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Journal Article

A Fast Crank Angle Resolved Zero-Dimensional NOx Model Implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array

2013-04-08
2013-01-0344
In the automotive industry, the piezo-based in-cylinder pressure sensor is getting commercialized and used in production vehicles. For example, the pressure sensor offers the opportunity to design algorithms for estimation of engine emissions, such as soot and NO , during a combustion cycle. In this paper a zero-dimensional NO model for a diesel engine is implemented that will be used in real time. The model is based on the thermal NO formation and the Zeldovich mechanism using two non-geometrical zones: burned and unburned zone. The influence of EGR on combustion temperature was modeled using a well-known thermodynamic identity where specific heat at constant pressure is included. Specific heat will vary with temperature and the gas composition. The model was implemented in LabVIEW using tools specific for an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array).
Technical Paper

Swirl and Injection Pressure Impact on After-Oxidation in Diesel Combustion, Examined with Simultaneous Combustion Image Velocimetry and Two Colour Optical Method

2013-04-08
2013-01-0913
After-oxidation in Heavy Duty (HD) diesel combustion is of paramount importance for emissions out from the engine. During diffusion diesel combustion, lots of particulate matter (PM) is created. Most of the PM are combusted during the after-oxidation part of the combustion. Still some of the PM is not, especially during an engine transient at low lambda. To enhance the PM oxidation in the late engine cycle, swirl together with high injection pressure can be implemented to increase in-cylinder turbulence at different stages in the cycle. Historically swirl is known to reduce soot particulates. It has also been shown, that with today's high injection pressures, can be combined with swirl to reduce PM at an, for example, engine transient. The mechanism why the PM engine out is reduced also at high injection pressures is however not so well understood.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow Pattern Evaluated with Combustion Image Velocimetry, CIV, and CFD Calculations during Combustion and Post-Oxidation in a HD Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0064
In-cylinder flow pattern was evaluated during diesel combustion and post-oxidation in a heavy duty optical engine and compared with CFD calculations. In this work the recently developed optical method combustion image velocimetry (CIV) is evaluated. It was used for extracting the flow pattern during combustion and post-oxidation by tracing the glowing soot clouds in the cylinder. The results were compared with CFD sector simulation on the same heavy duty engine geometry. Load was 10 bar IMEP and injection pressure was varied in two steps together with two different swirl levels. The same variations were done in both the optical engine and in the CFD simulations. The main results in this work show that the CIV method and the CFD results catch the same flow pattern trends during combustion and post-oxidation. Evaluation of the CIV technique has been done on large scale swirl vortices and compared with the CFD results at different distances from the piston bowl surface.
Technical Paper

Swirl and Injection Pressure Effect on Post-Oxidation Flow Pattern Evaluated with Combustion Image Velocimetry, CIV, and CFD Simulation

2013-10-14
2013-01-2577
In-cylinder flow pattern has been examined experimentally in a heavy duty optical diesel engine and simulated with CFD code during the combustion and the post-oxidation phase. Mean swirling velocity field and its evolution were extracted from optical tests with combustion image velocimetry (CIV). It is known that the post-oxidation period has great impact on the soot emissions. Lately it has been shown in swirling combustion systems with high injection pressures, that the remaining swirling vortex in the post-oxidation phase deviates strongly from solid body rotation. Solid body rotation can only be assumed to be the case before fuel injection. In the studied cases the tangential velocity is higher in the centre of the piston bowl compared to the outer region of the bowl. The used CIV method is closely related to the PIV technique, but makes it possible to extract flow pattern during combustion at full load in an optical diesel engine.
Technical Paper

A Study of In-Cylinder Fuel Spray Formation and its Influence on Exhaust Emissions Using an Optical Diesel Engine

2010-05-05
2010-01-1498
Increasingly stringent emission legislation as well as increased demand on fuel efficiency calls for further research and development in the diesel engine field. Spray formation, evaporation and ignition delay are important factors that influence the combustion and emission formation processes in a diesel engine. Increased understanding of the mixture formation process is valuable in the development of low emission, high efficiency diesel engines. In this paper spray formation and ignition under real engine conditions have been studied in an optical engine capable of running close to full load for a real HD diesel engine. Powerful external lights were used to provide the required light intensity for high speed camera images in the combustion chamber prior to ignition. A specially developed software was used for spray edge detection and tracking. The software provides crank angle resolved spray penetration data.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Simplified Model for Combustion and Emission Formation in Diesel Engines Based on Correlations for Spray Penetration and Dispersion, Gas Entrainment into Sprays and Flame Lift-off

