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Journal Article

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of Ahmed Model Using Synthetic Jet Array

As speed of ground vehicle increases, there are increased concerns on the aerodynamic drag reduction of ground vehicle. Recently, synthetic jet is emerging as a promising active flow control technology for aerodynamic drag reduction. In this paper, we performed an experimental parametric study on synthetic jet for aerodynamic drag reduction of Ahmed model. Synthetic jet array is constructed by twelve synthetic jet actuators, and installed on two kinds of Ahmed models, of which slant angles are 25° and 35°. The jets are emanated between the roof and the rear slant surface. Jet angle, momentum coefficient, and driving frequency are changed to assess the effect of synthetic jet array on aerodynamic drag. To quantify the effect of synthetic jet, the aerodynamic drag and rear surface pressure are measured and analyzed. From the result, the effect of synthetic jet actuation on aerodynamic drag differs according to the slant angle of the body.
Journal Article

Lateral Control for Automated Vehicle Following System in Urban Environments

In contrast to highway, there are some sections not well maintained in urban roads. In these sections, there may be faint lane marks or static obstacles due to construction or some other reasons. Therefore, an automated vehicle following system such as traffic jam assistant should consider these sections to guarantee the safety of the system. In order to achieve this purpose, a model predictive control (MPC) scheme has been developed. The objectives of MPC are to compute the sequence of optimal steering input for vehicle following with obstacle avoidance. For this, the MPC uses the lead vehicle's state and obstacle's position obtained by lidars. For this purpose, a simplified nonlinear model of the vehicle was used to predict the future evolution of the system. Based on this prediction, performance index is optimized under operating constraints at each time step. A test vehicle equipped with two lidars on left and right corner of the front bumper has been developed.
Technical Paper

A Study of an Active Rear Diffuser Device for Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of Automobiles

The goal of this study is to develop an actively translating rear diffuser device to reduce the aerodynamic drag experienced by passenger cars. The feature of this device is hidden under the rear bumper ordinarily not to ruin the external design of the car and slips out backward under the high-speed driving condition. By this study, a movable arc-shaped semi-diffuser device is designed to maintain the streamlined automobile rear underbody configuration. It's installed under the rear bumper of a passenger car. Seven types of rear diffuser devices whose positions, slid out lengths and widths are differing with the basic shape installed in the rear bumper section of a passenger car and performed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses under rotating wheel and moving ground conditions. The main purpose of this study is that explains the aerodynamic drag reduction mechanism of a passenger car via an actively translating rear diffuser device at a high speed driving condition.
Technical Paper

Wire Segment Error Locating Algorithm for Wiring Connection Verification Tool

Due to increasing amount of modules and customized options in commercial vehicles, it becomes more and more difficult to verify the circuit design. In this paper, a wire segment error locating algorithm is proposed to automate the exact wire segment error locating process. When a wrong connection is found by existing tool, guided by the exact description of wire segment error, this algorithm can locate exact wire segment error in the connection by searching for the one that has at least one neighboring segment from a correct connection.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Syngas Combustion Based on Methane at Various Reforming Ratios

Characteristics of syngas combustion at various reforming ratios were studied numerically. The syngas was formed by the partial oxidation of methane to mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide and cooled to ambient temperature. Stiochiometric and lean premixed flames of the mixtures of methane and the syngas were compared at the atmospheric temperature and pressure conditions. The adiabatic flame temperature decreased with the reforming ratio. The laminar burning velocity, however, increased with the reforming ratio. For stretched flames in a counterflow, the high temperature region was broadened with the reforming ratio. The maximum flame temperature decreased with the reforming ratio for the stoichiometric case, but increased for the lean case except for the region of very low stretch rate. The extinction stretch rate increased with the reforming ratio, implying that the syngas assisted flame is more resistance to turbulence level.
Technical Paper

Development of a MEMS-based Acceleration Sensing Module for Electronic Stability Program

This paper describes our development work for acceleration sensing modules for electronic stability program (ESP) applications. The accelerometer is fabricated using the unique sacrificial/bulk micromachining (SBM) process by us. The sensing modules are designed to measure low level accelerations accurately and be stable in an automotive environment. This paper describes the accelerometer design and fabrication, electronic circuits and PCB design, module assembly, and performances of the developed sensing module. The developed sensing module offers analog voltage output with ±1.5g dynamic range, 0.05% nonlinearity, >50Hz bandwidth and 1295mV/g scale factor. The module includes a CAN2.0A interface and yields good experimental performance when implemented on a CAN test server.
Technical Paper

Study of a Stratification Effect on Engine Performance in Gasoline HCCI Combustion by Using the Multi-zone Method and Reduced Kinetic Mechanism

