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Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Influence of Variable In-Cylinder Flow, Caused by Active Valve Train, on Combustion and Emissions in a Diesel Engine at Low Lambda Operation

Spray and mixture formation in a compression ignition engine is of paramount importance for diesel combustion. In engine transient operation, when the load increases rapidly, the combustion system needs to handle low lambda (λ) operation while avoiding high particle emissions. Single-cylinder tests were performed to evaluate the effect of differences in cylinder flow on combustion and emissions at typical low λ transient operation. The tests were performed on a heavy-duty single-cylinder test engine with Lotus Active Valve Train (AVT) controlling the inlet airflow. The required swirl number (SN) and tumble were controlled by applying different inlet valve profiles and opening either both inlet valves or only one or the other. The operating point of interest was extracted from engine transient conditions before the boost pressure was increased and investigated further at steady state conditions.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Control of a Combined EGR/SCR HD Diesel Engine

Achieving upcoming HD emissions legislation, Euro VI/EPA 10, is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. A likely solution to meet the NOx limit is to use a combination of EGR and SCR. Combining these two technologies poses new challenges and possibilities when it comes to optimization and calibration. Using a complete system approach, i.e., considering the engine and the aftertreatment system as a single unit, is important in order to achieve good performance. Optimizing the complete system is a tedious task; first there are a large number of variables which affect both emissions and fuel consumption (injection timing, EGR rate, urea dosing, injection pressure, pilot/post injections, for example). Secondly, the chemical reactions in the SCR catalyst are substantially slower than the dynamics of the diesel engine and the rest of the system, making the optimization problem time dependent.
Technical Paper

A Study of In-Cylinder Fuel Spray Formation and its Influence on Exhaust Emissions Using an Optical Diesel Engine

Increasingly stringent emission legislation as well as increased demand on fuel efficiency calls for further research and development in the diesel engine field. Spray formation, evaporation and ignition delay are important factors that influence the combustion and emission formation processes in a diesel engine. Increased understanding of the mixture formation process is valuable in the development of low emission, high efficiency diesel engines. In this paper spray formation and ignition under real engine conditions have been studied in an optical engine capable of running close to full load for a real HD diesel engine. Powerful external lights were used to provide the required light intensity for high speed camera images in the combustion chamber prior to ignition. A specially developed software was used for spray edge detection and tracking. The software provides crank angle resolved spray penetration data.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Simplified Model for Combustion and Emission Formation in Diesel Engines Based on Correlations for Spray Penetration and Dispersion, Gas Entrainment into Sprays and Flame Lift-off

A simplified combustion and emission formation model for diesel engines has been developed in a project where the long term objective is to predict emissions during transient operation. The intended application implies that the final model must be both computationally inexpensive and comprehensive so that it can be used for optimization of engine control variables when coupled to full-engine simulation software. As starting point, the proposed model uses diesel spray correlations established in combustion vessels regarding spray penetration, dispersion, gas entrainment, ignition and flame lift-off. It has been found that with minor adaption, these correlations are valid also for combustion in an engine. By assuming a fully mixing controlled combustion after ignition and by use of simplified emission models, the correlations have been found useful for predicting trends in engine-out emission with low computational cost.
Technical Paper

Study of a Heavy Duty Euro5 EGR-Engine Sensitivity to Fuel Change with Emphasis on Combustion and Emission Formation

A diesel engine developed for an international market must be able to run on different fuels considering the diesel fuel qualities and the increasing selection of biofuels in the world. This leads to the question of how different fuels perform relative to a standard diesel fuel when not changing the hardware settings. In this study five fuels (Japanese diesel, MK3, EN590 with 10% RME, EN590 with 30% RME and pure RME) have been compared to a reference diesel fuel (Swedish MK1) when run on three different speeds and three different loads at each speed. The experiments are run on a Scania 13l Euro5 engine with standard settings for Swedish MK1 diesel. In general the differences were not large between the fuels. NO x usually increased compared to MK1 and then soot decreased as would be expected. The combustion efficiency increased with increased RME contents of the fuel but the indicated efficiency was not influenced by RME except for at higher loads.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Intake CO2-level during Load Transients on a 1-Cylinder Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine

