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Technical Paper

Acoustic Characterization of Shallow Flow Reversal Chambers

2011-05-17
2011-01-1519
Flow reversal chambers are common design elements in mufflers. Here an idealized flow reversal chamber with large cross-section but small depth has been studied. The inlet and outlet ducts as well as the cross-sectional area are fixed while the depth of the chamber can be varied. The resulting systems are then characterized experimentally using the two-microphone wave decomposition method and compared with results from both finite element modeling and various approaches using two-port elements. The finite element modeling results are in excellent agreement with the measurements over the whole frequency range studied, while two-port modeling can be used with engineering precision in the low frequency range. The influence of mean flow was studied experimentally and was shown to have relatively small influence, mainly adding some additional losses at low frequencies.
Journal Article

A Fast Crank Angle Resolved Zero-Dimensional NOx Model Implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array

2013-04-08
2013-01-0344
In the automotive industry, the piezo-based in-cylinder pressure sensor is getting commercialized and used in production vehicles. For example, the pressure sensor offers the opportunity to design algorithms for estimation of engine emissions, such as soot and NO , during a combustion cycle. In this paper a zero-dimensional NO model for a diesel engine is implemented that will be used in real time. The model is based on the thermal NO formation and the Zeldovich mechanism using two non-geometrical zones: burned and unburned zone. The influence of EGR on combustion temperature was modeled using a well-known thermodynamic identity where specific heat at constant pressure is included. Specific heat will vary with temperature and the gas composition. The model was implemented in LabVIEW using tools specific for an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array).
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow Pattern Evaluated with Combustion Image Velocimetry, CIV, and CFD Calculations during Combustion and Post-Oxidation in a HD Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0064
In-cylinder flow pattern was evaluated during diesel combustion and post-oxidation in a heavy duty optical engine and compared with CFD calculations. In this work the recently developed optical method combustion image velocimetry (CIV) is evaluated. It was used for extracting the flow pattern during combustion and post-oxidation by tracing the glowing soot clouds in the cylinder. The results were compared with CFD sector simulation on the same heavy duty engine geometry. Load was 10 bar IMEP and injection pressure was varied in two steps together with two different swirl levels. The same variations were done in both the optical engine and in the CFD simulations. The main results in this work show that the CIV method and the CFD results catch the same flow pattern trends during combustion and post-oxidation. Evaluation of the CIV technique has been done on large scale swirl vortices and compared with the CFD results at different distances from the piston bowl surface.
Technical Paper

Swirl and Injection Pressure Effect on Post-Oxidation Flow Pattern Evaluated with Combustion Image Velocimetry, CIV, and CFD Simulation

2013-10-14
2013-01-2577
In-cylinder flow pattern has been examined experimentally in a heavy duty optical diesel engine and simulated with CFD code during the combustion and the post-oxidation phase. Mean swirling velocity field and its evolution were extracted from optical tests with combustion image velocimetry (CIV). It is known that the post-oxidation period has great impact on the soot emissions. Lately it has been shown in swirling combustion systems with high injection pressures, that the remaining swirling vortex in the post-oxidation phase deviates strongly from solid body rotation. Solid body rotation can only be assumed to be the case before fuel injection. In the studied cases the tangential velocity is higher in the centre of the piston bowl compared to the outer region of the bowl. The used CIV method is closely related to the PIV technique, but makes it possible to extract flow pattern during combustion at full load in an optical diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Multi Layered Maps for Enhanced Environmental Perception

2011-09-13
2011-01-2244
Traditionally, an in-vehicle map consists of only one type of data, tailored for a single user function. For example, the navigation maps contain spatial information about the roads. On the other hand, a map built for adaptive cruise control use consists of the detected vehicles and their properties. In autonomous vehicle research, the maps are often built up as an occupancy grid where areas are classified as passable or impassable. Using these kinds of maps separately, however, is not enough to support the traffic safety enhancing and advanced driver assistance systems of today and tomorrow. Instead of using separate systems to handle individual safety or planning tasks, information could be stored in one shared map containing several correlated layers of information. Map information can be collected by any number of different sensor devices, and fusion algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of the information.
Journal Article

