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Technical Paper

Acoustic Characterization of Shallow Flow Reversal Chambers

Flow reversal chambers are common design elements in mufflers. Here an idealized flow reversal chamber with large cross-section but small depth has been studied. The inlet and outlet ducts as well as the cross-sectional area are fixed while the depth of the chamber can be varied. The resulting systems are then characterized experimentally using the two-microphone wave decomposition method and compared with results from both finite element modeling and various approaches using two-port elements. The finite element modeling results are in excellent agreement with the measurements over the whole frequency range studied, while two-port modeling can be used with engineering precision in the low frequency range. The influence of mean flow was studied experimentally and was shown to have relatively small influence, mainly adding some additional losses at low frequencies.
Technical Paper

A Study on In-Cycle Control of NOx Using Injection Strategy with a Fast Cylinder Pressure Based Emission Model as Feedback

The emission control in heavy-duty vehicles today is based on predefined injection strategies and after-treatment systems such as SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and DPF (diesel particulate filter). State-of-the-art engine control is presently based on cycle-to-cycle resolution. The introduction of the crank angle resolved pressure measurement, from a piezo-based pressure sensor, enables the possibility to control the fuel injection based on combustion feedback while the combustion is occurring. In this paper a study is presented on the possibility to control NOx (nitrogen oxides) formation with a crank angle resolved NOx estimator as feedback. The estimator and the injection control are implemented on an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) to manage the inherent time constraints. The FPGA is integrated with the rest of the engine control system for injection control and measurement.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Control of a Combined EGR/SCR HD Diesel Engine

Achieving upcoming HD emissions legislation, Euro VI/EPA 10, is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. A likely solution to meet the NOx limit is to use a combination of EGR and SCR. Combining these two technologies poses new challenges and possibilities when it comes to optimization and calibration. Using a complete system approach, i.e., considering the engine and the aftertreatment system as a single unit, is important in order to achieve good performance. Optimizing the complete system is a tedious task; first there are a large number of variables which affect both emissions and fuel consumption (injection timing, EGR rate, urea dosing, injection pressure, pilot/post injections, for example). Secondly, the chemical reactions in the SCR catalyst are substantially slower than the dynamics of the diesel engine and the rest of the system, making the optimization problem time dependent.
Journal Article

An In-Cycle based NOx Reduction Strategy using Direct Injection of AdBlue

In the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 °C. For the reactions to occur without a catalyst, the gas temperature has to be at least 800 °C. These temperatures only occur in the engine cylinder itself, during and after the combustion.
Technical Paper

Modelling Diesel Engine Combustion and NOx Formation for Model Based Control and Simulation of Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

Emissions standards are becoming increasingly harder to reach without the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems such as Selective Catalytic Reduction and particulate filters. In order to make efficient use of these systems it is important to have accurate models of engine-out emissions. Such models are also useful for optimizing and controlling next-generation engines without aftertreatment using for example exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Engines are getting more advanced using systems such as common rail fuel injection, variable geometry turbochargers (VGT) and EGR. With these new technologies and active control of the injection timing, more sophisticated models than simple stationary emission maps must be used to get adequate results. This paper is focused on the calculation of engine-out NOx and engine parameters such as cylinder pressure, temperature and gas flows.
Technical Paper

A State-Space Simplified SCR Catalyst Model for Real Time Applications

The use of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is becoming increasingly more popular as a way of reducing NOx emissions from heavy duty vehicles while maintaining competitive operating costs. In order to make efficient use of these systems, it's important to have a complete system approach when it comes to calibration of the engine and aftertreatment system. This paper presents a simplified model of a heavy duty SCR catalyst, primarily intended for use in combination with an engine-out emissions model to perform model based offline optimization of the complete system. The traditional way of modelling catalysts using a dense discretization of the catalyst channels and non-linear differential equation solvers to solve the heat and mass balance equations, requires too much computational power in this application. The presented model is also useful in other applications such as model based control.
Technical Paper

Characterisation and Model Based Optimization of a Complete Diesel Engine/SCR System

In order to make efficient use of a Diesel engine equipped with an SCR system, it's important to have a complete system approach when it comes to calibration of the engine and the aftertreatment system. This paper presents a complete model of a heavy duty diesel engine equipped with a vanadia based SCR system. The diesel engine uses common rail fuel injection, a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and cooled EGR. The engine model consists of a quasi steady gas exchange model combined with a two-zone zero dimensional combustion model. The combustion model is a predictive heat release model. Using the calculated zone temperatures, the corresponding NOx concentration is given by the original Zeldovich mechanism. The SCR catalyst model is of the state space type. The basic model structure is a series of continuously stirred tank reactors and the catalyst walls are discretized to describe mass transport inside the porous structure.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Interactions between Lubricant-derived Species and Aftertreatment Systems on a State-of-the-Art Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

