drivetrain. The characteristics of this drivetrain can also be modified and various vehicle models can be selected for simulation.
Technical Paper

GDI: Interaction Between Mixture Preparation, Combustion System and Injector Performance

1998-02-23
980498
The development of future engine generations for Gasoline Direct Injection requires sophisticated combustion systems to reach reduced fuel consumption and future emission standards. The design process of these combustion systems has to be based on a fundamental knowledge of the interacting mixture preparation mechanisms. Beside the air motion inside the cylinder mixture preparation is mainly feeded by the fuel spray quality, injector performance respectively. The article therefore presents a fundamental analysis of the GDI mixture preparation and affords an insight into the injector development. Comprehensive experimental studies were performed in high pressure/temperature vessels using Phase Doppler Anemometry, Laser Induced Fluorescence and video techniques to define the significant fuel spray features for GDI. CFD-calculations were additionally applied to study the temporal behavior of the mixture preparation under injection parameter variation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Measurement Techniques to Optimize Design of Gasoline Injection Valves

1992-02-01
920520
In order to reduce the spark-ignition engine exhaust-gas emission and fuel consumption, it is essential that the required air/fuel ratio is maintained under all operating conditions. An important contribution to this claim is delivered by the injection valve by metering the fuel precisely and producing fine atomization. In this report experimental methods to get specific measuring information and methods for optimizing flow in injection valves are described. Original valves as well as large-scale models were used for the investigations concerning the steady and unsteady-flow characteristics, and were equipped with a number of different sensors. Holograms of the short-time recording of the spray cone are generated and used for the quantification of the atomization quality when injecting into atmospheric pressure and into vacuum, thus complying with the conditions encountered in the engine intake-manifold.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Equipment for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines for U. S. 1991/1994 Emission Limits

1989-02-01
890851
The particulate emissions can be reduced by increasing injection pressure. The NOx-emission can be lowered to the required amount with a retarded injection-begin. These measures raise fuel consumption by approximately 8-10 %. To avoid blue smoke from the cold engine, it is advantageous that the fuel injection is advanced during the warm-up period. These statements apply for injection systems with unit injectors as well as for pump-line-nozzle-systems. In this paper, the pump-line-nozzle-system will be described. With this system, injection pressures of 1200 to 1400 bar at the injection nozzle are reached. The injection-begin can be changed with a control-sleeve in-line pump. The injection-begin and fuel quantity can be flexibly and accurately adjusted by means of an electronic governor.
Technical Paper

Engine Management Systems in Hybrid Technology

1986-03-01
860593
Increasingly stringent requirements regarding exhaust emission, fuel consumption, driveability and comfort have led to an accelerated introduction of electronically controlled systems, the complexity of which can best be handled by microcomputers, these being the basis of all modern electronic control units. These electronic control units are usually installed in the passenger compartment, due to the need for moderate conditions in respect of temperature, vibration, moisture and dust. However because of the increasing variety of systems the available space for the installation of these control boxes has become smaller and smaller whilst the complexity of the wire harness has led to increased costs and electromagnetic interference problems. As a result there is an increasing demand for electronic control units (ECU) which can be installed in the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

Investigation into the Formation and Prevention of Internal Diesel Injector Deposits

2008-04-14
2008-01-0926
1 High precision high pressure diesel common rail fuel injection systems play a key role in emission control, fuel consumption and driving performance. Deposits have been observed on internal injector components, for example in the armature assembly, in the slots of the piston and on the nozzle needle. The brownish to colourless deposits can adversely impact driveability and result in non-compliance with the Euro 4 or Euro 5 emission limits. The deposits have been extensively studied to understand their composition and their formation mechanism. Due to the location of these deposits, the influence of combustion gas can be completely ruled out. In fact, their formation can be explained by interactions of certain diesel fuel additives, including di- and mono-fatty acids. This paper describes the methodology used and the data generated that support the proposed mechanisms. Moreover, approaches to avoid such interactions are discussed.
Technical Paper

Design of a Boosted 2-Cylinder SI-Engine with Gasoline Direct Injection to Define the Needs of Future Powertrains

2012-04-16
2012-01-0832
To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance to the SI-engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so leads to new challenges concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine with gasoline direct injection was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor and Bosch. This paper wants to offer an insight in the design process. The mechanical design as well as the combustion system concept process will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Combustion Mode Switch Between SI and Gasoline HCCI

