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Boosted HCCI Combustion Using Low-Octane Gasoline with Fully Premixed and Partially Stratified Charges

2012-06-18
High-load HCCI combustion has recently been demonstrated with conventional gasoline using intake pressure boosting. The key is to control the high combustion heat release rates (HRR) by using combustion timing retard and mixture stratification. However, at naturally aspirated and moderately boosted conditions, these techniques did not work well due to the low autoignition reactivity of conventional gasoline at these conditions. This work studies a low-octane distillate fuel with similar volatility to gasoline, termed Hydrobate, for its potential in HCCI engine combustion at naturally aspirated and low-range boosted conditions. The HCCI combustion with fully premixed and partially stratified charges was examined at intake pressures (Pin) from 100 to 180 kPa and constant intake temperature (60�C) and engine speed (1200 rpm).
Journal Article

Detailed Unburned Hydrocarbon Investigations in a Highly-Dilute Diesel Low Temperature Combustion Regime

2009-04-20
2009-01-0928
The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) in a highly-dilute diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) regime. This research concentrates on understanding the mechanisms that control the formation of UHC via experiments and simulations in a 0.48L signal-cylinder light duty engine operating at 2000 r/min and 5.5 bar IMEP with multiple injections. A multi-gas FTIR along with other gas and smoke emissions instruments are used to measure exhaust UHC species and other emissions. Controlled experiments in the single-cylinder engine are then combined with three computational tools, namely heat release analysis of measured cylinder pressure, analysis of spray trajectory with a phenomenological spray model using in-cylinder thermodynamics [1], and KIVA-3V Chemkin CFD computations recently tested at LTC conditions [2].
Journal Article

Effect of Ignition Delay on In-Cylinder Soot Characteristics of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Operating at Low Temperature Conditions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0946
Low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies, which can mitigate emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engines, typically have longer ignition delays compared to conventional diesel operation. With extended ignition delays, more time is available for premixing, which reduces PM formation. The effect of varying ignition delay on the spatial and temporal evolution of soot in LTC diesel jets is studied by imaging the natural soot luminosity, while the in-cylinder soot mass and temperature are measured using two-color soot thermometry. Ignition delay in the engine is controlled by adjusting the intake air temperature while keeping the same charge density at TDC. This allowed us to study sooting characteristics at various ignition delays while keeping the same diesel jet penetration for all the cases.
Journal Article

Transient Liquid Penetration of Early-Injection Diesel Sprays

2009-04-20
2009-01-0839
Diesel low-temperature combustion strategies often rely on early injection timing to allow sufficient fuel-ambient mixing to avoid NOx and soot-forming combustion. However, these early injection timings permit the spray to penetrate into a low ambient temperature and density environment where vaporization is poor and liquid impingement upon the cylinder liner and piston bowl are more likely to occur. The objective of this study is to measure the transient liquid and vapor penetration at early-injection conditions. High-speed Mie-scatter and shadowgraph imaging are employed in an optically accessible chamber with a free path of 100 mm prior to wall impingement and using a single-spray injector. The ambient temperature and density within the chamber are well-controlled (uniform) and selected to simulate in-cylinder conditions when injection occurs at -40 crank-angle degrees (CAD) or fewer before top-dead center (TDC).
Journal Article

Visualization of Diesel Spray Penetration, Cool-Flame, Ignition, High-Temperature Combustion, and Soot Formation Using High-Speed Imaging

2009-04-20
2009-01-0658
Shadowgraph/schlieren imaging techniques have often been used for flow visualization of reacting and non-reacting systems. In this paper we show that high-speed shadowgraph visualization in a high-pressure chamber can also be used to identify cool-flame and high-temperature combustion regions of diesel sprays, thereby providing insight into the time sequence of diesel ignition and combustion. When coupled to simultaneous high-speed Mie-scatter imaging, chemiluminescence imaging, pressure measurement, and spatially-integrated jet luminosity measurements by photodiode, the shadowgraph visualization provides further information about spray penetration after vaporization, spatial location of ignition and high-temperature combustion, and inactive combustion regions where problematic unburned hydrocarbons exist. Examples of the joint application of high-speed diagnostics include transient non-reacting and reacting injections, as well as multiple injections.
Journal Article