The tightening legislation in the on-road heavy-duty diesel area means that pollution control systems will soon be widely introduced on such engines. A number of different aftertreatment systems are currently being considered to meet the incoming legislation, including Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF), Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. Relatively little is known about the interactions between lubricant-derived species and such aftertreatment systems. This paper describes the results of an experimental program carried out to investigate these interactions within DPF, DOC and SCR systems on a state-of-the-art 9 litre engine. The influence of lubricant composition and lube oil ash level was investigated on the different catalyst systems. In order to reduce costs and to speed up testing, test oil was dosed into the fuel. Tests without dosing lubricant into the fuel were also run.
Technical Paper

The Application of Ceramic and Catalytic Coatings to Reduce the Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

An experimental and theoretical study of the effect of thermal barriers and catalytic coatings in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted. The main intent of the study was to investigate if a thermal barrier or catalytic coating of the wall would support the oxidation of the near-wall unburned hydrocarbons. In addition, the effect of these coatings on thermal efficiency due to changed heat transfer characteristics was investigated. The experimental setup was based on a partially coated combustion chamber. The upper part of the cylinder liner, the piston top including the top land, the valves and the cylinder head were all coated. As a thermal barrier, a coating based on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 was used. The catalytic coating was based on plasma-sprayed ZrO2 doped with Platinum. The two coatings tested were of varying thickness' of 0.15, 0.25 and 0.6 mm. The compression ratio was set to 16.75:1.
Technical Paper

Knock Sensor Based Virtual Cylinder Pressure Sensor

Typically the combustion in a direct injected compression ignited internal combustion engine is open-loop controlled. The introduction of a cylinder pressure sensor opens up the possibility of a virtual combustion sensor which could enable closed-loop combustion control and thus the potential to counteract effects such as engine part to part variation, component ageing and fuel quality diversity. Closed-loop combustion control requires precise, robust and preferably cheap sensors. This paper presents a virtual cylinder pressure sensor based on the signal from the inexpensive but well proven knock sensor. The method used to convert the knock sensor signal into a pressure estimate included the stages: Phase correcting the raw signal, Filtering the raw signal, Scaling the signal to known thermodynamic laws and provided engine sensors signals and Reconstructing parts of the signal with other known models and assumptions.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Exhaust Valve Flow 1-D Modelling During Blowdown Conditions

To conduct system level studies on internal combustion engines reduced order models are required in order to keep the computational load below reasonable limits. By its nature a reduced order model is a simplification of reality and may introduce modeling errors. However what is of interest is the size of the error and if it is possible to reduce the error by some method. A popular system level study is gas exchange and in this paper the focus is on the exhaust valve. Generally the valve is modeled as an ideal nozzle where the flow losses are captured by reducing the flow area. As the valve moves slowly compared to the flow the process is assumed to be quasi-steady, i.e. interpolation between steady-flow measurements can be used to describe the dynamic process during valve opening. These measurements are generally done at low pressure drops, as the influence of pressure ratio is assumed to be negligible.
Technical Paper

Agglomeration and Nucleation of Non-Volatile Particles in a Particle Grouping Exhaust Pipe of a Euro VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The possibility of non-volatile particle agglomeration in engine exhaust was experimentally examined in a Euro VI heavy duty engine using a variable cross section agglomeration pipe, insulated and double walled for minimal thermophoresis. The agglomeration pipe was located between the turbocharger and the exhaust treatment devices. Sampling was made across the pipe and along the centre-line of the agglomeration pipe. The performance of the agglomeration pipe was compared with an equivalent insulated straight pipe. The non-volatile total particle number and size distribution were investigated. Particle number measurements were conducted according to the guidelines from the Particle Measurement Programme. The Engine was fuelled with commercially available low sulphur S10 diesel.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Heat Transfer Coefficient in Piston Cooling Galleries

Piston cooling galleries are critical for the pistons’ capability to handle increasing power density while maintaining the same level of durability. However, piston cooling also accounts for a considerable amount of heat rejection and parasitic losses. Knowing the distribution of the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) inside the cooling gallery could enable new designs which ensure effective cooling of areas decisive for durability while minimizing parasitic losses and overall heat rejection. In this study, an inverse heat transfer method is presented to determine the spatial HTC distribution inside the cooling gallery based on surface temperature measurements with an infrared (IR) camera. The method utilizes a piston specially machined so it only has a thin sheet of material of a known thickness left between the cooling gallery and the piston bowl. The piston - initially at room temperature - is heated up with warm oil injected into the cooling gallery.
Journal Article

Design of a Thermoelectric Generator for Waste Heat Recovery Application on a Drivable Heavy Duty Vehicle

