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Technical Paper

Numerical and Optical Evolution of Gaseous Jets in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0675
This paper performs a parametric analysis of the influence of numerical grid resolution and turbulence model on jet penetration and mixture formation in a DI-H2 ICE. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located single-hole injector nozzle. The simulation includes the intake and exhaust port geometry, in order to account for the actual flow field within the cylinder when injection of hydrogen starts. A reduced geometry is then used to focus on the mixture formation process. The numerically predicted hydrogen mole-fraction fields are compared to experimental data from quantitative laser-based imaging in a corresponding optically accessible engine. In general, the results show that with proper mesh and turbulence settings, remarkable agreement between numerical and experimental data in terms of fuel jet evolution and mixture formation can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Assessment of RNG Turbulence Modeling and the Development of a Generalized RNG Closure Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-0829
RNG k-ε closure turbulence dissipation equations are evaluated employing the CFD code KIVA-3V Release 2. The numerical evaluations start by considering simple jet flows, including incompressible air jets and compressible helium jets. The results show that the RNG closure turbulence model predicts lower jet tip penetration than the "standard" k-ε model, as well as being lower than experimental data. The reason is found to be that the turbulence kinetic energy is dissipated too slowly in the downstream region near the jet nozzle exit. In this case, the over-predicted R term in RNG model becomes a sink of dissipation in the ε-equation. As a second step, the RNG turbulence closure dissipation models are further tested in complex engine flows to compare against the measured evolution of turbulence kinetic energy, and an estimate of its dissipation rate, during both the compression and expansion processes.
Journal Article

Study of Soot Formation and Oxidation in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN), Spray A: Effects of Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

2013-04-08
2013-01-0901
Within the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) spray combustion research frame, simultaneous line-of-sight laser extinction measurements and laser-induced incandescence (LII) imaging were performed to derive the soot volume fraction (fv). Experiments are conducted at engine-relevant high-temperature and high-pressure conditions in a constant-volume pre-combustion type vessel. The target condition, called "Spray A," uses well-defined ambient (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m₃, 15% oxygen) and injector conditions (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K). Extinction measurements are used to calibrate LII images for quantitative soot distribution measurements at cross sections intersecting the spray axis. LII images are taken after the start of injection where quasi-stationary combustion is already established.
Journal Article

In-Flame Soot Sampling and Particle Analysis in a Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0912
In-flame soot sampling based on the thermophoresis of particles and subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging has been conducted in a diesel engine to study size, shape and structure of soot particles within the reacting diesel jet. A direct TEM sampling is pursued, as opposed to exhaust sampling, to gain fundamental insight about the structure of soot during key formation and oxidation stages. The size and shape of soot particles aggregate structure with stretched chains of spherical-like primary particles is currently an unknown for engine soot modelling approaches. However, the in-flame sampling of soot particles in the engine poses significant challenges in order to extract meaningful data. In this paper, the engine modification to address the challenges of high-pressure sealing and avoiding interference with moving valves and piston are discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1105
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Journal Article

Effects of Real-Fluid Thermodynamics on High-Pressure Fuel Injection Processes

2014-04-01
2014-01-1429
This paper first summarizes a new theoretical description that quantifies the effects of real-fluid thermodynamics on liquid fuel injection processes as a function of pressure at typical engine operating conditions. It then focuses on the implications this has on modeling such flows with emphasis on application of the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique. The theory explains and quantifies the major differences that occur in the jet dynamics compared to that described by classical spray theory in a manner consistent with experimental observations. In particular, the classical view of spray atomization as an appropriate model at some engine operating conditions is questionable. Instead, non-ideal real-fluid behavior must be taken into account using a multicomponent formulation that applies to hydrocarbon mixtures at high-pressure supercritical conditions.
Journal Article

The Impact of Fuel Mass, Injection Pressure, Ambient Temperature, and Swirl Ratio on the Mixture Preparation of a Pilot Injection

2013-09-08
2013-24-0061
Fuel tracer-based planar laser-induced fluorescence is used to investigate the vaporization and mixing behavior of pilot injections for variations in pilot mass of 1-4 mg, and for two injection pressures, two near-TDC ambient temperatures, and two swirl ratios. The fluorescent tracer employed, 1-methylnaphthalene, permits a mixture of the diesel primary reference fuels, n-hexadecane and heptamethylnonane, to be used as the base fuel. With a near-TDC injection timing of −15°CA, pilot injection fuel is found to penetrate to the bowl rim wall for even the smallest injection quantity, where it rapidly forms fuel-lean mixture. With increased pilot mass, there is greater penetration and fuel-rich mixtures persist well beyond the expected pilot ignition delay period. Significant jet-to-jet variations in fuel distribution due to differences in the individual jet trajectories (included angle) are also observed.
Journal Article

Pilot Injection Ignition Properties Under Low-Temperature, Dilute In-Cylinder Conditions