2010-05-05
2010-01-1494
A simplified combustion and emission formation model for diesel engines has been developed in a project where the long term objective is to predict emissions during transient operation. The intended application implies that the final model must be both computationally inexpensive and comprehensive so that it can be used for optimization of engine control variables when coupled to full-engine simulation software. As starting point, the proposed model uses diesel spray correlations established in combustion vessels regarding spray penetration, dispersion, gas entrainment, ignition and flame lift-off. It has been found that with minor adaption, these correlations are valid also for combustion in an engine. By assuming a fully mixing controlled combustion after ignition and by use of simplified emission models, the correlations have been found useful for predicting trends in engine-out emission with low computational cost.
Technical Paper

Study of a Heavy Duty Euro5 EGR-Engine Sensitivity to Fuel Change with Emphasis on Combustion and Emission Formation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0872
A diesel engine developed for an international market must be able to run on different fuels considering the diesel fuel qualities and the increasing selection of biofuels in the world. This leads to the question of how different fuels perform relative to a standard diesel fuel when not changing the hardware settings. In this study five fuels (Japanese diesel, MK3, EN590 with 10% RME, EN590 with 30% RME and pure RME) have been compared to a reference diesel fuel (Swedish MK1) when run on three different speeds and three different loads at each speed. The experiments are run on a Scania 13l Euro5 engine with standard settings for Swedish MK1 diesel. In general the differences were not large between the fuels. NO x usually increased compared to MK1 and then soot decreased as would be expected. The combustion efficiency increased with increased RME contents of the fuel but the indicated efficiency was not influenced by RME except for at higher loads.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Influence of Variable In-Cylinder Flow, Caused by Active Valve Train, on Combustion and Emissions in a Diesel Engine at Low Lambda Operation

2011-08-30
2011-01-1830
Spray and mixture formation in a compression ignition engine is of paramount importance for diesel combustion. In engine transient operation, when the load increases rapidly, the combustion system needs to handle low lambda (λ) operation while avoiding high particle emissions. Single-cylinder tests were performed to evaluate the effect of differences in cylinder flow on combustion and emissions at typical low λ transient operation. The tests were performed on a heavy-duty single-cylinder test engine with Lotus Active Valve Train (AVT) controlling the inlet airflow. The required swirl number (SN) and tumble were controlled by applying different inlet valve profiles and opening either both inlet valves or only one or the other. The operating point of interest was extracted from engine transient conditions before the boost pressure was increased and investigated further at steady state conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on different Injection Strategies for Ethanol Partially Premixed Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-0281
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept which aims to provide combustion with low smoke and NOx with high efficiency. Extending the ignition delay to enhance the premixing, avoiding spray-driven combustion and controlling the combustion temperature to optimum levels through use of suitable lambda and EGR levels, have been recognized as key factors to achieve such combustion. Fuels with high ignitability resistance have been proven to be a good mean to extend the ignition delay. In this work pure ethanol has been used as a PPC fuel. The objective of this research was to investigate a suitable injection strategy for PPC combustion fueled with ethanol. Extensive experimental investigations were performed on a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine. The number of injections for each cycle, timing of the injections and the ratio between different injection pulses was varied one at a time and the combustion behavior was investigated at medium and low loads.
Journal Article

Sensitivity Analysis Study on Ethanol Partially Premixed Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-0269
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept which aims to provide combustion with low smoke and NOx with high thermal efficiency. Extending the ignition delay to enhance the premixing, avoiding spray-driven combustion and controlling the combustion temperature at an optimum level through use of suitable lambda and EGR levels have been recognized as key factors to achieve such a combustion. Fuels with high ignitability resistance have been proven to be a useful to extend the ignition delay. In this work pure ethanol has been used as a PPC fuel. The objective of this research was initially to investigate the required operating conditions for PPC with ethanol. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to understand how the required parameters for ethanol PPC such as lambda, EGR rate, injection pressure and inlet temperature influence the combustion in terms of controllability, stability, emissions (i.e.
Technical Paper

