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Technical Paper

Investigation of Premixed and Diffusion Flames in PPC and CI Combustion Modes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0899
The experimental in-cylinder combustion process was compared with the numerical simualtion for naphtha fuel under conventional compression ignition (CI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) conditions. The start of injection timing (SOI) with the single injection strategy was changed from late of −10 CAD aTDC to early of −40 CAD aTDC. The three-dimensional full cycle engine combustion simulation was performed coupling with gas phase chemical kinetics by the CFD code CONVERGE™. The flame index was used for evaluating the combustion evolution of premixed flame and diffusion flame. The results show that the flame index could be used as an indicator for in-cylinder homogeneity evaluation. Hydroperoxyl shows a similar distribution with the premixed combustion. Formaldehyde could be used as an indicator for low temperature combustion.
Technical Paper

Low Load Limit Extension for Gasoline Compression Ignition Using Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0896
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) is widely studied for the benefits of simultaneous reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOX) and soot emissions without compromising the engine efficiency. Despite this advantage, the operational range for GCI is not widely expanded, as the auto-ignition of fuel at low load condition is difficult. The present study aims to extend the low load operational limit for GCI using negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy. The engine used for the current experimentation is a single cylinder diesel engine that runs at an idle speed of 800 rpm with a compression ratio of 17.3. The engine is operated at homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) combustion modes with the corresponding start of injection (SOI) at −180 CAD (aTDC) and −30 CAD (aTDC), respectively.
Technical Paper

Standardized Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuels Matrix

2018-04-03
2018-01-0925
Direct injection compression ignition engines running on gasoline-like fuels have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition and diesel engines. The compression and lean combustion mode eliminates throttle losses yielding higher thermodynamic efficiencies and the better mixing of fuel/air due to the longer ignition delay times of the gasoline-like fuels allows better emission performance such as nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These gasoline-like fuels which usually have lower octane compared to market gasoline have been identified as a viable option for the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine applications due to its lower reactivity and lighter evaporation compared to diesel. The properties, specifications and sources of these GCI fuels are not fully understood yet because this technology is relatively new.
Technical Paper

Using Engine Experiments to Isolate Fuel Equivalence Ratio Effects on Heat Release in HCCI Combustion

2010-10-25
2010-01-2189
Detailed combustion studies have historically been conducted in simplified reacting systems, such as shock-tubes and rapid compression machines. The reciprocating internal combustion engine presents many challenges when used to isolate the effects of fuel chemistry from thermodynamics. On the other hand, the conditions in such engines are the most representative in terms of pressure and temperature histories. This paper describes the use of a single-cylinder research engine as an advanced reactor to better determine fuel effects experimentally. In particular, a single-cylinder engine was operated in a manner that allowed the effects of changes in charge composition and temperatures to be isolated from changes in equivalence ratio. An example study is presented where the relative effects of low-temperature and high-temperature chemistry, and their effects on combustion phasing, are isolated and examined.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Effect of Fuel Equivalence Ratio in an HCCI Combustion Engine Using PRF 60

2010-05-05
2010-01-1486
The effect of fuel equivalence ratio on the autoignition and combustion processes in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been studied using a primary reference fuel (PRF60). Experiments have been performed on a single-cylinder engine operated in an alternate-fire mode. The operating conditions of the engine used in this work were an intake air pressure and temperature of 1.5 bar and 75°C respectively, an engine speed of 1200 rpm, compression ratio of 12:1, with varying fuel equivalence ratio (φ). A single zone CHEMKIN model using reduced chemical kinetic model of 560 species and 2818 reactions based on a 5 components gasoline surrogate from Reaction Design's Model Fuels Consortium was used to predict the HCCI engine combustion behavior for different fuel equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Enabling High Efficiency Direct Injection Engine with Naphtha Fuel through Partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion

2012-04-16
2012-01-0677
More stringent emissions standards along with higher fuel economy demands have obliged auto makers to develop technical solutions that exploit synergistic features from gasoline and diesel engines. To minimize NOx and soot trade-off, diesel powertrain has been developed to adopt increasingly complex and expensive technology such as extremely high pressure fuel injection systems, low pressure EGR, and variable valve timing. These attempts are associated with promoting Partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PPC-CI) combustion via increasing mixing time and ignition delay. Alternatively, PPC-CI combustion can be achieved easier by using fuels with higher resistance to auto-ignition than conventional diesel fuel. Previous work has demonstrated the possibility of reducing the cost of future diesel after-treatment systems by using gasoline-like fuels.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a PPCI Engine Fuelled with Dieseline

2012-04-16
2012-01-1138
In this paper blends of diesel and gasoline (dieseline) fuelled Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) combustion and the comparison to conventional diesel combustion is investigated. The tests are carried out using a light duty four cylinder Euro IV diesel engine. The engine condition is maintained at 1800 rpm, 52 Nm (equivalent IMEP around 4.3 bar). Different injection timings and different amounts of EGR are used to achieve the PPCI combustion. The results show that compared to the conventional diesel combustion, the smoke and NOx emissions can be reduced by more than 95% simultaneously with dieseline fuelled PPCI combustion. The particle number total concentration can be reduced by 90% as well as the mean diameter (from 54 nm for conventional diesel to 16 nm for G50 fuelled PPCI). The penalty is a slightly increased noise level and lower indicated efficiency, which is decreased from 40% to 38.5%.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of a Kinetics-Based HCCI Model Using Engine Data

2011-08-30
2011-01-1783
A multi-objective optimization scheme based on stochastic global search is developed and used to examine the performance of an HCCI model containing a reduced chemical kinetic mechanism, and to study interrelations among different model responses. A stochastic reactor model of an HCCI engine is used in this study, and dedicated HCCI engine experiments are performed to provide reference for the optimization. The results revealed conflicting trends among objectives normally used in mechanism optimization, such as ignition delay and engine cylinder pressure history, indicating that a single best combination of optimization variables for these objectives did not exist. This implies that optimizing chemical mechanisms to maintain universal predictivity across such conflicting responses will only yield a predictivity tradeoff. It also implies that careful selection of optimization objectives increases the likelihood of better predictivity for these objectives.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Effects on HCCI Operating Range: Experiments with Primary Reference Fuels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1673
Results from a large set of HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine fueled with different mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane are presented and discussed in this paper. The experiments are designed to scrutinize fuel reactivity effects on the operating range of an HCCI engine. The fuel effects on upper and lower operating limits are measured respectively by the maximum pressure rise rate inside the cylinder and the stability of engine operation as determined by cycle-to-cycle variations in IMEP. Another set of experiments that examine the intake air heating effects on HCCI engine performance, exhaust emissions and operating envelopes is also presented. The effects of fuel reactivity and intake air heating on the HCCI ranges are demonstrated by constructing the operating envelopes for the different test fuels and intake temperatures.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Potential of Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) Combustion with Naphtha Fuel

2013-10-14
2013-01-2701
Recent research [21] has shown that the compression ignition concept where very low cetane fuels (RON between 70 and 85) are run in compression ignition (CI) mode has several advantages. The engine will be at least as efficient and clean as the current diesel engines but will have a less complicated after-treatment system. The optimum fuel will be less processed and therefore simpler to make compared to current gasoline or diesel fuels. Naphtha, which is a product of the initial distillation of petroleum, is one such fuel. It provides a path to mitigate the global demand imbalance between heavier and lighter fuels that is otherwise projected. Since naphtha requires much less processing in the refinery than either gasoline or diesel [23], there is an additional benefit in terms of well-to-wheel CO2 emissions and overall energy consumed. Partially premixed charge compression ignition combustion with such a low cetane fuel has usually been investigated with a diesel engine base.
Technical Paper