A gasoline homogeneous charged compression ignition (HCCI) called the controlled auto ignition (CAI) engine is an alternative to conventional gasoline engines with higher efficiency and lower emission levels. However, noise and vibration are currently major problems in the CAI engine. The problems result from fast burning speeds during combustion, because in the CAI engine combustion is controlled by auto-ignition rather than the flame. Thus, the ignition delay of the local mixture has to vary according to the location in the combustion chamber to avoid noise and vibration. For making different ignition delays, stratification of temperature or mixing ratio was tested in this study. In charge stratification, which determines the difference between the start of combustion among charges with different properties, two kinds of mixtures with different properties flow into two intake ports.
Technical Paper

Development of Module Based IPS Evaluation System

A module based IPS (Intelligent Power Switch) evaluation system is proposed in this paper. As the IPS is gradually replacing the conventional relay and fuses, the stability and reliability of power system depends more on these IPS. The proposed IPS evaluation system outperforms the conventional manual evaluation in terms of speed and efficiency. This paper will introduce the structure of hardware and software of the IPS evaluation system. The system is placed between the module and cable connector to evaluate the module in an operating car without changing the cables. The control and signal processing is carried out by personal computer which is connected to the evaluation system by USB (Universal Serial Bus). The load resistance can be switch from actual load to arbitrary value using relay circuitry and DC electric load controlled by GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus). CAN (Controller Area Network) circuits were added to control the IPS mounted inside the module.
Technical Paper

Three Types of Simulation Algorithms for Evaluating the HEV Fuel Efficiency

In regard to the evaluation of the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), there are as many simulation methods as there are developers or researchers. They adopt different operational algorithms and they use diverse techniques to realize their logic. However, the relation among the various simulation methods has not been clearly defined. Thus, it is not easy to choose a method that would bring the best consequences in the most efficient way. Here, we present three types of backward-looking simulation algorithms for evaluating the fuel efficiency of a power-split HEV. Then the results and cost-effectiveness of each algorithm are analyzed using various component ratings over a representative driving mode. Based on the comparative analysis, the algorithm that uses equivalent fuel consumption is shown to be highly cost-effective. Also, an inductive or empirical base is set up with the results for a component sizing methodology using the recommended simulation.
Technical Paper

A Screening Attenuation Evaluation Method for HEV Power Cable

This paper proposes a new screening attenuation evaluation method (PHSA) for hybrid power cables. Hybrid power cables connect battery, inverter and motor. As the noise and shield characteristics of these cables are different from general communication shield wires, new method for evaluating screening attenuation is needed. We considered the radiation direction, noise current path and various load terminations to evaluate the screening attenuation which is different from standard screening attenuation measurement. Feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method were verified with real experiment results.
Technical Paper

Development of Ground Level Simulation Tool for Automotive Applications

This paper describes the ground system model and algorithm for a ground level simulation tool. First, the modeling of an automotive ground system will be discussed and the algorithm for a simulation tool will be explained. We divided the model into a ground tree and a ground body. The ground tree model consists of resistance formed by the wires that connect the load to ground point with various structures and the ground body model consists of resistance between ground points in the car body. The wires with large current, such as engine ground cable, was modeled in detail by dividing the resistance into wire, bolt, and clamping resistance, in order to simulate the effect of increased contact resistance after durability test. The algorithm of the ground level simulation tool was designed to adjust the currents of the alternator, battery, and ground points in order to evaluate the various driving and load conditions.
Technical Paper

Application of Functional Design Method to Road Vehicle Aerodynamic Optimization in Initial Design Stage

Exterior shape of automobile can be represented by shape function through this study so that aerodynamic shape parameters can be easily controlled and changed. Also ordinary geometric information can be extracted easily from shape function model by simple calculations. It is possible to predict the aerodynamic performance of functional virtual car models which are transformed continually by developing automated program in initial design stage that includes all of above process. Innovative vehicle design process with exterior design guide will be proposed for stylist, engineer and packaging department in order to achieve low aerodynamic drag and high fuel efficiency targets.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into Unified Chassis Control based on Correlation with Longitudinal/Lateral Tire Force Behavior

This paper presents a Unified Chassis Control (UCC) strategy to improve vehicle stability and maneuverability by integrating Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Active Front Steering (AFS). The UCC architecture consists of two parts: an estimator and a controller. The estimator is designed to estimate longitudinal and lateral tire forces and the controller is designed in two stages, namely, an upper level controller and a lower level controller. The upper level controller, provides the desired yaw moment for vehicle lateral stability by adopting a sliding control method. The lower level controller, provides the integration method of the AFS and ESC strategies for the desired yaw moment and is designed by optimal tire force coordination.
Journal Article