2013-10-14
2013-01-2531
Measurements of ignition behavior, homogeneous reactor simulations employing detailed kinetics, and quantitative in-cylinder imaging of fuel-air distributions are used to delineate the impact of temperature, dilution, pilot injection mass, and injection pressure on the pilot ignition process. For dilute, low-temperature conditions characterized by a lengthy ignition delay, pilot ignition is impeded by the formation of excessively lean mixture. Under these conditions, smaller pilot mass or higher injection pressures further lengthen the pilot ignition delay. Similarly, excessively rich mixtures formed under relatively short ignition delay conditions typical of conventional diesel combustion will also prolong the ignition delay. In this latter case, smaller pilot mass or higher injection pressures will shorten the ignition delay. The minimum charge temperature required to effect a robust pilot ignition event is strongly dependent on charge O2 concentration.
Journal Article

High Resolution Scalar Dissipation and Turbulence Length Scale Measurements in an Internal Combustion Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0185
High resolution planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were performed in an optically accessible internal combustion (IC) engine to investigate the behavior of scalar dissipation and the fine-scale structures of the turbulent scalar field. The fluorescent tracer fluorobenzene was doped into one of the two intake streams and nitrogen was used as the carrier gas to permit high signal-to-noise ratio fluorescence measurements without oxygen quenching effects. The resulting two-dimensional images allowed for an analysis of the structural detail of the scalar and scalar dissipation fields defined by the mixing of the two adjacent intake streams. High levels of scalar dissipation were found to be located within convoluted, sheet-like structures in accordance with previous studies. The fluorescence data, which were acquired during the intake stroke, were also used to examine the scalar energy and dissipation spectra.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Isopentanol as a Fuel for HCCI Engines

2010-10-25
2010-01-2164
Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over the currently used ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. The rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C 4 -C 5 alcohols cost effectively. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially substitute ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C 5 alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for HCCI engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. Results are presented in comparison with gasoline or ethanol data previously reported. For a given combustion phasing, isopentanol requires lower intake temperatures than gasoline or ethanol at all tested speeds, indicating a higher HCCI reactivity.
Journal Article

An Investigation into the Effects of Fuel Properties and Engine Load on UHC and CO Emissions from a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine Operating in a Partially Premixed Combustion Regime

2010-05-05
2010-01-1470
The behavior of the engine-out UHC and CO emissions from a light-duty diesel optical engine operating at two PPCI conditions was investigated for fifteen different fuels, including diesel fuels, biofuel blends, n-heptane-iso-octane mixtures, and n-cetane-HMN mixtures. The two highly dilute (9-10% O₂) early direct injection PPCI conditions included a low speed (1500 RPM) and load (3.0 bar IMEP) case~where the UHC and CO have been found to stem from overly-lean fuel-air mixtures~and a condition with a relatively higher speed (2000 RPM) and load (6.0 bar IMEP)~where globally richer mixtures may lead to different sources of UHC and CO. The main objectives of this work were to explore the general behavior of the UHC and CO emissions from early-injection PPCI combustion and to gain an understanding of how fuel properties and engine load affect the engine-out emissions.
Journal Article

Optical Investigation of UHC and CO Sources from Biodiesel Blends in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operating in a Partially Premixed Combustion Regime

2010-04-12
2010-01-0862
The influence of soy- and palm-based biofuels on the in-cylinder sources of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated in an optically accessible research engine operating in a partially premixed, low-temperature combustion regime. The biofuels were blended with an emissions certification grade diesel fuel and the soy-based biofuel was also tested neat. Cylinder pressure and emissions of UHC, CO, soot, and NOx were obtained to characterize global fuel effects on combustion and emissions. Planar laser-induced fluorescence was used to capture the spatial distribution of fuel and partial oxidation products within the clearance and bowl volumes of the combustion chamber. In addition, late-cycle (30° and 50° aTDC) semi-quantitative CO distributions were measured above the piston within the clearance volume using a deep-UV LIF technique.
Technical Paper

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles sampled directly from a Biodiesel Spray Flame

2011-08-30
2011-01-2046
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in a biodiesel spray flame, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in a spray flame fuelled with soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at different axial locations in the spray flame, 40, 50 and 70 mm from injector nozzle, which correspond to soot formation, peak, and oxidation zones, respectively. The biodiesel spray flame was generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and temperature condition (6.7 MPa, 1000K). Density, diameter of primary particles and radius of gyration of soot aggregates reached a peak at 50 mm from the injector nozzle and was lower or smaller in the formation or oxidation zones of the spray.
Journal Article

Influence of the Flow Field on Flame Propagation in a Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0098
Flame propagation in an optically accessible hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine was visualized by high-speed schlieren imaging. Two intake configurations were evaluated: low tumble with a tumble ratio of 0.22, corresponding to unmodified intake ports, and high tumble with a tumble ratio of 0.70, resulting from intake modification. For each intake configuration, fueling was either far upstream of the engine, with presumably no influence on the intake flow, or the fuel was injected directly early during the compression stroke from an angled single-hole injector, adding significant angular momentum to the in-cylinder flow. Crank-angle resolved schlieren imaging during combustion allowed deducing apparent flame location and propagation speed, which were then correlated with in-cylinder pressure measurements on a single-cycle basis. In a typical cycle, flame shape and convective displacement are strongly affected by the in-cylinder flow.
Journal Article

Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock and with Ultra-Low NOx Emissions - using Conventional Gasoline

2010-04-12
2010-01-1086
The potential of boosted HCCI for achieving high loads has been investigated for intake pressures (Piⁿ) from 100 kPa (naturally aspirated) to 325 kPa absolute. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liters) equipped with a compression-ratio 14 piston at 1200 rpm. The intake charge was fully premixed well upstream of the intake, and the fuel was a research-grade (R+M)/2 = 87-octane gasoline with a composition typical of commercial gasolines. Beginning with Piⁿ = 100 kPa, the intake pressure was systematically increased in steps of 20 - 40 kPa, and for each Piⁿ, the fueling was incrementally increased up to the knock/stability limit, beyond which slight changes in combustion conditions can lead to strong knocking or misfire. A combination of reduced intake temperature and cooled EGR was used to compensate for the pressure-induced enhancement of autoignition and to provide sufficient combustion-phasing retard to control knock.
Journal Article

Detailed Modeling and Simulation of High-Pressure Fuel Injection Processes in Diesel Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1258
This paper provides an analysis of high-pressure phenomena and its potential effects on the fundamental physics of fuel injection in Diesel engines. In particular, we focus on conditions when cylinder pressures exceed the thermodynamic critical pressure of the injected fuel and describe the major differences that occur in the jet dynamics compared to that described by classical spray theory. To facilitate the analysis, we present a detailed model framework based on the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique that is designed to account for key high-pressure phenomena. This framework is then used to perform a thermodynamic analysis of the flow. We focus on the experiments being conducted in the high-pressure combustion vessel at Sandia National Laboratories using n-heptane as a reference fuel. The calculations are performed by rigorously treating the experimental geometry and operating conditions, with detailed treatment of relevant thermophysical mixture properties.
Journal Article

Diesel Spray Ignition Detection and Spatial/Temporal Correction

2012-04-16
2012-01-1239
Methods for detection of the spatial position and timing of diesel ignition with improved accuracy are demonstrated in an optically accessible constant-volume chamber at engine-like pressure and temperature conditions. High-speed pressure measurement using multiple transducers, followed by triangulation correction for the speed of the pressure wave, permits identification of the autoignition spatial location and timing. Simultaneously, high-speed Schlieren and broadband chemiluminescence imaging provides validation of the pressure-based triangulation technique. The combined optical imaging and corrected pressure measurement techniques offer improved understanding of diesel ignition phenomenon. Schlieren imaging shows the onset of low-temperature (first-stage) heat release prior to high-temperature (second-stage) ignition. High-temperature ignition is marked by more rapid pressure rise and broadband chemiluminescence.
Journal Article

Effects of Injection Pressure, Injection-Rate Shape, and Heat Release on Liquid Length

2012-04-16
2012-01-0463
The in-cylinder extent of liquid-phase fuel penetration (i.e., the liquid length) is an important parameter in combustion-chamber design because liquid lengths that are too long can lead to wall impingement and corresponding degradation of engine efficiency, emissions, and durability. Previous liquid-length measurements in constant-volume combustion chambers have shown that the liquid length is nominally independent of injection pressure, but these measurements have employed common-rail fuel systems where injection rate is approximately constant during the entire injection event, and they have been conducted under quasi-steady ambient thermodynamic conditions. The objective of the current work is to better understand the effects of injection-rate shape and injection pressure on the liquid length, including possible effects of unsteady ambient conditions in an engine.
Journal Article

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles Directly Sampled in Diesel Spray Flame - A Comparison between US#2 and Biodiesel Soot

2012-04-16
2012-01-0695
For a better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in conventional diesel and biodiesel spray flames, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in spray flames fuelled with US#2 diesel and soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at 50mm from the injector nozzle, which corresponds to the peak soot location in the spray flames. The spray flames were generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and high temperature condition (6.7MPa, 1000K). Direct sampling permits a more direct assessment of soot as it is formed and oxidized in the flame, as opposed to exhaust PM measurements. Density of sampled soot particles, diameter of primary particles, size (gyration radius) and compactness (fractal dimension) of soot aggregates were analyzed and compared. No analysis of the soot micro-structure was made.
Technical Paper

Validation of the Generalized RNG Turbulence Model and Its Application to Flow in a HSDI Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0140
A generalized re-normalization group (RNG) turbulence model based on the local "dimensionality" of the flow field is proposed. In this modeling approach the model coefficients C₁, C₂, and C₃ are all constructed as functions of flow strain rate. In order to further validate the proposed turbulence model, the generalized RNG closure model was applied to model the backward facing step flow (a classic test case for turbulence models). The results indicated that the modeling of C₂ in the generalized RNG closure model is reasonable, and furthermore, the predictions of the generalized RNG model were in better agreement with experimental data than the standard RNG turbulence model. As a second step, the performance of the generalized RNG closure was investigated for a complex engine flow.
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