Guided Integrated Remote and Workshop Troubleshooting of Heavy Trucks

2014-04-01
2014-01-0284
When a truck or bus suffers from a breakdown it is important that the vehicle comes back on the road as soon as possible. In this paper we present a prototype diagnostic decision support system capable of automatically identifying possible causes of a failure and propose recommended actions on how to get the vehicle back on the road as cost efficiently as possible. This troubleshooting system is novel in the way it integrates the remote diagnosis with the workshop diagnosis when providing recommendations. To achieve this integration, a novel planning algorithm has been developed that enables the troubleshooting system to guide the different users (driver, help-desk operator, and mechanic) through the entire troubleshooting process. In this paper we formulate the problem of integrated remote and workshop troubleshooting and present a working prototype that has been implemented to demonstrate all parts of the troubleshooting system.
Technical Paper

On Sound Absorbing Characteristics and Suitable Measurement Methods

2012-06-13
2012-01-1534
Noise encapsulations are widely used in automotive industry to enclose noise sources, such as e.g. the engine or the gearbox, to reduce externally radiated noise. The sound absorption factor of the material on the inside of the noise encapsulation is obviously vital for the sound attenuation. This parameter is in most cases determined experimentally for which there are several methods. The results received from the various methods may vary as different acoustic states are examined and thus influence the choice of method. The absorption factor is crucial since it is used in specifications to material manufacturers as well as being an input parameter in modeling the performance of the noise shield e.g. during a pass-by noise test. In this paper, two standardized measurement methods along with a third, non-standardized method, are applied to determine the properties of an absorbing material used in a commercial noise encapsulation.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Control of a Combined EGR/SCR HD Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1175
Achieving upcoming HD emissions legislation, Euro VI/EPA 10, is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. A likely solution to meet the NOx limit is to use a combination of EGR and SCR. Combining these two technologies poses new challenges and possibilities when it comes to optimization and calibration. Using a complete system approach, i.e., considering the engine and the aftertreatment system as a single unit, is important in order to achieve good performance. Optimizing the complete system is a tedious task; first there are a large number of variables which affect both emissions and fuel consumption (injection timing, EGR rate, urea dosing, injection pressure, pilot/post injections, for example). Secondly, the chemical reactions in the SCR catalyst are substantially slower than the dynamics of the diesel engine and the rest of the system, making the optimization problem time dependent.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between In-Cylinder PIV Measurements, CFD Simulations and Steady-Flow Impulse Torque Swirl Meter Measurements

2003-10-27
2003-01-3147
In-cylinder flow measurements, conventional swirl measurements and CFD-simulations have been performed and then compared. The engine studied is a single cylinder version of a Scania D12 that represents a modern heavy-duty truck size engine. Bowditch type optical access and flat piston is used. The cylinder head was also measured in a steady-flow impulse torque swirl meter. From the two-dimensional flow-field, which was measured in the interval from -200° ATDC to 65° ATDC at two different positions from the cylinder head, calculations of the vorticity, turbulence and swirl were made. A maximum in swirl occurs at about 50° before TDC while the maximum vorticity and turbulence occurs somewhat later during the compression stroke. The swirl centre is also seen moving around and it does not coincide with the geometrical centre of the cylinder. The simulated flow-field shows similar behaviour as that seen in the measurements.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Speed Estimation via Vibration Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0632
Due to demanding legislation on exhaust emissions for internal combustion engines and increasing fuel prices, automotive manufacturers have focused their efforts on optimizing turbocharging systems. Turbocharger system control optimization is difficult: Unsteady flow conditions combined with not very accurate compressor maps make the real time turbocharger rotational speed one of the most important quantities in the optimization process. This work presents a methodology designed to obtain the turbocharger rotational speed via vibration analysis. Standard knock sensors have been employed in order to achieve a robust and accurate, yet still a low-cost solution capable of being mounted on-board. Results show that the developed method gives an estimation of the turbocharger rotational speed, with errors and accuracy acceptable for the proposed application. The method has been evaluated on a heavy duty diesel engine.
Journal Article