Characterization of High Efficiency Octane-On-Demand Fuels Requirement in a Modern Spark Ignition Engine with Dual Injection System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1265
In a regulatory environment for spark ignition (SI) engines where the focus is continuously looking into improvements in fuel economy and reduction in noxious emissions, the challenges to achieve future requirements are utmost. To effectively reduce CO2 emissions on a well-to-wheel basis, future fuels enabling high efficiency SI engines will have to not only satisfy advanced engine requirements, i.e. high knock resistance, but also produce less CO2 emissions in the refinery. This paper describes how to characterize SI combustion's on-demand octane requirement with three different dual fuel configurations. Refinery naphtha was used for low octane component, and three oxygenates were used for high octane knock inhibiting component, such as, Methanol and Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Each low and high octane fuel was introduced via production gasoline direct injector (DI) and port fuel injector (PFI) in both configurations.
Technical Paper

Octane-on-Demand as an Enabler for Highly Efficient Spark Ignition Engines and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Improvement

2015-04-14
2015-01-1264
This paper explores the potential for reducing transport-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by introducing high-efficiency spark-ignition engines with a dual-fuel injection system to customize the octane of the fuels based on real-time engine requirements. It is assumed that a vehicle was equipped with two fuel tanks and two injection systems; one port fuel injection and one direct injection line separately. Each tank carried low octane and high octane fuel so that real-time octane blending was occurred in the combustion chamber when needed (Octane On-Demand: OOD). A refinery naphtha was selected for low octane fuel (RON=61), because of its similarity to gasoline properties but a less processed, easier to produce without changing a refinery configuration. Three oxygenates were used for high octane knock-resistant fuels in a direct injection line: methanol, MTBE, and ETBE.
Technical Paper

Improving the Efficiency of Conventional Spark-Ignition Engines Using Octane-on-Demand Combustion. Part I: Engine Studies

2016-04-05
2016-01-0679
This paper is the first of a two part study which investigates the use of advanced combustion modes as a means of improving the efficiency and environmental impact of conventional light-duty vehicles. This first study focuses on the application of so-called Octane-on-Demand combustion, whereby the fuel anti-knock quality is customized to match the real-time requirements of an otherwise conventional spark-ignition engine. Methanol is utilized as the high octane fuel, while three alternative petroleum-derived fuels with Research octane numbers (RONs) ranging from 61 to 90 are examined as candidates for the lower octane fuel. Experimental engine calibration maps are first developed to quantify the minimum amount of methanol that must be added to each lower octane fuel in order to reproduce the baseline engine performance attained on a market gasoline (RON 95). The properties of the lower octane fuel are shown to affect the engine performance significantly.
Technical Paper

Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) as Surrogates for Low Sensitivity Gasoline Fuels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0748
Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) - binary mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane based on Research Octane Number (RON) - are popular gasoline surrogates for modeling combustion in spark ignition engines. The use of these two component surrogates to represent real gasoline fuels for simulations of HCCI/PCCI engines needs further consideration, as the mode of combustion is very different in these engines (i.e. the combustion process is mainly controlled by the reactivity of the fuel). This study presents an experimental evaluation of PRF surrogates for four real gasoline fuels termed FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) A, C, I, and J in a motored CFR (Cooperative Fuels Research) engine. This approach enables the surrogate mixtures to be evaluated purely from a chemical kinetic perspective. The gasoline fuels considered in this study have very low sensitivities, S (RON-MON), and also exhibit two-stage ignition behavior.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Mixing on Low Octane Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion

2016-04-05
2016-01-0762
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. Low octane gasoline fuel has been identified as a viable option for the GCI engine applications due to its longer ignition delay characteristics compared to diesel and in the volatility range of gasoline fuels. In this study, we have investigated the effect of different injection timings at part-load conditions using light naphtha stream in single cylinder engine experiments in the GCI combustion mode with injection pressure of 130 bar. A toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) was used as a surrogate for the light naphtha in the engine simulations performed here. A physical surrogate based on the evaporation characteristics of the light naphtha has been developed and its properties have been implemented in the engine simulations.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Heating and Evaporation of FACE I Gasoline Fuel and its Surrogates