Skid Steering Based Maneuvering of Robotic Vehicle with Articulated Suspension

This paper describes a driving control algorithm based on skid steering for a Robotic Vehicle with Articulated Suspension (RVAS). The driving control algorithm consists of four parts; speed controller for tracking of the desired speeds, yaw rate controller which computes a yaw moment input to track desired yaw rates, longitudinal tire force distribution which determines an optimal desired longitudinal tire force and wheel torque controller which determines a wheel torque command at each wheel to keep slip ratio at each wheel below a limit value as well as track the desired tire force. Longitudinal and vertical tire force estimators are designed for optimal tire force distribution and wheel slip control. The dynamic model of RVAS for simulation study is validated using vehicle test data.
Technical Paper

A Study on Vortex Shedding Around a Bluff Body Near the Ground

A series of experiments and computational analysis were carried out on the flow around a bluff body. Some non-streamlined ground vehicles, buildings and pipelines near to the ground could encounter very dangerous situations because of the unsteady wind loading caused by the periodic vortex shedding behind the bluff body. A two-dimensional bluff body model was used to simulate flow in the wake region. Spectral analysis of the velocity profiles in the underbody region was also used to examine the influence of the underbody flow in the wake region. By using a flow visualization technique, the critical gap height and the separation line on the ground were investigated for various gap heights and boundary layer thicknesses. Additionally, the 2-D Incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with an ε - SST (Strain Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model was used for comparison with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Development of a Vehicle System Model for the First Medium- and Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Standards in Korea

To properly respond to demands to reduce national energy consumption and meet greenhouse gas emission targets based on environment policy, the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy of Korea formed a research consortium consisting of government agencies and academic and research institutions to establish the first fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty (MHD) commercial vehicles. The standards are expected to be introduced in 2017 as Phase 1 of the plan and will regulate trucks with a gross vehicle weight in excess of 3.5 tons and buses with a carrying capacity of more than 16 persons. Most MHD commercial vehicles are custom-made and manufactured in diversified small-quantity batch production systems for commercial or public use, resulting in difficulties in utilizing mandatory vehicle tests for fuel efficiency evaluations.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Refinement of Turbulence Intensity Prediction for the Estimation of In-Cylinder Pressure in a Spark-Ignited Engine

The role of 1D simulation tool is growing as the engine system is becoming more complex with the adoption of a variety of new technologies. For the reliability of the 1D simulation results, it is necessary to improve the accuracy and applicability of the combustion model implemented in the 1D simulation tool. Since the combustion process in SI engine is mainly determined by the turbulence, many models have been concentrating on the prediction of the evolution of in-cylinder turbulence intensity. In this study, two turbulence models which can resemble the turbulence intensity close to that of 3D CFD tool were utilized. The first model is dedicated to predicting the evolution of turbulence intensity during intake and compression strokes so that the turbulence intensity at the spark timing can be estimated properly. The second model is responsible for predicting the turbulence intensity of burned and unburned zone during the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Radiative Heat Transfer in Non-Gray Finite Cylindrical Media with Internal Heat Generations

Radiative heat transfer analysis in a finite cylindrical enclosure with non-gray media and internal heat generations have been conducted. Solutions are generated by a recently developed spherical harmonics method for a finite cylindrical configuration with the weighted sum of gray gases model. Numerical solutions are obtained for temperature and heat flux distributions with the variations of optical thickness and wall emissivity. The results show that with an increase in the absorption coefficient, the heat flux distribution along the lateral wall becomes symmetric regardless of the source distributions. The dependence of heat flux on the wall emissivity is reduced as well. The present solution technique seems to be easily extended to the coupled mode of heat transfer with convection in an engine cylinder.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Side Slip Angle Interacting Multiple Bicycle Models Approach for Vehicle Stability Control

This paper presents an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) based side slip angle estimation method to estimate side slip angle under various road conditions for vehicle stability control. Knowledge of the side slip angle is essential enhancing vehicle handling and stability. For the estimation of the side slip angles in previous researches, prior knowledge of tire parameters and road conditions have been employed, and sometimes additional sensors have been needed. These prior knowledge and additional sensors, however, necessitates many efforts and make an application of the estimation algorithm difficult. In this paper, side slip angle has been estimated using on-board vehicle sensors such as yaw rate and lateral acceleration sensors. The proposed estimation algorithm integrates the estimates from multiple Kalman filters based on the multiple models with different parameter set.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Control based Automated Driving Lane Change Control Algorithm for Merge Situation on Highway Intersection

This paper describes design and evaluation of a driving mode decision and lane change control algorithm of automated vehicle in merge situations on highway intersection. For the development of a highly automated driving control algorithm in merge situation, driving mode change from lane keeping to lane change is necessary to merge appropriately. In a merge situation, the driving objective is slightly different to general driving situation. Unlike general situation, the lane change should be completed in a limited travel distance in a merge situation. Merge mode decision is determined based on surrounding vehicles states and remained distance of merge lane. In merge mode decision algorithm, merge availability and desired merge position are decided to change lane safely and quickly. Merge availability and desired merge position are based on the safety distance that considers relative velocity and relative position of subject and surrounding vehicles.