For diesel engines the major exhaust problem is particulate matter and NOx emissions. To reduce NOx, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is often used. The behavior of the EGR-level will therefore influence the emissions and it is therefore valuable to keep track of the EGR-level. Especially during transients it is difficult to predict how the EGR-level varies. In this paper the CO2-level in the intake is modeled on a 1-cylinder diesel engine to predict the in cylinder behavior during transients. The model is based on simple thermodynamics together with the ideal gas law. Using this, the model is validated by experimental data during transients and the correlation between model and experiment is shown to be strong. Furthermore, the total tank volume is decreased to achieve a faster mixing with the intention of simulating the behavior of the CO2-level in a full-size engine which has a higher gas flow.
Technical Paper

Swirl and Injection Pressure Impact on After-Oxidation in Diesel Combustion, Examined with Simultaneous Combustion Image Velocimetry and Two Colour Optical Method

After-oxidation in Heavy Duty (HD) diesel combustion is of paramount importance for emissions out from the engine. During diffusion diesel combustion, lots of particulate matter (PM) is created. Most of the PM are combusted during the after-oxidation part of the combustion. Still some of the PM is not, especially during an engine transient at low lambda. To enhance the PM oxidation in the late engine cycle, swirl together with high injection pressure can be implemented to increase in-cylinder turbulence at different stages in the cycle. Historically swirl is known to reduce soot particulates. It has also been shown, that with today's high injection pressures, can be combined with swirl to reduce PM at an, for example, engine transient. The mechanism why the PM engine out is reduced also at high injection pressures is however not so well understood.
Technical Paper

Radiocarbon and Hydrocarbon Analysis of PM Sources During WHTC Tests on a Biodiesel-Fueled Engine

PM in diesel exhaust has been given much attention due to its adverse effect on both climate and health. As the PM emission levels are tightened, the portion of particles originating from the lubrication oil is likely to increase. In this study, exhausts from a biodiesel-fueled Euro 5 engine were examined to determine how much of the carbonaceous particles that originated from the fuel and the lubrication oil, respectively. A combination of three methods was used to determine the PM origin: chain length analysis of the hydrocarbons, determination of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and the concentration of 14C found in the exhausts. It was found that the standard method for measuring hydrocarbons in PM on a filter (chain length analysis) only accounted for 63 % of the OC, meaning that it did not account for all non-soot carbon in the exhausts.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Speed Estimation via Vibration Analysis

Due to demanding legislation on exhaust emissions for internal combustion engines and increasing fuel prices, automotive manufacturers have focused their efforts on optimizing turbocharging systems. Turbocharger system control optimization is difficult: Unsteady flow conditions combined with not very accurate compressor maps make the real time turbocharger rotational speed one of the most important quantities in the optimization process. This work presents a methodology designed to obtain the turbocharger rotational speed via vibration analysis. Standard knock sensors have been employed in order to achieve a robust and accurate, yet still a low-cost solution capable of being mounted on-board. Results show that the developed method gives an estimation of the turbocharger rotational speed, with errors and accuracy acceptable for the proposed application. The method has been evaluated on a heavy duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Soot Particles in the Cylinder of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with High EGR

When applying high amount of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) using diesel fuel, an increase in soot emission is observed as a penalty. To better understand how EGR affects soot particles in the cylinder, a fast gas sampling technique was used to draw gas samples directly out of the combustion chamber in a Scania D13 heavy duty diesel engine. The samples were characterized on-line using a scanning mobility particle sizer for soot size distributions and an aethalometer for black carbon (soot) mass concentrations. Three EGR rates, 0%, 56% and 64% were applied in the study. It was found that EGR reduces both the soot formation rate and the soot oxidation rate, due to lower flame temperature and a lower availability of oxidizing agents. With higher EGR rates, the peak soot mass concentration decreased. However, the oxidation rate was reduced even more.
Technical Paper

