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Boosted HCCI Combustion Using Low-Octane Gasoline with Fully Premixed and Partially Stratified Charges

High-load HCCI combustion has recently been demonstrated with conventional gasoline using intake pressure boosting. The key is to control the high combustion heat release rates (HRR) by using combustion timing retard and mixture stratification. However, at naturally aspirated and moderately boosted conditions, these techniques did not work well due to the low autoignition reactivity of conventional gasoline at these conditions. This work studies a low-octane distillate fuel with similar volatility to gasoline, termed Hydrobate, for its potential in HCCI engine combustion at naturally aspirated and low-range boosted conditions. The HCCI combustion with fully premixed and partially stratified charges was examined at intake pressures (Pin) from 100 to 180 kPa and constant intake temperature (60�C) and engine speed (1200 rpm).
Technical Paper

Piston Wetting in an Optical DISI Engine: Fuel Films, Pool Fires, and Soot Generation

Piston-wetting effects are investigated in an optical direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. Fuel spray impingement on the piston leads to the formation of fuel films, which are visualized with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging technique. Oxygen quenching is found to reduce the fluorescence yield from liquid gasoline. Fuel films that exist during combustion of the premixed charge ignite to create piston-top pool fires. These fires are characterized using direct flame imaging. Soot produced by the pool fires is imaged using laser elastic scattering and is found to persist throughout the exhaust stroke, implying that piston-top pool fires are a likely source of engine-out particulate emissions for DISI engines.
Technical Paper

Flame Lift-Off on Direct-Injection Diesel Sprays Under Quiescent Conditions

Ambient gas temperature and density, injection pressure, and orifice diameter effects on the flame lift-off length on a direct-injection (DI) diesel spray under quiescent conditions were experimentally investigated. The impacts of the observed lift-off length variations on air entrainment upstream of the lift-off location, soot formation, and the relationship between fuel vaporization and combustion were also examined. The research was conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel using a common-rail fuel injector and a Phillips research grade #2 diesel fuel. The lift-off length measurements show that lift-off length decreases with increasing ambient gas temperature or density, and increases with increasing injection pressure or orifice diameter. The sensitivity of lift-off length to a change in either temperature or density was non-linear, with the sensitivity to either parameter decreasing as it increased.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Fueled Engines in Hybrid Vehicles

This paper describes the motivation for developing hydrogen-fueled engines for use in hybrid electric vehicles of the future. The ultimate motivation for using hydrogen as an energy carrier is carbon management. However, air quality concerns also provide motivation for developing hydrogen-fueled vehicles. For this reason, we discuss the position of the hydrogen-powered hybrid vehicle within the California Air Resources Board requirement for Zero Emission Vehicles. We describe the expected performance of an electrical generation system powered by a four-stroke, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine for a hydrogen-powered hybrid vehicle. The data show that the engine-out emissions of NOx will allow the vehicle to operate below the Super Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standard set by the California Air Resources Board. The engine can run on either hydrogen or blends of hydrogen and natural gas. The engine can be optimized for maximum efficiency with low emissions.
Technical Paper

Extinction Measurements of In-Cylinder Soot Deposition in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

The combustion process in diesel engines deposits soot on the in-cylinder surfaces. Previous works have suggested that these soot deposits eventually break off during cylinder blow-down and the exhaust stroke and contribute significantly to exhaust soot emissions. In order to better understand this potential pathway to soot emissions, the authors recently investigated combusting fuel-jet/wall interactions in a diesel engine. This work, published as a companion paper, showed how soot escaped from the combusting fuel jet and was brought in close proximity to the wall so that it could become a deposit. The current study extends this earlier work with laser-extinction measurements of the soot-deposition rate in the same single-cylinder, heavy-duty DI diesel engine. Measurements were made by passing the beam of a CW-diode laser through a window in the piston bowl rim that was in-line with one of the fuel jets.
Technical Paper

Diffusion-Flame / Wall Interactions in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

Over the past decade, laser diagnostics have improved our understanding of many aspects of diesel combustion. However, interactions between the combusting fuel jet and the piston-bowl wall are not well understood. In heavy-duty diesel engines, with typical fuels, these interactions occur with the combusting vapor-phase region of the jet, which consists of a central region containing soot and other products of rich-premixed combustion, surrounded by a diffusion flame. Since previous work has shown that the OH radical is a good marker of the diffusion flame, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of OH was applied to an investigation of the diffusion flame during wall interaction. In addition, simultaneous OH PLIF and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) soot imaging was applied to investigate the likelihood for soot deposition on the bowl wall.
Technical Paper

