High-load HCCI combustion has recently been demonstrated with conventional gasoline using intake pressure boosting. The key is to control the high combustion heat release rates (HRR) by using combustion timing retard and mixture stratification. However, at naturally aspirated and moderately boosted conditions, these techniques did not work well due to the low autoignition reactivity of conventional gasoline at these conditions. This work studies a low-octane distillate fuel with similar volatility to gasoline, termed Hydrobate, for its potential in HCCI engine combustion at naturally aspirated and low-range boosted conditions. The HCCI combustion with fully premixed and partially stratified charges was examined at intake pressures (Pin) from 100 to 180 kPa and constant intake temperature (60�C) and engine speed (1200 rpm).
The effects of injection timing and diluent addition on the late-combustion soot burnout in a direct-injection (DI) diesel engine have been investigated using simultaneous planar imaging of the OH-radical and soot distributions. Measurements were made in an optically accessible DI diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class at a 1680 rpm, high-load operating condition. A dual-laser, dual-camera system was used to obtain the simultaneous “single-shot” images using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) for the OH and soot, respectively. The two laser beams were combined into overlapping laser sheets before being directed into the combustion chamber, and the optical signal was separated into the two cameras by means of an edge filter.
The temporal and spatial evolution of the ignition and premixed-burn phases of a direct-injection (DI) diesel spray were investigated under quiescent conditions. The diagnostics used included temporally resolved measurements of natural light emission and pressure, and spatially resolved images of natural light emission. Temporally resolved natural light emission measurements were made with a photo-multiplier tube and a photodiode, while the images were acquired with an intensified CCD camera. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible, constant-volume combustion vessel over a range of ambient gas temperatures and densities: 800-1100 K and 7.3-45.0 kg/m3. The fuel used was a ternary blend of single-component fuels representative of diesel fuel with a cetane number of 45. The fuel was injected with a common-rail injector at high pressure (140 MPa). The results provide new information on the evolution of the two-stage ignition/premixed-burn phases of DI diesel sprays.
An experimental study was conducted to characterize the dynamics and spray behavior of a wide range of minisac and Valve-Covered-Orifice (VCO) nozzles using a high-pressure diesel common-rail system. The measurements show that the resultant injection-rate is strongly dependent on common-rail pressure, nozzle hole diameter, and nozzle type. For split injection the dwell between injections strongly affects the second injection in regards to the needle lift profile and the injected fuel amount. The minisac nozzle can be used to achieve shorter pilot injections at lower common-rail pressures than the VCO nozzle. Penetration photographs of spray development in a high pressure, optical spray chamber were obtained and analyzed for each test condition. Spray symmetry and spray structure were found to depend significantly on the nozzle type.
The Advanced Battery Readiness Ad Hoc Working Group, a government- industry forum sponsored by the United States Department of Energy, is charged with assessing environmental and safety issues associated with advanced batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles require sophisticated advanced battery storage systems. Frequently, toxic, reactive, and flammable substances are used in the energy storage systems. Often, the substances have safety, recycling, and shipping implications with respect to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Transportation regulations. To facilitate commercialization, reg-ulations must either be modified or newly developed. Government-industry coordination has expedited needed regulatory changes, and promoted other partnerships to achieve environmental and safety solutions.
The maximum extent of liquid-phase fuel penetration into in-cylinder gases is an important parameter in compression-ignition (CI) engine design. Penetration of the fuel is needed to promote fuel-air mixing, but over-penetration of the liquid phase and impingement on the bowl wall can lead to higher emissions. This maximum liquid-phase fuel penetration, or “liquid length,” is a function of fuel properties, in-cylinder conditions, and injection characteristics. The goal of this study was to measure and correlate the liquid lengths of fuels with wide physical property variations. The fuels were injected into a large range of in-cylinder temperature (700 to 1300 K) and density (3.6 to 59.0 kg/m3) conditions, at an injection pressure (140 MPa) that is characteristic of those provided by current high-pressure injection equipment.
