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Technical Paper

Enabling High Efficiency Direct Injection Engine with Naphtha Fuel through Partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion

2012-04-16
2012-01-0677
More stringent emissions standards along with higher fuel economy demands have obliged auto makers to develop technical solutions that exploit synergistic features from gasoline and diesel engines. To minimize NOx and soot trade-off, diesel powertrain has been developed to adopt increasingly complex and expensive technology such as extremely high pressure fuel injection systems, low pressure EGR, and variable valve timing. These attempts are associated with promoting Partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PPC-CI) combustion via increasing mixing time and ignition delay. Alternatively, PPC-CI combustion can be achieved easier by using fuels with higher resistance to auto-ignition than conventional diesel fuel. Previous work has demonstrated the possibility of reducing the cost of future diesel after-treatment systems by using gasoline-like fuels.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Potential of Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) Combustion with Naphtha Fuel

2013-10-14
2013-01-2701
Recent research [21] has shown that the compression ignition concept where very low cetane fuels (RON between 70 and 85) are run in compression ignition (CI) mode has several advantages. The engine will be at least as efficient and clean as the current diesel engines but will have a less complicated after-treatment system. The optimum fuel will be less processed and therefore simpler to make compared to current gasoline or diesel fuels. Naphtha, which is a product of the initial distillation of petroleum, is one such fuel. It provides a path to mitigate the global demand imbalance between heavier and lighter fuels that is otherwise projected. Since naphtha requires much less processing in the refinery than either gasoline or diesel [23], there is an additional benefit in terms of well-to-wheel CO2 emissions and overall energy consumed. Partially premixed charge compression ignition combustion with such a low cetane fuel has usually been investigated with a diesel engine base.
Technical Paper

Characterization of High Efficiency Octane-On-Demand Fuels Requirement in a Modern Spark Ignition Engine with Dual Injection System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1265
In a regulatory environment for spark ignition (SI) engines where the focus is continuously looking into improvements in fuel economy and reduction in noxious emissions, the challenges to achieve future requirements are utmost. To effectively reduce CO2 emissions on a well-to-wheel basis, future fuels enabling high efficiency SI engines will have to not only satisfy advanced engine requirements, i.e. high knock resistance, but also produce less CO2 emissions in the refinery. This paper describes how to characterize SI combustion's on-demand octane requirement with three different dual fuel configurations. Refinery naphtha was used for low octane component, and three oxygenates were used for high octane knock inhibiting component, such as, Methanol and Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Each low and high octane fuel was introduced via production gasoline direct injector (DI) and port fuel injector (PFI) in both configurations.
Technical Paper

Octane-on-Demand as an Enabler for Highly Efficient Spark Ignition Engines and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Improvement

2015-04-14
2015-01-1264
This paper explores the potential for reducing transport-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by introducing high-efficiency spark-ignition engines with a dual-fuel injection system to customize the octane of the fuels based on real-time engine requirements. It is assumed that a vehicle was equipped with two fuel tanks and two injection systems; one port fuel injection and one direct injection line separately. Each tank carried low octane and high octane fuel so that real-time octane blending was occurred in the combustion chamber when needed (Octane On-Demand: OOD). A refinery naphtha was selected for low octane fuel (RON=61), because of its similarity to gasoline properties but a less processed, easier to produce without changing a refinery configuration. Three oxygenates were used for high octane knock-resistant fuels in a direct injection line: methanol, MTBE, and ETBE.
Technical Paper

Improving the Efficiency of Conventional Spark-Ignition Engines Using Octane-on-Demand Combustion - Part II: Vehicle Studies and Life Cycle Assessment

2016-04-05
2016-01-0683
This paper is the second of a two part study which investigates the use of advanced combustion modes as a means of improving the efficiency and environmental impact of conventional light-duty vehicles. This second study focuses on drive cycle simulations and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for vehicles equipped with Octane-on-Demand combustion. Methanol is utilized as the high octane fuel, while three alternative petroleum-derived fuels with Research octane numbers (RONs) ranging from 61 to 90 are examined as candidates for the lower octane fuel. The experimental engine calibration maps developed in the previous study are first provided as inputs to a drive cycle simulation tool. This is used to quantify the total fuel consumption, octane requirement and tank-to-wheel CO2 emissions for a light-duty vehicle equipped with two alternative powertrain configurations. The properties of the lower octane fuel are shown to affect the vehicle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions significantly.
Technical Paper