Update on Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

The objectives of this paper are to describe the research efforts in diesel engine combustion at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to provide recent experimental results. We have four diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative fuels, and a homogeneous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) engine. Recent experimental results of diesel combustion research will be discussed and a description will be given of our HCCI experimental program and of our HCCI modeling work.
Technical Paper

Glow Plug Assisted Ignition and Combustion of Methanol in an Optical DI Diesel Engine

An experimental study of the glow-plug-assisted ignition and combustion of pure methanol (M100) was conducted using a modern-technology, 4-stroke, heavy-duty DI diesel engine that has been modified to provide extensive optical access into the combustion chamber. For comparison purposes, results also are presented for a two-component paraffinic diesel reference fuel with a cetane number of 45 (CN45). A 1200-rpm, moderate-load operating condition was studied. Images of direct luminosity from the combustion chamber are used along with thermodynamic analyses of cylinder pressure data to identify differences between the ignition and combustion characteristics of the two fuels. The M100 data show significant departures from the traditional diesel combustion features exhibited by CN45. Whereas CN45 readily autoignites at the conditions studied, M100 does not. The glow-plug-assisted ignition of M100 was found to be strongly dependent on glow plug (GP) temperature and proximity to a fuel jet.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

Experimental data is used in conjunction with multi-dimensional modeling in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code to characterize the emissions behavior of a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine. Injection pressure and EGR are varied across a range of typical small-bore diesel operating conditions and the resulting soot-NOx tradeoff is analyzed. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and modeling trends; the HSDI engine shows increasing soot and decreasing NOx with higher EGR and lower injection pressure. The model also indicates that most of the NOx is formed in the region where the bulk of the initial heat release first takes place, both for zero and high EGR cases. The mechanism of NOx reduction with high EGR is shown to be primarily through a decrease in thermal NOx formation rate.
Technical Paper

Spatial Non-Uniformities in Diesel Particulate Trap Regeneration

Diesel particulate trap regeneration is a complex process involving the interaction of phenomena at several scales. A hierarchy of models for the relevant physicochemical processes at the different scales of the problem (porous wall, filter channel, entire trap) is employed to obtain a rigorous description of the process in a multidimensional context. The final model structure is validated against experiments, resulting in a powerful tool for the computer-aided study of the regeneration behavior. In the present work we employ this tool to address the effect of various spatial non-uniformities on the regeneration characteristics of diesel particulate traps. Non-uniformities may include radial variations of flow, temperature and particulate concentration at the filter inlet, as well as variations of particulate loading. In addition, we study the influence of the distribution of catalytic activity along the filter wall.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Model and Development of a Simulator for Predicting the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

As demand for wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) increases, accurate predictions of DPF behavior, and in particular their pressure drop, under a wide range of operating conditions bears significant engineering applications. In this work, validation of a model and development of a simulator for predicting the pressure drop of clean and particulate-loaded DPFs are presented. The model, based on a previously developed theory, has been validated extensively in this work. The validation range includes utilizing a large matrix of wall-flow filters varying in their size, cell density and wall thickness, each positioned downstream of light or heavy duty Diesel engines; it also covers a wide range of engine operating conditions such as engine load, flow rate, flow temperature and filter soot loading conditions. The validated model was then incorporated into a DPF pressure drop simulator.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effect of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on the Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

The effects of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions were studied in this research. EGR is used to reduce the NOx emissions but at the same time it can increase total particulate matter (TPM) emissions. CPF is technology available for retrofitting existing vehicles in the field to reduce the TPM emissions. A conventional low sulfur fuel (371 ppm S) was used in all the engine runs. Steady-state loading and regeneration experiments were performed with CPF I to determine its performance with respect to pressure drop and particulate mass characteristics at different engine operating conditions. From the dilution tunnel emission characterization results for CPF II, at Mode 11 condition (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm), the TPM, HC and vapor phase emissions (XOC) were decreased by 70%, 62% and 62% respectively downstream of the CPF II.
Technical Paper

Inertial Contributions to the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