Dual-Wavelength PLIF Measurements of Temperature and Composition in an Optical HCCI Engine with Negative Valve Overlap

2009-04-20
2009-01-0661
Negative valve overlap (NVO) is a valve strategy employed to retain and recompress residual burned gases to assist HCCI combustion, particularly in the difficult regime of low-load operation. NVO allows the retention of large quantities of hot residual burned gases as well as the possibility of fuel addition for combustion control purposes. Reaction of fuel injected during NVO increases charge temperature, but in addition could produce reformed fuel species that may affect main combustion phasing. The strategy holds potential for controlling and extending low-load HCCI combustion. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of applying two-wavelength PLIF of 3-pentanone to obtain simultaneous, in-cylinder temperature and composition images during different parts of the HCCI/NVO cycle. Measurements are recorded during the intake and main compression strokes, as well as during the more challenging periods of NVO recompression and re-expansion.
Journal Article

Influence of EGR Quality and Unmixedness on the High-Load Limits of HCCI Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0666
This work explores how the high-load limits of HCCI are affected by fuel autoignition reactivity, EGR quality/composition, and EGR unmixedness for naturally aspirated conditions. This is done for PRF80 and PRF60. The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liters) with a CR = 14 piston installed. By operating at successively higher engine loads, five load-limiting factors were identified for these fuels: 1) Residual-NOx-induced run-away advancement of the combustion phasing, 2) EGR-NOx-induced run-away, 3) EGR-NOx/wall-heating induced run-away 4) EGR-induced oxygen deprivation, and 5) excessive partial-burn occurrence due to EGR unmixedness. The actual load-limiting factor is dependent on the autoignition reactivity of the fuel, the EGR quality level (where high quality refers to the absence of trace species like NO, HC and CO, i.e. simulated EGR), the level of EGR unmixedness, and the selected pressure-rise rate (PRR).
Journal Article

Characterizing the Development of Thermal Stratification in an HCCI Engine Using Planar-Imaging Thermometry

2009-04-20
2009-01-0650
A planar temperature imaging diagnostic has been developed and applied to an investigation of naturally occurring thermal stratification in an HCCI engine. Natural thermal stratification is critical for high-load HCCI operation because it slows the combustion heat release; however, little is known about its development or distribution. A tracer-based single-line PLIF imaging technique was selected for its good precision and simplicity. Temperature-map images were derived from the PLIF images, based on the temperature sensitivity of the fluorescence signal of the toluene tracer added to the fuel. A well premixed intake charge assured that variations in fuel/air mixture did not affect the signal. Measurements were made in a single-cylinder optically accessible HCCI research engine (displacement = 0.98 liters) at a typical 1200 rpm operating condition. Since natural thermal stratification develops prior to autoignition, all measurements were made for motored operation.
Journal Article

Modeling and Experiments on Mixture Formation in a Hydrogen Direct-Injection Research Engine

2009-09-13
2009-24-0083
Direct injection offers a large number of degrees of freedom, as it strongly influences the mixture stratification process. Experiments on a single cylinder research engine fuelled by H2, carried out at Argonne National Laboratory, showed the influence of injection parameters (timing and geometry) on engine efficiency and combustion stability. At low load, when a late injection strategy was performed, an unstable engine behavior was detected varying the injection direction. In order to optimize the mixture stratification process in DI H2 engines, it is important to understand the physics underlying the experimental results. A spatially resolved representation of the in-cylinder processes is a useful tool to properly set the injection parameters. Also, the knowledge of the pre-injection flow field is of added value in optimizing the injection process.
Journal Article

UHC and CO Emissions Sources from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Undergoing Dilution-Controlled Low-Temperature Combustion