2012-04-16
2012-01-1105
The worldwide stricter emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, challenging approach, especially regarding the combustion mode switch between spark-ignited (SI) and gasoline HCCI mode and vice-versa. Naturally aspirated (n.a.) HCCI shows considerable potential, but the operation range is air breathing limited due to hot residuals required for auto-ignition and to slow down reaction kinetics. Therefore it is limited to part-load operation. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized gasoline engines, it is imperative to investigate the synergies and challenges of boosted HCCI.
Technical Paper

Study on Boosted Direct Injection SI Combustion with Ethanol Blends and the Influence on the Ignition System

2011-10-04
2011-36-0196
The stricter worldwide emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption and CO2-emission require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Ethanol fuel combined with boosting on direct injection gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, a challenging approach. Brazil is one of the main Ethanol fuel markets with its E24 and E100 fuel availability, which covers a large volume of the national needs. Additionally, worldwide Ethanol availability is becoming more and more important, e.g., in North America and Europe. Considering the future flex-fuel engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized spark ignition engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of Ethanol boosted operation. Main topic of the present work focuses on the operation of Ethanol blends up to E100 at high loads up to 30 bar imep.
Technical Paper

Knock Control on Small Four-Two-Wheeler Engines

2012-10-23
2012-32-0052
Today, knock control is part of standard automotive engine management systems. The structure-borne noise of the knock sensor signal is evaluated in the electronic control unit (ECU). In case of knocking combustions the ignition angle is first retarded and then subsequently advanced again. The small-sized combustion chamber of small two-wheeler engines, uncritical compression ratios and strong enrichment decrease the knock tendency. Nevertheless, knock control can effectuate higher performance, lower fuel consumption, compliance with lower legally demanded emission limits, and the possibility of using different fuel qualities. The Knock-Intensity-Detector 2 (KID2) and the Bosch knock control tool chain, based on many years of experience gained on automotive engines, provides an efficient calibration method that can also be used for two-wheeler engines. The raw signal of the structure-borne noise is used for signal analysis and simulation of different filter settings.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Fuel Economy for 125cc Motorcycles with Carburetor or Electronic Port Fuel Injection Based on Different Drive Cycles

2012-10-23
2012-32-0067
Based on the fuel consumption analysis methods published on last year's SETC [1], we compared fuel economies of a typical 125cc production motorcycle equipped with either electronic (port) fuel injection (EFI/PFI) engine management system (EMS) or constant vacuum carburetor (Carb). In addition to earlier discussed PFI results, stationary engine map measurements of fuel consumption on an engine dynamometer (dyno) were conducted for the Carb engine. The powerful development tool of fuel consumption test cycle simulation uses these stationary engine dyno results to calculate fuel consumption of real transient vehicle operation. Here it was employed to assess economy of both fuel system configurations under different driving conditions. Besides the Indian Driving Cycle (IDC) and the World Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC), we investigated real world drive patterns typical for emerging markets in terms of a Bangalore urban cycle and a Malaysian suburban cycle.
Technical Paper

A Thermodynamic Study on Boosted HCCI: Experimental Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0905
Stricter emissions legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with boosted air systems on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising, yet challenging, approach. Naturally aspirated (NA) HCCI has already shown considerable potential in combustion efficiency gains. Nevertheless, since the volumetric efficiency is limited in the NA HCCI operation range due to the hot residuals required to ignite the mixture and slow down reaction kinetics, only part-load operation is feasible in this combustion mode. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified in downsized gasoline engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of controlled, boosted HCCI.
Technical Paper

Challenge Determining a Combustion System Concept for Downsized SI-engines - Comparison and Evaluation of Several Options for a Boosted 2-cylinder SI-engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1730
To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance in the SI engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so new challenges arise concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor GmbH and Robert Bosch GmbH. The design process was described in detail in last year's paper SAE 2012-01-0832. Since the engine design is very modular it allows for several different engine layouts which can be examined and evaluated.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Analysis and Benchmark of Various Gasoline Combustion Concepts