Wall-flow Diesel particulate filters operating at low filtration velocities usually exhibit a linear dependence between the filter pressure drop and the flow rate, conveniently described by a generalized Darcy's law. It is advantageous to minimize filter pressure drop by sizing filters to operate within this linear range. However in practice, since there often exist serious constraints on the available vehicle underfloor space, a vehicle manufacturer is forced to choose an “undersized” filter resulting in high filtration velocities through the filter walls. Since secondary inertial contributions to the pressure drop become significant, Darcy's law can no longer accurately describe the filter pressure drop. In this paper, a systematic investigation of these secondary inertial flow effects is presented.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

LIF and Flame-Emission Imaging of Liquid Fuel Films and Pool Fires in an SI Engine During a Simulated Cold Start

Video imaging has been used to investigate the evolution of liquid fuel films on combustion chamber walls during a simulated cold start of a port fuel-injected engine. The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder research engine with a production, four-valve head and a window in the piston crown. Flood-illuminated laser-induced fluorescence was used to observe the fuel films directly, and color video recording of visible emission from pool fires due to burning fuel films was used as an indirect measure of film location. The imaging techniques were applied to a comparative study of open and closed valve injection, for coolant temperatures of 20, 40 and 60 °C. In general, for all cases it is shown that fuel films form in the vicinity of the intake valve seats.
Technical Paper

A Proposed LCA Model of Environmental Effects With Markovian Decision Making

As the pool of existing non-renewable natural resources continues to shrink, it will be necessary for government and industrial leaders to achieve a workable strategy for the intelligent allocation of scarce resources. In this paper, a method of quantifying the environmental and resource impacts of product redesign is proposed. This new method utilizes Input Output Analysis coupled with the Markovian decision making into a single matrix-based tool. The benefit of a fully developed tool would be the ability to make informed pre-production decisions leading to optimum product and process designs with minimal environmental impact. This paper illustrates this technique with an example based upon real industry data and extrapolated effects.
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation of the Turbocharged Diesel Engine as an Enhancement of the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

A computer simulation of the turbocharged direct- injection diesel engine was developed to enhance the capabilities of the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) developed at Michigan Technological University. The engine model was extensively validated against Detroit Diesel Corporation's (DDC) Series 60 engine data. In addition to the new engine model a charge-air-cooler model was developed and incorporated into the VECSS. A Freightliner truck with a Detroit Diesel's Series 60 engine, Behr McCord radiator, AlliedSignal/Garrett Automotive charge air cooler, Kysor DST variable speed fan clutch and other cooling system components was used for the study. The data were collected using the Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC)-Electronic Control Module (ECM) and Hewlett Packard data acquisition system. The enhanced model's results were compared to the steady state TTD (top tank differential) data.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Imaging of Autoignition in a DI Diesel Engine

Chemiluminescence imaging has been applied to a parametric investigation of diesel autoignition. Time-resolved images of the natural light emission were made in an optically accessible DI diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class using an intensified CCD video camera. Measurements were obtained at a base operating condition, corresponding to a motored TDC temperature and density of 992 K and 16.6 kg/m3, and for TDC temperatures and densities above and below these values. Data were taken with a 42.5 cetane number blend of the diesel reference fuels for all conditions, and measurements were also made with no. 2 diesel fuel (D2) at the base condition. For each condition, temporal sequences of images were acquired from the time of first detectable chemiluminescence up through fully sooting combustion, and the images were analyzed to obtain quantitative measurements of the average emission intensity.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

The effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel emissions were studied at two EPA steady-state operating conditions, old EPA mode 9* (1800 RPM, 75% Load) and old EPA mode 11 (1800 RPM, 25% Load). Data were collected at the baseline, 10% and 16% EGR rates for both EPA modes. The study was conducted using a 1995 Cummins M11-330E heavy-duty diesel engine and compared to the baseline emissions from the Cummins 1988 and 1991 L10 engines. The baseline gas-, vapor- and particle-phase emissions were measured together with the particle size distributions at all modes of operation. The total particulate matter (TPM) and vapor phase (XOC) samples were analyzed for physical, chemical and biological properties. The results showed that newer engines with electronic engine controls and higher injector pressures produce TPM decreases from the 1988 to 1991 to 1995 engines with the solids decreasing more than the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of TPM.