Swirl and Injection Pressure Effect on Post-Oxidation Flow Pattern Evaluated with Combustion Image Velocimetry, CIV, and CFD Simulation

In-cylinder flow pattern has been examined experimentally in a heavy duty optical diesel engine and simulated with CFD code during the combustion and the post-oxidation phase. Mean swirling velocity field and its evolution were extracted from optical tests with combustion image velocimetry (CIV). It is known that the post-oxidation period has great impact on the soot emissions. Lately it has been shown in swirling combustion systems with high injection pressures, that the remaining swirling vortex in the post-oxidation phase deviates strongly from solid body rotation. Solid body rotation can only be assumed to be the case before fuel injection. In the studied cases the tangential velocity is higher in the centre of the piston bowl compared to the outer region of the bowl. The used CIV method is closely related to the PIV technique, but makes it possible to extract flow pattern during combustion at full load in an optical diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Error Propagation in Heavy Duty Gas Flow Measurement

The amount of emitted pollutants from an internal combustion engine is regulated by emission legislation. Commonly regulated pollutants for the diesel engine are NOx and PM. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one efficient way of controlling the NOx emissions, and to control PM emissions an accurate lambda control is used. Both EGR- and lambda control requires good knowledge of the gas flows in the engine. The gas flows of interest are inlet air, EGR, total gas flow through the engine and total amount of exhaust gas. There are several possible concepts to measure and/or model these gas flows, all with their pros and cons. Flow and concentration based measurement concepts for determining the gas flows in a heavy duty diesel engine with EGR are investigated. The flow based concepts measures the amount of gas directly with a flow meter such as a hot-film air meter, ultrasonic flow meter or an orifice plate.
Technical Paper

A Study on In-Cycle Control of NOx Using Injection Strategy with a Fast Cylinder Pressure Based Emission Model as Feedback

The emission control in heavy-duty vehicles today is based on predefined injection strategies and after-treatment systems such as SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and DPF (diesel particulate filter). State-of-the-art engine control is presently based on cycle-to-cycle resolution. The introduction of the crank angle resolved pressure measurement, from a piezo-based pressure sensor, enables the possibility to control the fuel injection based on combustion feedback while the combustion is occurring. In this paper a study is presented on the possibility to control NOx (nitrogen oxides) formation with a crank angle resolved NOx estimator as feedback. The estimator and the injection control are implemented on an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) to manage the inherent time constraints. The FPGA is integrated with the rest of the engine control system for injection control and measurement.
Technical Paper

Heat Release Based Virtual Combustion Sensor Signal Bias Sensitivity

Typically, the combustion in an internal combustion engine is open-loop controlled. The introduction of a cylinder pressure sensor opens the possibility to introduce a virtual combustion sensor. This virtual sensor is a possible enabler for closed-loop combustion control and thus the possibility to counteract the effects of engine part to part variation, component ageing and fuel quality diversity. The extent to which these effects can be counteracted is determined by the detection limits of the virtual combustion sensor. To determine the limitation of the virtual combustion sensor, a virtual combustion sensor system was implemented based on a one-zone heat-release analysis, including the signal processing of the pressure sensor input. The typical error sources in a heavy-duty engine were identified and quantified. The virtual combustion sensor system was presented with flawed signals and the sensor’s sensitivities to the errors were quantified.
Technical Paper

The Application of Ceramic and Catalytic Coatings to Reduce the Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

An experimental and theoretical study of the effect of thermal barriers and catalytic coatings in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted. The main intent of the study was to investigate if a thermal barrier or catalytic coating of the wall would support the oxidation of the near-wall unburned hydrocarbons. In addition, the effect of these coatings on thermal efficiency due to changed heat transfer characteristics was investigated. The experimental setup was based on a partially coated combustion chamber. The upper part of the cylinder liner, the piston top including the top land, the valves and the cylinder head were all coated. As a thermal barrier, a coating based on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 was used. The catalytic coating was based on plasma-sprayed ZrO2 doped with Platinum. The two coatings tested were of varying thickness' of 0.15, 0.25 and 0.6 mm. The compression ratio was set to 16.75:1.
Technical Paper