Transient Emission Predictions With Quasi Stationary Models

2005-10-24
2005-01-3852
Heavy trucks contribute significantly to the overall air pollution, especially NOx and PM emissions. Models to predict the emissions from heavy trucks in real world on road conditions are therefore of great interest. Most such models are based on data achieved from stationary measurements, i.e. engine maps. This type of “quasi stationary” models could also be of interest in other applications where emission models of low complexity are desired, such as engine control and simulation and control of exhaust aftertreatment systems. In this paper, results from quasi stationary calculations of fuel consumption, CO, HC, NOx and PM emissions are compared with time resolved measurements of the corresponding quantities. Measurement data from three Euro 3-class engines is used. The differences are discussed in terms of the conditions during transients and correction models for quasi stationary calculations are presented. Simply using engine maps without transient correction is not sufficient.
Technical Paper

Characterisation and Model Based Optimization of a Complete Diesel Engine/SCR System

2009-04-20
2009-01-0896
In order to make efficient use of a Diesel engine equipped with an SCR system, it's important to have a complete system approach when it comes to calibration of the engine and the aftertreatment system. This paper presents a complete model of a heavy duty diesel engine equipped with a vanadia based SCR system. The diesel engine uses common rail fuel injection, a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and cooled EGR. The engine model consists of a quasi steady gas exchange model combined with a two-zone zero dimensional combustion model. The combustion model is a predictive heat release model. Using the calculated zone temperatures, the corresponding NOx concentration is given by the original Zeldovich mechanism. The SCR catalyst model is of the state space type. The basic model structure is a series of continuously stirred tank reactors and the catalyst walls are discretized to describe mass transport inside the porous structure.
Technical Paper

Torque Estimation Based Virtual Crank Angle Sensor

2016-04-05
2016-01-1073
In engine management systems many calculations and actuator actions are performed in the crank angle domain. Most of these actions and calculations benefit from an improved accuracy of the crank angle measurement. Improved estimation of crank angle, based on pulse signals from an induction sensor placed on the flywheel of a heavy duty CI engine is thus of great importance. To estimate the crank angle the torque balance on the crankshaft is used. This torque balance is based on Newton’s second law. The net torque gives the flywheel acceleration which in turn gives engine speed and crank angle position. The described approach was studied for two crankshaft models: A rigid crankshaft approach and a lumped mass approach, the latter having the benefit of being able to capture the torsional effects of the crankshaft twisting and bending due to torques acting on it. These methods were then compared to a linear extrapolation of the engine speed, a common method to estimate crank angle today.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Speed Estimation via Vibration Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0632
Due to demanding legislation on exhaust emissions for internal combustion engines and increasing fuel prices, automotive manufacturers have focused their efforts on optimizing turbocharging systems. Turbocharger system control optimization is difficult: Unsteady flow conditions combined with not very accurate compressor maps make the real time turbocharger rotational speed one of the most important quantities in the optimization process. This work presents a methodology designed to obtain the turbocharger rotational speed via vibration analysis. Standard knock sensors have been employed in order to achieve a robust and accurate, yet still a low-cost solution capable of being mounted on-board. Results show that the developed method gives an estimation of the turbocharger rotational speed, with errors and accuracy acceptable for the proposed application. The method has been evaluated on a heavy duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Heat Release Based Virtual Combustion Sensor Signal Bias Sensitivity

2017-03-28
2017-01-0789
Typically, the combustion in an internal combustion engine is open-loop controlled. The introduction of a cylinder pressure sensor opens the possibility to introduce a virtual combustion sensor. This virtual sensor is a possible enabler for closed-loop combustion control and thus the possibility to counteract the effects of engine part to part variation, component ageing and fuel quality diversity. The extent to which these effects can be counteracted is determined by the detection limits of the virtual combustion sensor. To determine the limitation of the virtual combustion sensor, a virtual combustion sensor system was implemented based on a one-zone heat-release analysis, including the signal processing of the pressure sensor input. The typical error sources in a heavy-duty engine were identified and quantified. The virtual combustion sensor system was presented with flawed signals and the sensor’s sensitivities to the errors were quantified.
Technical Paper