2006-04-03
2006-01-0231
Novel Combustion technologies and strategies show high potential in reducing the fuel consumption of gasoline spark ignition (SI) engines. In this paper, a comparison between various gasoline combustion concepts at two representative engine operating points is shown. Advantages of the combustion concepts are analyzed using thermodynamic split of losses method. In this paper, a tool for thermodynamic assessment (Split of Losses) of conventional and new operating strategies of SI engine and its derivatives is used. Technologies, like variable valve actuation and/or gasoline direct injection, allow new strategies to run the SI engine unthrottled with early inlet valve closing (SI-VVA) combined with high EGR, charge stratification (SI-STRAT) and controlled auto ignition (CAI), also known as gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). These diverse combustion concepts show thermodynamic gains that stem from several, often different sources.
Technical Paper

Engine-Independent Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Using a Burner Heated Catalyst

2006-10-16
2006-01-3401
Meeting current exhaust emission standards requires rapid catalyst light-off. Closed-coupled catalysts are commonly used to reduce light-off time by minimizing exhaust heat loss between the engine and catalyst. However, this exhaust gas system design leads to a coupling of catalyst heating and engine operation. An engine-independent exhaust gas aftertreatment can be realized by combining a burner heated catalyst system (BHC) with an underfloor catalyst located far away from the engine. This paper describes some basic characteristics of such a BHC system and the results of fitting this system into a Volkswagen Touareg where a single catalyst was located about 1.8 m downstream of the engine. Nevertheless, it was possible to reach about 50% of the current European emission standard EU 4 without additional fuel consumption caused by the BHC system.
Technical Paper

Information Technology - A Challenge for Automotive Electronics

2001-03-05
2001-01-0029
In the automotive industry, a steadily growing number of mono-functional electronic control units (ECUs) with increasing complexity on the one hand and restrictive requirements for power consumption and mounting space on the other hand are forcing changes in car electronics. This tendency is enforced by increasing requirements on security, comfort, fuel consumption and emission. In luxury cars, we are now at up to 80 more or less independent electronic units with low potential for synergies between functions (pan-functional services). The actual assembly of electronic units is certainly easily expandable, has very low error propagation but it also involves lots of logistic and bulky cabling with unwanted weight as well as extensive space and power consumption. If trends are properly interpreted, synergies between functions for more comfort, additional safety and security as well as minor air pollution are required in the future at least at unchanged costs in the vehicle's electronics.
Technical Paper

Preparing for CARTRONIC - Interface and New Strategies for Torque Coordination and Conversion in a Spark Ignition Engine-Management System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0268
A major trend in modern vehicle control is the increase of complexity and interaction of formerly autonomous systems. In order to manage the resulting network of more and more integrated (sub)systems Bosch has developed an open architecture called CARTRONIC for structuring the entire vehicle control system. Structuring the system in functionally independent components improves modular software development and allows the integration of new elements such as integrated starter/generator and the implementation of advanced control concepts as drive train management. This approach leads to an open structure on a high level for the design of advanced vehicle control systems. The paper describes the integration of the spark-ignition (SI) engine management system (EMS) into a CARTRONIC conform vehicle coordination requiring a new standard interface between the vehicle coordination and the EMS level.
Technical Paper

Expansion Devices for R-744 MAC Units

2005-05-10
2005-01-2041
In mobile R-744 A/C units mechanical expansion devices (e.g. orifice tubes) or electronic valves (e.g. PWM-valves) can be used. Besides the costs, aspects like coefficient of performance (COP), cooling capacity or control behavior - especially for extreme conditions - influence the choice of the valve type. This paper will present a comparison between an ideal electronic valve and a two stage mechanical orifice tube under full load and part load conditions. The influence of the expansion valve on COP and cooling capacity in different ambient conditions can be sufficiently described with steady-state simulations. The simulation tools used for this work are based on Modelica/Dymola. The simulation results show that for European climate conditions the use of two-stage orifices might increase fuel consumption.
Journal Article

Advanced Combustion System Analyses on a 125cc Motorcycle Engine

2011-11-08
2011-32-0557
Environmental consciousness and tightening emissions legislation push the market share of electronic fuel injection within a dynamically growing world wide small engines market. Similar to automotive engines during late 1980's, this opens up opportunities for original equipment manufacturers (OEM) and suppliers to jointly advance small engines performance in terms of fuel economy, emissions, and drivability. In this context, advanced combustion system analyses from automotive engine testing have been applied to a typical production motorcycle small engine. The 125cc 4-stroke, 2-valve, air-cooled, single-cylinder engine with closed-loop lambda-controlled electronic port fuel injection was investigated in original series configuration on an engine dynamometer. The test cycle fuel consumption simulation provides reasonable best case fuel economy estimates based on stationary map fuel consumption measurements.
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