The European Union’s 2020 target aims to be producing 20 % of its energy from renewable sources by 2020, to achieve a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 20 % improvement in energy efficiency compared to 1990 levels. To reach these goals, the energy consumption has to decrease which results in reduction of the emissions. The transport sector is the second largest energy consumer in the EU, responsible for 25 % of the emissions of greenhouse gases caused by the low efficiency (<40 %) of combustion engines. Much work has been done to improve that efficiency but there is still a large amount of fuel energy that converts to heat and escapes to the ambient atmosphere through the exhaust system. Taking advantage of thermoelectricity, the heat can be recovered, improving the fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Comparison of heat losses at the impingement point and in between two impingement points in a diesel engine using phosphor thermometry

In-cylinder heat losses in diesel engines reduce engine efficiency significantly and account for a considerable amount of injected fuel energy. A great part of the heat losses during diesel combustion presumably arises from the impingement of the flame. The present study compares the heat losses at the point where the flame impinges onto the piston bowl wall and the heat losses between two impingement points. Measurements were performed in a full metal heavy-duty diesel engine with a small optical access through a removed exhaust valve. The surface temperature at the impingement point of the combusting diesel spray and at a point in between two impingement points was determined using phosphor thermometry. The dynamic heat fluxes and the heat transfer coefficients which result from the surface temperature measurements are estimated. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed videos are associated to individual surface temperature measurements.
Technical Paper

Impact of Dynamic Exhaust Valve Modelling

A method developed in SAE 2019-01-0058 to correct for deviations from quasi-steady exhaust valve flow is implemented on a single-cylinder GT-Power model and the effects on pumping work and blowdown pulse characteristics are investigated. The valve flow area is always reduced compared to the reference quasi-steady case. It decreases with higher pressure ratios over the valve and increases with higher engines speeds. The reduced flow area increases pumping work with load and engine speed, though primarily with engine speed. The magnitude of the blowdown pulse is reduced and the peak is shifted to a later crank angle.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Guided Troubleshooting Applied to a Selective Catalytic Reduction System

Troubleshooting trees are traditionally used to guide technicians through the process of identifying the cause of vehicle problems and solving them. These static trees can successfully visualize complex information. However, for modular vehicles, the trees become difficult to create and maintain due to the numerous different configurations of vehicles that can be constructed. These issues can be overcome by using a model-based approach. This paper describes a prototype tool for guided troubleshooting and shows its application to a selective catalytic reduction system used in many heavy vehicles. The troubleshooting tool guides the technician through the troubleshooting process by presenting the most likely fault candidates and recommending the most useful actions to perform. The list of candidates and recommendations are updated continuously to reflect the outcomes of past actions.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Based Cylinder Charge Estimation in Diesel Engines with Dual Independent Variable Valve Timing

With stricter emission legislations and demands on low fuel consumption, new engine technologies are continuously investigated. At the same time the accuracy in the over all engine control and diagnosis and hence also the required estimation accuracy is tightened. Central for the internal combustion control is the trapped cylinder charge and composition Traditionally cylinder charge is estimated using mean intake manifold pressure and engine speed in a two dimensional lookup table. With the introduction of variable valve timing, two additional degrees of freedom are introduced that makes this approach very time consuming and therefore expensive. Especially if the cam phasers are given large enough authority to offer powerful thermal management possibilities. The paper presents a physical model for estimating in-cylinder trapped mass and residual gas fraction utilizing cylinder pressure measurements, and intake and exhaust valve lift profiles.
Technical Paper

Pressure Amplitude Influence on Pulsating Exhaust Flow Energy Utilization

A turbocharged Diesel engine for heavy-duty on-road vehicle applications employs a compact exhaust manifold to satisfy transient torque and packaging requirements. The small exhaust manifold volume increases the unsteadiness of the flow to the turbine. The turbine therefore operates over a wider flow range, which is not optimal as radial turbines have narrow peak efficiency zone. This lower efficiency is compensated to some extent by the higher energy content of the unsteady exhaust flow compared to steady flow conditions. This paper experimentally investigates the relationship between exhaust energy utilization and available energy at the turbine inlet at different degrees of unsteady flow. A special exhaust manifold has been constructed which enables the internal volume of the manifold to be increased. The larger volume reduces the exhaust pulse amplitude and brings the operating condition for the turbine closer to steady-flow.
Technical Paper

Study on Heat Losses during Flame Impingement in a Diesel Engine Using Phosphor Thermometry Surface Temperature Measurements

In-cylinder heat losses in diesel engines decrease engine efficiency significantly and account for approximately 14-19% [1, 2, 3] of the injected fuel energy. A great part of the heat losses during diesel combustion presumably arises from the flame impingement onto the piston. Therefore, the present study investigates the heat losses during flame impingement onto the piston bowl wall experimentally. The measurements were performed on a full metal heavy-duty diesel engine with a small optical access through a removed exhaust valve. The surface temperature at the impingement point of the flame was determined by evaluating a phosphor’s temperature dependent emission decay. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed videos are associated to the surface temperature measurements in each cycle. Thus, surface temperature readings could be linked to specific impingement and combustion events.