This paper proposes a structure for the diesel combustion process based on a combination of previously published and new results. Processes are analyzed with proven chemical kinetic models and validated with data from production-like direct injection diesel engines. The analysis provides new insight into the ignition and particulate formation processes, which combined with laser diagnostics, delineates the two-stage nature of combustion in diesel engines. Data are presented to quantify events occurring during the ignition and initial combustion processes that form soot precursors. A framework is also proposed for understanding the heat release and emission formation processes.
A scaling law for the maximum penetration distance of liquid-phase fuel in a diesel spray (defined as the liquid length) was developed by applying jet theory to a simplified model of a spray. The scaling law accounts for injector, fuel, and in-cylinder thermodynamic conditions on liquid length, and provides significant insight into the fuel vaporization process. As developed, the scaling law is valid for single-component fuels, but can be used to model multi-component fuels through use of single-component surrogate fuels. Close agreement between the scaling law and measured liquid length data over a very wide range of conditions is demonstrated. The agreement suggests that vaporization in sprays from current-technology, direct-injection (DI) diesel injectors is limited by mixing processes in the spray. The mixing processes include entrainment of high-temperature air and the overall transport and mixing of fuel and air throughout the spray cross-section.
This paper describes a program to develop a miniaturized chemical laboratory (μChemLab™). This system includes multiple analysis channels each with microfabricated sample collectors/concentrators, gas chromatographic separators, and chemically selective detectors based on an array of coated surface acoustic wave devices. This development effort is currently focused on fabricating small (palm-top computer sized), lightweight, and autonomous systems that provide rapid (1 min), sensitive (1-10 ppb), and selective detection of chemical warfare agents. The small size and low power of the μChemLab™ technology make it potentially useful for monitoring of compounds such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, and formaldehyde in space environments.
A free piston, internal combustion (IC) engine, operating at high compression ratio (∼30:1) and low equivalence ratio (ϕ∼0.35), and utilizing homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion, has been proposed by Sandia National Laboratories as a means of significantly improving the IC engine's cycle thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. A zero-dimensional, thermodynamic model with detailed chemical kinetics, and empirical scavenging, heat transfer, and friction component models has been used to analyze the steady-state operating characteristics of this engine. The cycle simulations using hydrogen as the fuel, have indicated the critical factors affecting the engine's performance, and suggest the limits of improvement possible relative to conventional IC engine technologies.
Calorimetric measurements of the net heat input to the workpiece have been made to determine the effect of very high travel speeds on laser weld melting efficiency. Very high welding speeds are required in welding applications such as automotive where lasers are now applied extensively. Travel speeds as fast as 530 mm/s for continuous wave CO2 laser welding on 304 stainless steel have been examined in this study. Melting efficiency indicates what fraction of the laser power absorbed is used to produce melting rather than undesirable base metal heating. It was found that melting efficiency initially increased then slowly decreased as fusion zone dimensions changed. Dimensionless parameter correlations for melting efficiency based on heat flow theory have been presented for both 2D and 3D heat flow geometries. The levels of melting efficiency observed are close to the maximum values that are predicted with these correlations.
Line-imaging of Raman scattered light is used to simultaneously measure the mole fractions of CO2, H2O, N2, O2, and fuel (premixed C3H8) in a modern 4-valve spark-ignition engine operating at idle. The measurement volume consists of 16 adjacent sub-volumes, each 0.27 mm in diameter × 0.91 mm long, giving a total measurement length of 14.56 mm. Measurements are made 3 mm under the centrally-located spark plug, offset 3 mm from the spark plug center towards the exhaust valves. Data are taken in 15 crank angle degree increments starting from top center before the intake stroke (-360 CAD) through top center of the compression stroke (0 CAD).
A variety of diagnostic techniques useful for the study of cold start phenomena are presented. Although the tools are demonstrated in a port fuel-injected engine, they are also suitable for direct-injection gasoline engines. A very useful technique, seemingly forgotten in the literature (and applicable to diesel engines as well), is the use of a short focal-length lens inside a Bowditch piston to expand the field-of-view. Rather than being limited by the clear aperture of the window in the piston, this technique permits the entire combustion chamber and the top section of the cylinder liner to be seen. Results using this technique are presented for the imaging of pool fires and laser-induced fluorescence of fuel films.