2016-04-05
2016-01-0878
The US Department of Energy has formulated different gasoline fuels called ''Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE)'' to standardize their compositions. FACE I is a low octane number gasoline fuel with research octane number (RON) of approximately 70. The detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA) of FACE I shows that it contains 33 components. This large number of components cannot be handled in fuel spray simulation where thousands of droplets are directly injected in combustion chamber. These droplets are to be heated, broken-up, collided and evaporated simultaneously. Heating and evaporation of single droplet FACE I fuel was investigated. The heating and evaporation model accounts for the effects of finite thermal conductivity, finite liquid diffusivity and recirculation inside the droplet, referred to as the effective thermal conductivity/effective diffusivity (ETC/ED) model.
Technical Paper

Partially Premixed Combustion of Gasoline Type Fuels Using Larger Size Nozzle and Higher Compression Ratio in a Diesel Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2539
If fuels that are more resistant to auto-ignition are injected near TDC in compression ignition engines, they ignite much later than diesel fuel and combustion occurs when the fuel and air have had more chance to mix. This helps to reduce NOX and smoke emissions at much lower injection pressures compared to a diesel fuel. However, PPCI (Partially Premixed Compression Ignition) operation also leads to higher CO and HC at low loads and higher heat release rates at high loads. These problems can be significantly alleviated by managing the mixing through injector design (e.g. nozzle size and centreline spray angle) and changing CR (Compression Ratio). This work describes results of running a single-cylinder diesel engine on fuel blends by using three different nozzle design (nozzle size: 0.13 mm and 0.17 mm, centreline spray angle: 153° and 120°) and two different CRs (15.9:1 and 18:1).
Technical Paper

Auto-Ignition of Iso-Stoichiometric Blends of Gasoline-Ethanol-Methanol (GEM) in SI, HCCI and CI Combustion Modes

2017-03-28
2017-01-0726
Gasoline-ethanol-methanol (GEM) blends, with constant stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio (iso-stoichiometric blending rule) and equivalent to binary gasoline-ethanol blends (E2, E5, E10 and E15 in % vol.), were defined to investigate the effect of methanol and combined mixtures of ethanol and methanol when blended with three FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) Gasolines, I, J and A corresponding to RON 70.2, 73.8 and 83.9, respectively, and their corresponding Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs). A Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was used under Spark Ignition and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited modes. An ignition quality tester was utilized in the Compression Ignition mode. One of the promising properties of GEM blends, which are derived using the iso-stoichiometric blending rule, is that they maintain a constant octane number, which has led to the introduction of methanol as a drop-in fuel to supplement bio-derived ethanol.
Technical Paper

Reduced Gasoline Surrogate (Toluene/n-Heptane/iso-Octane) Chemical Kinetic Model for Compression Ignition Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0191
Toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) (mixture of toluene, iso-octane and heptane) is a suitable surrogate to represent a wide spectrum of real fuels with varying octane sensitivity. Investigating different surrogates in engine simulations is a prerequisite to identify the best matching mixture. However, running 3D engine simulations using detailed models is currently impossible and reduction of detailed models is essential. This work presents an AramcoMech reduced kinetic model developed at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) for simulating complex TPRF surrogate blends. A semi-decoupling approach was used together with species and reaction lumping to obtain a reduced kinetic model. The model was widely validated against experimental data including shock tube ignition delay times and premixed laminar flame speeds. Finally, the model was utilized to simulate the combustion of a low reactivity gasoline fuel under partially premixed combustion conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of High Reactivity Gasoline Fuel Sprays under Vaporizing and Reactive Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0292
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines are becoming more popular alternative for conventional spark engines to harvest the advantage of high volatility. Recent experimental study demonstrated that high reactivity gasoline fuel can be operated in a conventional mixing controlled combustion mode producing lower soot emissions than that of diesel fuel under similar efficiency and NOx level [1]. Therefore, there is much interest in using gasoline-like fuels in compression ignition engines. In order to improve the fidelity of simulation-based GCI combustion system development, it is mandatory to enhance the prediction of spray combustion of gasoline-like fuels. The purpose of this study is to model the spray characteristics of high reactivity gasoline fuels and validate the models with experimental results obtained through an optically accessible constant volume vessel under vaporizing [2] and reactive conditions [3].
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