2009-09-13
2009-24-0043
Unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission sources are examined in an optical, light-duty diesel engine operating under low load and engine speed, while employing a highly dilute, partially premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategy. The impact of engine load and charge dilution on the UHC and CO sources is also evaluated. The progression of in-cylinder mixing and combustion processes is studied using ultraviolet planar laser-induced fluorescence (UV PLIF) to measure the spatial distributions of liquid- and vapor-phase hydrocarbon. A separate, deep-UV LIF technique is used to examine the clearance volume spatial distribution and composition of late-cycle UHC and CO. Homogeneous reactor simulations, utilizing detailed chemical kinetics and constrained by the measured cylinder pressure, are used to examine the impact of charge dilution and initial stoichiometry on oxidation behavior.
Journal Article

Ethanol Autoignition Characteristics and HCCI Performance for Wide Ranges of Engine Speed, Load and Boost

2010-04-12
2010-01-0338
The characteristics of ethanol autoignition and the associated HCCI performance are examined in this work. The experiments were conducted over wide ranges of engine speed, load and intake boost pressure (Piⁿ) in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liters) with a CR = 14 piston. The data show that pure ethanol is a true single-stage ignition fuel. It does not exhibit low-temperature heat release (LTHR), not even for boosted operation. This makes ethanol uniquely different from conventional distillate fuels and offers several benefits: a) The intake temperature (Tiⁿ) does not have to be adjusted much with changes of engine speed, load and intake boost pressure. b) High Piⁿ can be tolerated without running out of control authority because of an excessively low Tiⁿ requirement. However, by maintaining true single-stage ignition characteristics, ethanol also shows a relatively low temperature-rise rate just prior to its hot ignition point.
Technical Paper

Validation of an LES Multi Mode Combustion Model for Diesel Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0361
Diesel engine combustion is simulated using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a multi-mode combustion (MMC) model. The MMC model is based on the combination of chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and quasi-steady flamelet calculations in different local combustion regimes. The local combustion regime is identified by two combustion indices based on the local temperature and the extent of mixture homogeneity. The LES turbulence model uses the dynamic structure model (DSM) for sub-grid stresses. A new spray model in the LES context is used, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based wall model is retained with the LES derived scales. These models are incorporated in the KIVA3V-ERC-Release 2 code for engine combustion simulations. A wide range of diesel engine operating conditions were chosen to validate the combustion model.
Journal Article

Determination of Cycle Temperatures and Residual Gas Fraction for HCCI Negative Valve Overlap Operation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0343
Fuel injection during negative valve overlap offers a promising method of controlling HCCI combustion, but sorting out the thermal and chemical effects of NVO fueling requires knowledge of temperatures throughout the cycle. Computing bulk temperatures throughout closed portions of the cycle is relatively straightforward using an equation of state, once a temperature at one crank angle is established. Unfortunately, computing charge temperatures at intake valve closing for NVO operation is complicated by a large, unknown fraction of residual gases at unknown temperature. To address the problem, we model blowdown and recompression during exhaust valve opening and closing events, allowing us to estimate in-cylinder charge temperatures based on exhaust-port measurements. This algorithm permits subsequent calculation of crank-angle-resolved bulk temperatures and residual gas fraction over a wide range of NVO operation.
Journal Article

Thermal and Chemical Effects of NVO Fuel Injection on HCCI Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0164
Fuel injection during negative valve overlap (NVO) can extend low-load gasoline HCCI operation through control of main combustion phasing. Reactions and heat release accompanying NVO fuel injection give rise to changes in temperature and composition of the charge prior to main combustion. The extent of reaction of injected NVO fuel and the relative importance of resulting thermal and chemical effects on main combustion are a current research topic. In this work, bulk temperature computations are used to quantify thermal conditions prior to main ignition for cases with and without NVO fueling. To separate measured thermal effects from chemical effects of NVO fuel reactions on the main combustion, cases without NVO fuel but with similar mixture temperatures and combustion phasing are compared. Effects of varying NVO fuel amount and injection timing on heat release, combustion phasing, bulk temperature evolution, and iso-octane ignition temperatures are analyzed.
Journal Article