Planning Flexible Maintenance for Heavy Trucks using Machine Learning Models, Constraint Programming, and Route Optimization

2017-03-28
2017-01-0237
Maintenance planning of trucks at Scania have previously been done using static cyclic plans with fixed sets of maintenance tasks, determined by mileage, calendar time, and some data driven physical models. Flexible maintenance have improved the maintenance program with the addition of general data driven expert rules and the ability to move sub-sets of maintenance tasks between maintenance occasions. Meanwhile, successful modelling with machine learning on big data, automatic planning using constraint programming, and route optimization are hinting on the ability to achieve even higher fleet utilization by further improvements of the flexible maintenance. The maintenance program have therefore been partitioned into its smallest parts and formulated as individual constraint rules. The overall goal is to maximize the utilization of a fleet, i.e. maximize the ability to perform transport assignments, with respect to maintenance.
Technical Paper

The Application of Ceramic and Catalytic Coatings to Reduce the Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1833
An experimental and theoretical study of the effect of thermal barriers and catalytic coatings in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted. The main intent of the study was to investigate if a thermal barrier or catalytic coating of the wall would support the oxidation of the near-wall unburned hydrocarbons. In addition, the effect of these coatings on thermal efficiency due to changed heat transfer characteristics was investigated. The experimental setup was based on a partially coated combustion chamber. The upper part of the cylinder liner, the piston top including the top land, the valves and the cylinder head were all coated. As a thermal barrier, a coating based on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 was used. The catalytic coating was based on plasma-sprayed ZrO2 doped with Platinum. The two coatings tested were of varying thickness' of 0.15, 0.25 and 0.6 mm. The compression ratio was set to 16.75:1.
Technical Paper

CFD Studies of Combustion and In-Cylinder Soot Trends in a DI Diesel Engine - Comparison to Direct Photography Studies

2000-06-19
2000-01-1889
The main objective of this work is to develop a CFD model for studies of combustion and in-cylinder soot trends in a single cylinder DI diesel engine based on the Scania 14 liter V8 engine. The evaluation of the model is made with respect to ignition, cylinder pressure, heat release, onset of diffusion controlled combustion, liquid fuel spray penetration, in-cylinder soot distribution and exhaust soot level. The simulation results are compared to direct photography images and two-color calculations of temperature and soot distribution in a corresponding optical access test engine. This comparison shows good agreement concerning diffusion flame onset, liquid penetration, rate of heat release and local temperature distribution. Moreover, the prediction of in-cylinder soot distribution after end of injection also agrees well with the two-color calculation. To validate the model, the simulation is repeated for three different sets of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Knock Sensor Based Virtual Cylinder Pressure Sensor

2019-01-15
2019-01-0040
Typically the combustion in a direct injected compression ignited internal combustion engine is open-loop controlled. The introduction of a cylinder pressure sensor opens up the possibility of a virtual combustion sensor which could enable closed-loop combustion control and thus the potential to counteract effects such as engine part to part variation, component ageing and fuel quality diversity. Closed-loop combustion control requires precise, robust and preferably cheap sensors. This paper presents a virtual cylinder pressure sensor based on the signal from the inexpensive but well proven knock sensor. The method used to convert the knock sensor signal into a pressure estimate included the stages: Phase correcting the raw signal, Filtering the raw signal, Scaling the signal to known thermodynamic laws and provided engine sensors signals and Reconstructing parts of the signal with other known models and assumptions.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Exhaust Valve Flow 1-D Modelling During Blowdown Conditions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0058
To conduct system level studies on internal combustion engines reduced order models are required in order to keep the computational load below reasonable limits. By its nature a reduced order model is a simplification of reality and may introduce modeling errors. However what is of interest is the size of the error and if it is possible to reduce the error by some method. A popular system level study is gas exchange and in this paper the focus is on the exhaust valve. Generally the valve is modeled as an ideal nozzle where the flow losses are captured by reducing the flow area. As the valve moves slowly compared to the flow the process is assumed to be quasi-steady, i.e. interpolation between steady-flow measurements can be used to describe the dynamic process during valve opening. These measurements are generally done at low pressure drops, as the influence of pressure ratio is assumed to be negligible.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Heat Transfer Coefficient in Piston Cooling Galleries