Improving the Efficiency of Conventional Spark-Ignition Engines Using Octane-on-Demand Combustion. Part I: Engine Studies

2016-04-05
2016-01-0679
This paper is the first of a two part study which investigates the use of advanced combustion modes as a means of improving the efficiency and environmental impact of conventional light-duty vehicles. This first study focuses on the application of so-called Octane-on-Demand combustion, whereby the fuel anti-knock quality is customized to match the real-time requirements of an otherwise conventional spark-ignition engine. Methanol is utilized as the high octane fuel, while three alternative petroleum-derived fuels with Research octane numbers (RONs) ranging from 61 to 90 are examined as candidates for the lower octane fuel. Experimental engine calibration maps are first developed to quantify the minimum amount of methanol that must be added to each lower octane fuel in order to reproduce the baseline engine performance attained on a market gasoline (RON 95). The properties of the lower octane fuel are shown to affect the engine performance significantly.
Journal Article

Investigation into Light Duty Dieseline Fuelled Partially-Premixed Compression Ignition Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1411
Conventional diesel-fuelled Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) engines have been investigated by many researchers previously. However, the ease of ignition and difficulty of vaporization of diesel fuel make it imperfect for PPCI combustion. In this study, dieseline (blending of diesel and gasoline) was looked into as the Partially Premixed Compression Ignition fuel for its combination of two fuel properties, ignition-delay-increasing characteristics and higher volatility, which make it more suitable for PPCI combustion compared to neat diesel. A series of tests were carried out on a Euro IV light-duty common-rail diesel engine, and different engine modes, from low speed/load to middle speed/load were all tested, under which fuel blend ratios, EGR rates, injection timings and quantities were varied. The emissions, fuel consumption and combustion stability of this dieseline-fuelled PPCI combustion were all investigated.
Journal Article

Compression Ratio and Derived Cetane Number Effects on Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine Running with Naphtha Fuels

2014-04-01
2014-01-1301
In the context of stringent future emission standards as well as the need to reduce emissions of CO2 on a global scale, the cost of manufacturing engines is increasing. Naphtha has been shown to have beneficial properties for its use as a fuel in the transportation sector. Well to tank CO2 emissions from the production of Naphtha are lower than any other fuel produced in the refinery due to its lower processing requisites. Moreover, under current technology trends the demand for diesel is expected to increase leading to a possible surplus of light fuels in the future. Recent research has demonstrated that significant fuel consumption reduction is possible based on a direct injection gasoline engine system, when a low quality gasoline stream such as Naphtha is used in compression ignition mode. With this fuel, the engine will be at least as efficient and clean as current diesel engines but will be more cost effective (lower injection pressure, HC/CO after-treatment rather than NOx).
Journal Article

Fuel Effects on Knock in a Highly Boosted Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1634
Extensive tests have been carried out in a single-cylinder Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine using up to fifteen different fuels at inlet pressure of up to 3.4 bar abs. to study fuel effects as well as inlet pressure effects on knock. In addition fuel effects on particulate emissions at part-throttle were measured. Fuel anti-knock quality does not correlate with MON and is best described by the Octane Index, OI = RON-KS where S = RON -MON is the sensitivity of the fuel and K is a constant depending on the engine pressure/temperature regime. The RON of the fuels considered was in the range between 95 and 105 and the sensitivity between 8 and 13. K is negative at all the conditions tested, i.e., for a given RON, a higher sensitivity fuel has better anti-knock quality. K decreases with increasing intake pressure and more generally, decreases as Tcomp₁₅, the temperature of the unburned gas at a pressure of 15 bar decreases.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Engine Options for Automotive Use: A Fundamental Comparison of Different Potential Scavenging Arrangements for Medium-Duty Truck Applications

2019-01-15
2019-01-0071
The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve. For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.
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