CFD Studies of Combustion and In-Cylinder Soot Trends in a DI Diesel Engine - Comparison to Direct Photography Studies

The main objective of this work is to develop a CFD model for studies of combustion and in-cylinder soot trends in a single cylinder DI diesel engine based on the Scania 14 liter V8 engine. The evaluation of the model is made with respect to ignition, cylinder pressure, heat release, onset of diffusion controlled combustion, liquid fuel spray penetration, in-cylinder soot distribution and exhaust soot level. The simulation results are compared to direct photography images and two-color calculations of temperature and soot distribution in a corresponding optical access test engine. This comparison shows good agreement concerning diffusion flame onset, liquid penetration, rate of heat release and local temperature distribution. Moreover, the prediction of in-cylinder soot distribution after end of injection also agrees well with the two-color calculation. To validate the model, the simulation is repeated for three different sets of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Transient Emission Predictions With Quasi Stationary Models

Heavy trucks contribute significantly to the overall air pollution, especially NOx and PM emissions. Models to predict the emissions from heavy trucks in real world on road conditions are therefore of great interest. Most such models are based on data achieved from stationary measurements, i.e. engine maps. This type of “quasi stationary” models could also be of interest in other applications where emission models of low complexity are desired, such as engine control and simulation and control of exhaust aftertreatment systems. In this paper, results from quasi stationary calculations of fuel consumption, CO, HC, NOx and PM emissions are compared with time resolved measurements of the corresponding quantities. Measurement data from three Euro 3-class engines is used. The differences are discussed in terms of the conditions during transients and correction models for quasi stationary calculations are presented. Simply using engine maps without transient correction is not sufficient.
Technical Paper

Modelling Diesel Engine Combustion and NOx Formation for Model Based Control and Simulation of Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

Emissions standards are becoming increasingly harder to reach without the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems such as Selective Catalytic Reduction and particulate filters. In order to make efficient use of these systems it is important to have accurate models of engine-out emissions. Such models are also useful for optimizing and controlling next-generation engines without aftertreatment using for example exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Engines are getting more advanced using systems such as common rail fuel injection, variable geometry turbochargers (VGT) and EGR. With these new technologies and active control of the injection timing, more sophisticated models than simple stationary emission maps must be used to get adequate results. This paper is focused on the calculation of engine-out NOx and engine parameters such as cylinder pressure, temperature and gas flows.
Technical Paper

Influence from Contact Pressure Distribution on Energy Dissipation in Bolted Joints

Energy dissipation due to micro-slip in joints is the primary source of damping in many vehicle and space structures. This paper presents results on how the surface topology may be modified to increase the energy dissipation in joints. An analytical solution for general forms of contact pressure of a one-dimensional micro-slip problem is presented. The solution indicates how the contact pressure should be distributed to maximize the energy dissipation. Two dimensional contact pressures are optimized using finite element methods in combination with numerical optimization methods and the results are used to modify the surface topology in bolted joints in order to increase the energy dissipation during loading. The predicted increase of energy dissipation is validated with physical testing. A direct result of the study is a washer with varying thickness increasing the energy dissipation in joints and hence the structural damping of joined structures.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Interactions between Lubricant-derived Species and Aftertreatment Systems on a State-of-the-Art Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

The tightening legislation in the on-road heavy-duty diesel area means that pollution control systems will soon be widely introduced on such engines. A number of different aftertreatment systems are currently being considered to meet the incoming legislation, including Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF), Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. Relatively little is known about the interactions between lubricant-derived species and such aftertreatment systems. This paper describes the results of an experimental program carried out to investigate these interactions within DPF, DOC and SCR systems on a state-of-the-art 9 litre engine. The influence of lubricant composition and lube oil ash level was investigated on the different catalyst systems. In order to reduce costs and to speed up testing, test oil was dosed into the fuel. Tests without dosing lubricant into the fuel were also run.