2018-09-10
2018-01-1776
Piston cooling galleries are critical for the pistons’ capability to handle increasing power density while maintaining the same level of durability. However, piston cooling also accounts for a considerable amount of heat rejection and parasitic losses. Knowing the distribution of the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) inside the cooling gallery could enable new designs which ensure effective cooling of areas decisive for durability while minimizing parasitic losses and overall heat rejection. In this study, an inverse heat transfer method is presented to determine the spatial HTC distribution inside the cooling gallery based on surface temperature measurements with an infrared (IR) camera. The method utilizes a piston specially machined so it only has a thin sheet of material of a known thickness left between the cooling gallery and the piston bowl. The piston - initially at room temperature - is heated up with warm oil injected into the cooling gallery.
Journal Article

Heat Loss Analysis of a Steel Piston and a YSZ Coated Piston in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Phosphor Thermometry Measurements

2017-03-28
2017-01-1046
Diesel engine manufacturers strive towards further efficiency improvements. Thus, reducing in-cylinder heat losses is becoming increasingly important. Understanding how location, thermal insulation, and engine operating conditions affect the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls is fundamental for the future reduction of in-cylinder heat losses. This study investigates the effect of a 1mm-thick plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating on a piston. Such a coated piston and a similar steel piston are compared to each other based on experimental data for the heat release, the heat transfer rate to the oil in the piston cooling gallery, the local instantaneous surface temperature, and the local instantaneous surface heat flux. The surface temperature was measured for different crank angle positions using phosphor thermometry.
Journal Article

Modeling and Characterization of a Novel Porous Metallic Foam Inside Ducts

2015-06-15
2015-01-2203
A novel porous metallic foam has been studied in this work. This composite material is a mixture of resin and hollow spheres. It is lightweight, highly resistive to contamination and heat, and is capable of providing similar or better sound absorption compared to the conventional porous absorbers, but with a robust and less degradable properties. Several configurations of the material have been tested inside an expansion chamber with spatially periodic area changes. Bragg scattering was observed in some configurations with certain lattice constants. The acoustic properties of this material have been characterized from the measurement of the two-port matrix across a cylindrical sample. The complex density and speed of sound can be extracted from the transfer matrix using an optimization technique. Several models were developed to validate the effect of this metallic foam using Finite Elements and the Two-port Theory.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamics of Timber Trucks - a Wind Tunnel Investigation

2015-04-14
2015-01-1562
There is a need for reducing fuel consumption and thereby also reducing CO2 and other emissions in all areas of transportation and the forest industry is no exception. In the particular case of timber trucks special care have to be taken when designing such vehicles; they have to be sturdy and operate in harsh conditions and they are being driven empty half the time. It is well known that the aerodynamic resistance constitutes a significant part of the vehicles driving resistance and four areas in particular, front of vehicle, gap, side/underbody and rear of the vehicle contributes about one quarter each. In order to address these issues a wind tunnel investigation was initiated where a 1:6 scale model of a timber truck was designed to operate in a 3.6 m wind tunnel. The present model resembles a generic timber truck with a flexible design such that different configurations could be tested easily.
Technical Paper

Surge Detection Using Knock Sensors in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0050
Improving turbocharger performance to increase engine efficiency has the potential to help meet current and upcoming exhaust legislation. One limiting factor is compressor surge, an air flow instability phenomenon capable of causing severe vibration and noise. To avoid surge, the turbocharger is operated with a safety margin (surge margin) which, as well as avoiding surge in steady state operation, unfortunately also lowers engine performance. This paper investigates the possibility of detecting compressor surge with a conventional engine knock sensor. It further recommends a surge detection algorithm based on their signals during transient engine operation. Three knock sensors were mounted on the turbocharger and placed along the axes of three dimensions of movement. The engine was operated in load steps starting from steady state. The steady state points of operation covered the vital parts of the engine speed and load range.
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