The Application of Ceramic and Catalytic Coatings to Reduce the Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1833
An experimental and theoretical study of the effect of thermal barriers and catalytic coatings in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted. The main intent of the study was to investigate if a thermal barrier or catalytic coating of the wall would support the oxidation of the near-wall unburned hydrocarbons. In addition, the effect of these coatings on thermal efficiency due to changed heat transfer characteristics was investigated. The experimental setup was based on a partially coated combustion chamber. The upper part of the cylinder liner, the piston top including the top land, the valves and the cylinder head were all coated. As a thermal barrier, a coating based on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 was used. The catalytic coating was based on plasma-sprayed ZrO2 doped with Platinum. The two coatings tested were of varying thickness' of 0.15, 0.25 and 0.6 mm. The compression ratio was set to 16.75:1.
Technical Paper

Optical Studies in a DI Diesel Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3650
Fuel injection and combustion was studied with direct photography in a single cylinder DI diesel engine. Optical access was accomplished by using an endoscope-based measurement system. In the optical measurements the influence of several parameters were studied: start of injection, inlet air temperature and pressure, injected fuel amount (constant air mass), load level (varying air and fuel mass) and nozzle hole diameter. Liquid fuel spray penetration, flame lift-off and flame length were measured. The maximum spray penetration was 23 - 25 mm. As diffusion combustion started, the spray length decreased to about 15 mm. The flame lift-off was located 4 - 6 mm behind the liquid fuel spray tip. Using the two-color method the spatial temperature distribution in flames was calculated.
Technical Paper

CFD Studies of Combustion and In-Cylinder Soot Trends in a DI Diesel Engine - Comparison to Direct Photography Studies

2000-06-19
2000-01-1889
The main objective of this work is to develop a CFD model for studies of combustion and in-cylinder soot trends in a single cylinder DI diesel engine based on the Scania 14 liter V8 engine. The evaluation of the model is made with respect to ignition, cylinder pressure, heat release, onset of diffusion controlled combustion, liquid fuel spray penetration, in-cylinder soot distribution and exhaust soot level. The simulation results are compared to direct photography images and two-color calculations of temperature and soot distribution in a corresponding optical access test engine. This comparison shows good agreement concerning diffusion flame onset, liquid penetration, rate of heat release and local temperature distribution. Moreover, the prediction of in-cylinder soot distribution after end of injection also agrees well with the two-color calculation. To validate the model, the simulation is repeated for three different sets of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Future Fuels for DISI Engines: A Review on Oxygenated, Liquid Biofuels

2019-01-15
2019-01-0036
Global warming and climate change have led to a greater interest in the implementation of biofuels in internal combustion engines. In spark ignited engines, biofuels have been shown to improve efficiency and knock resistance while decreasing emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particles. This study investigates the effect of biofuels on SI engine combustion through a graphical compilation of previously reported results. Experimental data from 88 articles were used to evaluate the trends of the addition of different biofuels in gasoline. Graphs illustrating engine performance, combustion phasing and emissions are presented in conjunction with data on the physiochemical properties of each biofuel component to understand the observed trends. Internal combustion engines have the ability to handle a wide variety of fuels resulting in a broad range of biofuel candidates.
Technical Paper

Knock Sensor Based Virtual Cylinder Pressure Sensor

2019-01-15
2019-01-0040
Typically the combustion in a direct injected compression ignited internal combustion engine is open-loop controlled. The introduction of a cylinder pressure sensor opens up the possibility of a virtual combustion sensor which could enable closed-loop combustion control and thus the potential to counteract effects such as engine part to part variation, component ageing and fuel quality diversity. Closed-loop combustion control requires precise, robust and preferably cheap sensors. This paper presents a virtual cylinder pressure sensor based on the signal from the inexpensive but well proven knock sensor. The method used to convert the knock sensor signal into a pressure estimate included the stages: Phase correcting the raw signal, Filtering the raw signal, Scaling the signal to known thermodynamic laws and provided engine sensors signals and Reconstructing parts of the signal with other known models and assumptions.
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