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Journal Article

Preparation and Characterization of a Stable Test Fuel Comparable to Aged Biodiesel for Use in Accelerated Corrosion Studies

Biodiesel is chemically unstable and sensitive to oxidation. Aging of biodiesel results in the formation of degradation products, such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and water. These products may cause corrosion of metals in fuel systems. When performing corrosion tests, biodiesel continuously degrades during the test, resulting in an uncontrolled test system. In order to obtain a stable corrosion testing system, a test fuel was developed using a saturated FAME (methyl myristate), which was doped with RME degradation products at levels typically seen in field tests. The test fuel was compared to RME with regards to structure, SCFA and water content before and after aging tests. In addition, an accelerated corrosion study of copper was performed in both the test fuel and in RME. The copper specimens were analyzed before and after test using light optical microscope and weight measurements. The Cu content in the test fuel and RME was also analyzed.
Technical Paper

The Application of Ceramic and Catalytic Coatings to Reduce the Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

An experimental and theoretical study of the effect of thermal barriers and catalytic coatings in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted. The main intent of the study was to investigate if a thermal barrier or catalytic coating of the wall would support the oxidation of the near-wall unburned hydrocarbons. In addition, the effect of these coatings on thermal efficiency due to changed heat transfer characteristics was investigated. The experimental setup was based on a partially coated combustion chamber. The upper part of the cylinder liner, the piston top including the top land, the valves and the cylinder head were all coated. As a thermal barrier, a coating based on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 was used. The catalytic coating was based on plasma-sprayed ZrO2 doped with Platinum. The two coatings tested were of varying thickness' of 0.15, 0.25 and 0.6 mm. The compression ratio was set to 16.75:1.
Technical Paper

Knock Sensor Based Virtual Cylinder Pressure Sensor

Typically the combustion in a direct injected compression ignited internal combustion engine is open-loop controlled. The introduction of a cylinder pressure sensor opens up the possibility of a virtual combustion sensor which could enable closed-loop combustion control and thus the potential to counteract effects such as engine part to part variation, component ageing and fuel quality diversity. Closed-loop combustion control requires precise, robust and preferably cheap sensors. This paper presents a virtual cylinder pressure sensor based on the signal from the inexpensive but well proven knock sensor. The method used to convert the knock sensor signal into a pressure estimate included the stages: Phase correcting the raw signal, Filtering the raw signal, Scaling the signal to known thermodynamic laws and provided engine sensors signals and Reconstructing parts of the signal with other known models and assumptions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Heat Transfer Coefficient in Piston Cooling Galleries

Piston cooling galleries are critical for the pistons’ capability to handle increasing power density while maintaining the same level of durability. However, piston cooling also accounts for a considerable amount of heat rejection and parasitic losses. Knowing the distribution of the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) inside the cooling gallery could enable new designs which ensure effective cooling of areas decisive for durability while minimizing parasitic losses and overall heat rejection. In this study, an inverse heat transfer method is presented to determine the spatial HTC distribution inside the cooling gallery based on surface temperature measurements with an infrared (IR) camera. The method utilizes a piston specially machined so it only has a thin sheet of material of a known thickness left between the cooling gallery and the piston bowl. The piston - initially at room temperature - is heated up with warm oil injected into the cooling gallery.
Journal Article

Heat Loss Analysis of a Steel Piston and a YSZ Coated Piston in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Phosphor Thermometry Measurements

Diesel engine manufacturers strive towards further efficiency improvements. Thus, reducing in-cylinder heat losses is becoming increasingly important. Understanding how location, thermal insulation, and engine operating conditions affect the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls is fundamental for the future reduction of in-cylinder heat losses. This study investigates the effect of a 1mm-thick plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating on a piston. Such a coated piston and a similar steel piston are compared to each other based on experimental data for the heat release, the heat transfer rate to the oil in the piston cooling gallery, the local instantaneous surface temperature, and the local instantaneous surface heat flux. The surface temperature was measured for different crank angle positions using phosphor thermometry.
Technical Paper

Comparison of heat losses at the impingement point and in between two impingement points in a diesel engine using phosphor thermometry

In-cylinder heat losses in diesel engines reduce engine efficiency significantly and account for a considerable amount of injected fuel energy. A great part of the heat losses during diesel combustion presumably arises from the impingement of the flame. The present study compares the heat losses at the point where the flame impinges onto the piston bowl wall and the heat losses between two impingement points. Measurements were performed in a full metal heavy-duty diesel engine with a small optical access through a removed exhaust valve. The surface temperature at the impingement point of the combusting diesel spray and at a point in between two impingement points was determined using phosphor thermometry. The dynamic heat fluxes and the heat transfer coefficients which result from the surface temperature measurements are estimated. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed videos are associated to individual surface temperature measurements.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Based Cylinder Charge Estimation in Diesel Engines with Dual Independent Variable Valve Timing

With stricter emission legislations and demands on low fuel consumption, new engine technologies are continuously investigated. At the same time the accuracy in the over all engine control and diagnosis and hence also the required estimation accuracy is tightened. Central for the internal combustion control is the trapped cylinder charge and composition Traditionally cylinder charge is estimated using mean intake manifold pressure and engine speed in a two dimensional lookup table. With the introduction of variable valve timing, two additional degrees of freedom are introduced that makes this approach very time consuming and therefore expensive. Especially if the cam phasers are given large enough authority to offer powerful thermal management possibilities. The paper presents a physical model for estimating in-cylinder trapped mass and residual gas fraction utilizing cylinder pressure measurements, and intake and exhaust valve lift profiles.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing the Formation of Soft Particles in Biodiesel

In order to mitigate the effect of fossil fuels on global warming, biodiesel is used as drop in fuel. However, in the mixture of biodiesel and diesel, soft particles may form. These soft particles are organic compounds, which can originate from the production and degradation of biodiesel. Further when fuel is mixed with unwanted contaminants such as engine oil the amount soft particles can increase. The presence of these particles can cause malfunction in the fuel system of the engine, such as nozzle fouling, internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) or fuel filter plugging. Soft particles and the mechanism of their formation is curtail to understand in order to study and prevent their effects on the fuel system. This paper focuses on one type of soft particles, which are metal soaps. More precisely on the role of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) during their formation. In order to do so, aged and unaged B10 was studied.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles from Diesel Type Fuels

Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as a drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Low quality drop-in fuel can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified compounds were constituents of soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates since these have been found to be one of the components of the soft particles and associated with other engine malfunctions as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuel’s effect on engines.