High Resolution Scalar Dissipation and Turbulence Length Scale Measurements in an Internal Combustion Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0185
High resolution planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were performed in an optically accessible internal combustion (IC) engine to investigate the behavior of scalar dissipation and the fine-scale structures of the turbulent scalar field. The fluorescent tracer fluorobenzene was doped into one of the two intake streams and nitrogen was used as the carrier gas to permit high signal-to-noise ratio fluorescence measurements without oxygen quenching effects. The resulting two-dimensional images allowed for an analysis of the structural detail of the scalar and scalar dissipation fields defined by the mixing of the two adjacent intake streams. High levels of scalar dissipation were found to be located within convoluted, sheet-like structures in accordance with previous studies. The fluorescence data, which were acquired during the intake stroke, were also used to examine the scalar energy and dissipation spectra.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Low-Temperature Heat Release for PRF Fuels in an HCCI Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1806
Now more than ever, the increasing strictness of environmental regulation and the stronger need of higher efficiency standards are pushing for the development of cleaner and energy-efficient powertrains. HCCI engines are suitable candidates to achieve these objectives. Understanding the autoignition process and how it is affected by operating conditions is central to the development of these engines. In addition to experiments, detailed kinetic modeling represents a very effective tool for gaining deeper insight into the fundamentals of HCCI autoignition and combustion. Indeed, modeling activities are today widely used in engine design, allowing a significant reduction in prototype development costs and providing a valuable support to the improvement of control strategies.
Journal Article

An Optical Study of Mixture Preparation in a Hydrogen-fueled Engine with Direct Injection Using Different Nozzle Designs

2009-11-02
2009-01-2682
Mixture formation in an optically accessible hydrogen-fueled engine was investigated using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone as a fuel tracer. The engine was motored and fueled by direct high-pressure injection. This paper presents the evolution of the spatial distribution of the ensemble-mean equivalence ratio for six different combinations of nozzle design and injector geometry, each for three different injection timings after intake-valve closure. Asymmetric single-hole and 5-hole nozzles as well as symmetric 6-hole and 13-hole nozzles were used. For early injection, the low in-cylinder pressure and density allow the jet to preserve its momentum long enough to undergo extensive jet-wall and (for multi-hole nozzles) jet-jet interaction, but the final mixture is fairly homogeneous. Intermediately timed injection yields inhomogeneous mixtures with surprisingly similar features observed for all multi-hole injectors.
Journal Article

Optical Diagnostics and Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Spray Targeting Effects in Late-Injection Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion

2009-11-02
2009-01-2699
The effects of spray targeting on mixing, combustion, and pollutant formation under a low-load, late-injection, low-temperature combustion (LTC) diesel operating condition are investigated by optical engine measurements and multi-dimensional modeling. Three common spray-targeting strategies are examined: conventional piston-bowl-wall targeting (152° included angle); narrow-angle floor targeting (124° included angle); and wide-angle piston-bowl-lip targeting (160° included angle). Planar laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics in a heavy-duty direct-injection optical diesel engine provide two-dimensional images of fuel-vapor, low-temperature ignition (H2CO), high-temperature ignition (OH) and soot-formation species (PAH) to characterize the LTC combustion process.
Technical Paper

Influence of Spray-Target and Squish Height on Sources of CO and UHC in a HSDI Diesel Engine During PPCI Low-Temperature Combustion

2009-11-02
2009-01-2810
Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging during the expansion stroke, exhaust gas emissions, and cylinder pressure measurements were used to investigate the influence on combustion and CO/UHC emissions of variations in squish height and fuel spray targeting on the piston. The engine was operated in a highly dilute, partially premixed, low-temperature combustion mode. A small squish height and spray targeting low on the piston gave the lowest exhaust emissions and most rapid heat release. The LIF data show that both the near-nozzle region and the squish volume are important sources of UHC emissions, while CO is dominated by the squish region and is more abundant near the piston top. Emissions from the squish volume originate primarily from overly lean mixture. At the 3 bar load investigated, CO and UHC levels in mixture leaving the bowl and ring-land crevice are low.
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