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Technical Paper

Characteristics of Syngas Combustion Based on Methane at Various Reforming Ratios

2007-08-05
2007-01-3630
Characteristics of syngas combustion at various reforming ratios were studied numerically. The syngas was formed by the partial oxidation of methane to mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide and cooled to ambient temperature. Stiochiometric and lean premixed flames of the mixtures of methane and the syngas were compared at the atmospheric temperature and pressure conditions. The adiabatic flame temperature decreased with the reforming ratio. The laminar burning velocity, however, increased with the reforming ratio. For stretched flames in a counterflow, the high temperature region was broadened with the reforming ratio. The maximum flame temperature decreased with the reforming ratio for the stoichiometric case, but increased for the lean case except for the region of very low stretch rate. The extinction stretch rate increased with the reforming ratio, implying that the syngas assisted flame is more resistance to turbulence level.
Technical Paper

Study of a Stratification Effect on Engine Performance in Gasoline HCCI Combustion by Using the Multi-zone Method and Reduced Kinetic Mechanism

2009-06-15
2009-01-1784
A gasoline homogeneous charged compression ignition (HCCI) called the controlled auto ignition (CAI) engine is an alternative to conventional gasoline engines with higher efficiency and lower emission levels. However, noise and vibration are currently major problems in the CAI engine. The problems result from fast burning speeds during combustion, because in the CAI engine combustion is controlled by auto-ignition rather than the flame. Thus, the ignition delay of the local mixture has to vary according to the location in the combustion chamber to avoid noise and vibration. For making different ignition delays, stratification of temperature or mixing ratio was tested in this study. In charge stratification, which determines the difference between the start of combustion among charges with different properties, two kinds of mixtures with different properties flow into two intake ports.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Cyclic Variation and the Effect of Fuel Stratification on Combustion Stabilityin a Port Fuel Injection (PFI) CAI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0670
CAI engine is well known to be advantageous over conventional SI engines because it facilitates higher engine efficiency and lower emission (NOx and smoke). However, its limited operation range, large cyclic variation, and difficulty in heat release control are still unresolved obstacles. Previous studies showed that a high load range of the CAI engine is limited mainly by the combustion noise caused by a stiff pressure rise (knock), and that a low load range is also limited by the combustion instability caused by the high dilution of residual gas. In this study, the characteristics of each cycle were analyzed to find the cause of the cycle variation at the high load limit of CAI operation. Moreover, to improve combustion stability, we tested the in-cylinder fuel stratification by applying nonsymmetrical fuel injection to the intake port. Experiments were performed on a PFI single cylinder research engine equipped with dual CVVT and low lift (2 mm) cam shaft with NVO strategy.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Performance and Combustion of an LPG MPI Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2002-03-04
2002-01-0449
An LPG engine for heavy duty vehicles has been developed using liquid phase LPG injection (hereafter LPLI) system, which has regarded as as one of next generation LPG fuel supply systems. In this work the optimized piston cavities were investigated and chosen for an LPLI engine system. While the mass production of piston cavities is considered, three piston cavities were tested: Dog-dish type, bathtub type and top-land-cut bathtub type. From the experiments the bathtub type showed the extension of lean limit while achieving the stable combustion, compared to the dog-dish type at the same injection timing. Throughout CFD analysis, it was revealed that the extension of lean limit was due to an increase of turbulence intensity by the enlarged crevice area, and the enlargement of flame front surface owing to the shape of the bathtub piston cavity compared to that of the dog-dish type.
Technical Paper

The Structure Analysis of Evaporative Diesel Spray

2002-03-04
2002-01-0498
This paper analyzes heterogeneous distribution of branch-like structure at downstream region of the diesel spray. The liquid and vapor phase of the spray are obtained by a 35mm still camera and CCD camera in order to investigate spray structure of evaporative diesel spray. The many previous studies about diesel spray structure have yet stayed in the analyses of 2-D structure, and there is little information which is concerned with 3-D structure analysis of evaporative spray. The heterogeneous distribution of droplets in inner spray affects the mixture formation of diesel spray, and the combustion characteristics of the diesel engines. In this study, the laser beam of 2-D plane was used in order to investigate 3-D structure of evaporative spray. The incident laser beam was offset on central axis of the spray.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effect of Injection Strategies on Particulate Emission Characteristics under Cold Start Using In-cylinder Visualization

