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Technical Paper

Effect of Operating Conditions and Fuel Type on Crevice HC Emissions: Model Results and Comparison with Experiments

A one-dimensional model for crevice HC post-flame oxidation is used to calculate and understand the effect of operating parameters and fuel type (propane and isooctane) on the extent of crevice hydrocarbon and the product distribution in the post flame environment. The calculations show that the main parameters controlling oxidation are: bulk burned gas temperatures, wall temperatures, turbulent diffusivity, and fuel oxidation rates. Calculated extents of oxidation agree well with experimental values, and the sensitivities to operating conditions (wall temperatures, equivalence ratio, fuel type) are reasonably well captured. Whereas the bulk gas temperatures largely determine the extent of oxidation, the hydrocarbon product distribution is not very much affected by the burned gas temperatures, but mostly by diffusion rates. Uncertainties in both turbulent diffusion rates as well as in mechanisms are an important factor limiting the predictive capabilities of the model.
Technical Paper

Selective Galvanizing Using Kinetic Spraying

General corrosion protection of sheet materials such as steel used in automobile construction has reached a high level of performance, due primarily to the incorporation of mill-applied treatments such as electrogalvanizing, galvannealing and other coil-coating processes developed over the last half century. While such treatments have greatly extended the corrosion resistance of steel and its various body constructs, attention is now focused on aspects of the manufacturing process wherein these intended protections are compromised by such features as weldments, joins, cut edges and extreme metal deformations such as hems. A novel metal deposition process, based on high-velocity impact fusion of solid metal particles, has been used to extend the corrosion resistance of base steel and pre-galvanized sheet, by selectively placing highly controlled depositions of zinc and other sacrificial materials in close proximity to critical manufacturing details.
Journal Article

Analysis of Thermal and Chemical Effects on Negative Valve Overlap Period Energy Recovery for Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion

A central challenge for efficient auto-ignition controlled low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines has been achieving the combustion phasing needed to reach stable performance over a wide operating regime. The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy has been explored as a way to improve combustion stability through a combination of charge heating and altered reactivity via a recompression stroke with a pilot fuel injection. The study objective was to analyze the thermal and chemical effects on NVO-period energy recovery. The analysis leveraged experimental gas sampling results obtained from a single-cylinder LTGC engine along with cylinder pressure measurements and custom data reduction methods used to estimate period thermodynamic properties. The engine was fueled by either iso-octane or ethanol, and operated under sweeps of NVO-period oxygen concentration, injection timing, and fueling rate.
Journal Article

Study of Soot Formation and Oxidation in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN), Spray A: Effects of Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

Within the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) spray combustion research frame, simultaneous line-of-sight laser extinction measurements and laser-induced incandescence (LII) imaging were performed to derive the soot volume fraction (fv). Experiments are conducted at engine-relevant high-temperature and high-pressure conditions in a constant-volume pre-combustion type vessel. The target condition, called "Spray A," uses well-defined ambient (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m₃, 15% oxygen) and injector conditions (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K). Extinction measurements are used to calibrate LII images for quantitative soot distribution measurements at cross sections intersecting the spray axis. LII images are taken after the start of injection where quasi-stationary combustion is already established.
Journal Article

Mechanisms of Enhanced Reactivity with Ozone Addition for Advanced Compression Ignition

Mechanisms responsible for enhanced charge reactivity with intake added ozone (O3) were explored in a single-cylinder, optically accessible, research engine configured for low-load advanced compression ignition (ACI) experiments. The influence of O3 concentration (0-40 ppm) on engine performance metrics was evaluated as a function of intake temperature and start of injection for the engine fueled by iso-octane, 1-hexene, or a 5-component gasoline surrogate. For the engine fueled by either the gasoline surrogate or 1-hexene, 25 ppm of added O3 reduced the intake temperature required for stable combustion by 65 and 80°C, respectively. An ultraviolet (UV) light absorption diagnostic was also used to measure crank angle (CA) resolved in-cylinder O3 concentrations for select motored and fired operating conditions. The O3 measurements were compared to results from complementary 0D chemical kinetic simulations that utilized detailed chemistry mechanisms augmented with O3 oxidation chemistry.