The effects of fuel composition on soot processes in diesel fuel jets were studied in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel at experimental conditions typical of a DI diesel. Four fuel blends used in recent engine studies were investigated, including three oxygenates and one diesel reference fuel: (1) T70, a fuel blend containing the oxygenate tetraethoxy-propane; (2) BM88, a fuel blend containing the oxygenate dibutyl-maleate; (3) GE80, a fuel blend containing the oxygenate tri-propylene-glycol-methyl-ether and (4) CN80, a diesel reference fuel composed of an n-hexadecane and heptamethyl-nonane mixture. Measurements of the soot distribution along the axis of quasi-steady fuel jets were performed using laser extinction and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) and were compared to previous results using a #2 diesel fuel (D2).
To gain a better understanding of how the onset of incomplete bulk-gas reactions changes with engine speed and fuel-type, a parametric study of HCCI combustion and emissions has been conducted. The experimental part of the study was performed at naturally aspirated conditions and included fueling sweeps at four engine speeds (600, 1200, 1800 and 2400 rpm) for research grade gasoline, pure iso-octane and two mixtures of the primary reference fuels (i.e. n-heptane and iso-octane) with octane numbers of 80 and 60. Additionally, single-zone CHEMKIN computations with a detailed mechanism for iso-octane were conducted. The results show that there is a strong coupling between the ignition quality of the fuel and the required intake temperature to phase the combustion at TDC. There is also a direct influence of intake temperature on the completeness of combustion. This is the case because the CO-to-CO2 reactions are highly sensitive to the peak combustion temperatures.
Combustion phasing is one important issue that must be addressed for HCCI operation. The intake temperature can be adjusted to achieve ignition at the desired crank angle. However, heat-transfer during induction will make the effective intake temperature different from the temperature measured in the runner. Also, depending on the engine speed and port configuration, dynamic flow effects cause various degrees of charge heating. Additionally, residuals from the previous cycle can have significant influence on the charge temperature at the beginning of the compression stroke. Finally, direct injection of fuel will influence the charge temperature since heat is needed for vaporization. This study investigates these effects in a systematic manner with a combination of experiment and cycle simulation using WAVE from Ricardo.
Methods of producing non-sooting, low flame temperature diesel combustion were investigated in an optically-accessible, quiescent constant-volume combustion vessel. Combustion and soot formation processes of single, isolated fuel jets were studied after autoignition and transient premixed combustion and while the injector needle was fully open (i.e., during the quasi-steady mixing-controlled phase of heat-release for diesel combustion).The investigation showed that fuel jets that do not undergo soot formation in any region of the reacting jet and that also have a low flame temperature could be produced in at least three different ways during mixing-controlled combustion: First, using a #2 diesel fuel and an injector tip with a 50 micron orifice, a fuel jet was non-sooting in ambient oxygen concentrations as low as 10% (simulating the use of EGR) for typical diesel ambient temperatures (1000 K) and densities.
The relationship between combustion processes and engine-out soot was investigated in an optically accessible DI diesel engine using diethylene glycol diethyl ether (DGE) fuel, a viable diesel oxygenate. The high oxygen content of DGE enables operation without soot emissions at higher loads than with a hydrocarbon fuel. The high cetane number of DGE enables operation at charge-gas temperatures below those required for current diesel fuels, which may be advantageous for reducing NOx emissions. In-cylinder optical measurements of flame lift-off length and natural luminosity were obtained simultaneously with engine-out soot measurements while varying charge-gas density and temperature. The local mixture stoichiometry at the lift-off length was characterized by a parameter called the oxygen ratio that was estimated from the measured flame lift-off length using an entrainment correlation for non-reacting sprays.
An investigation has been conducted to determine the relative magnitude of the various factors that cause changes in combustion phasing (or required intake temperature) with changes in fueling rate in HCCI engines. These factors include: fuel autoignition chemistry and thermodynamic properties (referred to as fuel chemistry), combustion duration, wall temperatures, residuals, and heat/cooling during induction. Based on the insight gained from these results, the potential of fuel stratification to control combustion phasing was also investigated. The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI engine at 1200 rpm using a GDI-type fuel injector. Engine operation was altered in a series of steps to suppress each of the factors affecting combustion phasing with changes in fueling rate, leaving only the effect of fuel chemistry.