2016-04-05
2016-01-0822
Due to the direct injection of fuel into a combustion chamber, particulate emission is a challenge in DISI engines. Specifically, a significant amount of particulate emission is produced under the cold start condition. In this research, the main interest was to investigate particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition because it is one of the significant particulate-emissionproducing stages under the cold start condition. A single-cylinder optically accessible engine was used to investigate the effect of injection strategies on particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition. The split injection strategy was applied during intake stroke with various injection pressures and injection timings. Using luminosity analysis of the soot radiation during combustion, the particulate formation characteristics of each injection strategy were studied. Moreover, the factors that affect PM formation were analyzed via fuel injection visualization.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Refinement of Turbulence Intensity Prediction for the Estimation of In-Cylinder Pressure in a Spark-Ignited Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0525
The role of 1D simulation tool is growing as the engine system is becoming more complex with the adoption of a variety of new technologies. For the reliability of the 1D simulation results, it is necessary to improve the accuracy and applicability of the combustion model implemented in the 1D simulation tool. Since the combustion process in SI engine is mainly determined by the turbulence, many models have been concentrating on the prediction of the evolution of in-cylinder turbulence intensity. In this study, two turbulence models which can resemble the turbulence intensity close to that of 3D CFD tool were utilized. The first model is dedicated to predicting the evolution of turbulence intensity during intake and compression strokes so that the turbulence intensity at the spark timing can be estimated properly. The second model is responsible for predicting the turbulence intensity of burned and unburned zone during the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Study of LES Quality Criteria in a Motored Internal Combustion Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0549
In recent years, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is spotlighted as an engineering tool and severe research efforts are carried out on its applicability to Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). However, there is a general lack of definitive conclusions on LES quality criteria for ICE. This paper focuses on the application of LES quality criteria to ICE and to their correlation, in order to draw a solid background on future LES quality assessments for ICE. In this paper, TCC-III single-cylinder optical engine from University of Michigan is investigated and the analysis is conducted under motored condition. LES quality is mainly affected by grid size and type, sub-grid scale (SGS) model, numeric schemes. In this study, the same grid size and type are used in order to focus on the effect on LES quality of SGS models and blending factors of numeric scheme only.
Technical Paper

Measurements and Modeling of Residual Gas Fraction in SI Engines

2001-05-07
2001-01-1910
The residual gas in SI engines is one of important factors on emission and performance such as combustion stability. With high residual gas fractions, flame speed and maximum combustion temperature are decreased and there are deeply related with combustion stability, especially at Idle and NOx emission at relatively high engine load. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the residual gas fraction as a function of the engine operating parameters. A model for predicting the residual gas fraction has been formulated in this paper. The model accounts for the contribution due to the back flow of exhaust gas to the cylinder during valve overlap and it includes in-cylinder pressure prediction model during valve overlap. The model is derived from the one dimension flow process during overlap period and a simple ideal cycle model.
Technical Paper

Radiative Heat Transfer in Non-Gray Finite Cylindrical Media with Internal Heat Generations

1989-11-01
891332
Radiative heat transfer analysis in a finite cylindrical enclosure with non-gray media and internal heat generations have been conducted. Solutions are generated by a recently developed spherical harmonics method for a finite cylindrical configuration with the weighted sum of gray gases model. Numerical solutions are obtained for temperature and heat flux distributions with the variations of optical thickness and wall emissivity. The results show that with an increase in the absorption coefficient, the heat flux distribution along the lateral wall becomes symmetric regardless of the source distributions. The dependence of heat flux on the wall emissivity is reduced as well. The present solution technique seems to be easily extended to the coupled mode of heat transfer with convection in an engine cylinder.
Technical Paper

Impact of Grid Density on the LES Analysis of Flow CCV: Application to the TCC-III Engine under Motored Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0203
Large-eddy simulation (LES) applications for internal combustion engine (ICE) flows are constantly growing due to the increase of computing resources and the availability of suitable CFD codes, methods and practices. The LES superior capability for modeling spatial and temporal evolution of turbulent flow structures with reference to RANS makes it a promising tool for describing, and possibly motivating, ICE cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) and cycle-resolved events such as knock and misfire. Despite the growing interest towards LES in the academic community, applications to ICE flows are still limited. One of the reasons for such discrepancy is the uncertainty in the estimation of the LES computational cost. This in turn is mainly dependent on grid density, the CFD domain extent, the time step size and the overall number of cycles to be run. Grid density is directly linked to the possibility of reducing modeling assumptions for sub-grid scales.
Journal Article

Understanding the Effect of Inhomogeneous Mixing on Knocking Characteristics of Iso-Octane by Using Rapid Compression Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0212
As fuel injection strategies in spark-ignition (SI) engines have been diversified, inhomogeneous mixing of the fuel-air mixture can occur to varying extents during mixture preparation. In this study, we analyzed the effect of inhomogeneous mixing on the knocking characteristics of iso-octane and air mixture under a standardized fuel testing condition for research octane number (RON), based on ASTM D2699. For this purpose, we assumed that both lean spots and rich spots existed in unburned gas during compression stroke and flame propagation and calculated the thermodynamic state of the spots by using an in-house multi-zone, zero-dimensional SI engine model. Then, the ignition delay was measured over the derived thermodynamic profiles by using rapid compression machine (RCM), and we calculated ξ, the ratio of sound speed to auto-ignition propagation speed, based on Zel’dovich and Bradley’s ξ − ε theory to estimate knock intensity.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Influences of Intake Port Geometry on the Tumble Generation and Turbulence Characteristics by Zero-Dimensional Spark Ignition Engine Model

2018-09-10
2018-01-1660
The flame propagation characteristic is one of the greatest factor that determines the performance of spark ignition (SI) engines. The in-cylinder flow dynamics is very significant in terms of flame propagation because of its direct influence on the flame shape, turbulent flame speed, and the ignition quality. A number of different techniques are available to optimize the in-cylinder flow and maximize the utilization of turbulence for faster combustion, and tumble enhancement by intake port geometry is one of them. It requires excessive computational expenses to evaluate multiple designs under wide range of operating conditions by 3D-CFD, therefore, a low-dimensional model would be more competitive in such design optimization process. This work suggests a new modification approach for typical 0D turbulence model to take account for the tumble generation during the intake process as well as the turbulence characteristics associated with it.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional Model for Prediction of In-Cylinder Turbulence and Tumble Flow in a Spark-Ignited Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0852
Improving fuel efficiency and emission characteristics are significant issues in engine research. Because the engine has complex systems and various operating parameters, the experimental research is limited by cost and time. One-dimensional (1D) simulation has attracted the attention of researchers because of its effectiveness and relatively high accuracy. In a 1D simulation, the applied model must be accurate for the reliability of the simulation results. Because in-cylinder turbulence mainly determines the combustion characteristics, and mean flow velocity affects the in-cylinder heat transfer and efficiency in a spark-ignited (SI) engine, a number of sophisticated models have been developed to predict in-cylinder turbulence and mean flow velocity. In particular, tumble is a significant factor of in-cylinder turbulence in SI engine.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis on the Effect of Piston Bowl Geometry in Gasoline-Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-1164
As emissions regulations become stricter, a variety of advanced combustion concepts that can reduce emissions with a higher thermal efficiency have been suggested. Dual-fuel combustion is one of the alternatives that has both premixed and non-premixed combustion characteristics. Knowing the effects of the mixture formation in dual-fuel combustion is important because it determines the ignition location and the following combustion phase. Hence, a thorough investigation on the related factors, such as the engine hardware or fuel spray, is required. Meanwhile, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a good technique to visualize the in-cylinder phenomena and enables quantitative investigations into the detailed combustion characteristics. In this paper, a 3-dimensional CFD simulation was used to investigate the effects of the mixture formation in dual-fuel combustion. The combustion model consists of two parts.
Technical Paper

Effects of Bore-to-Stroke Ratio on the Efficiency and Knock Characteristics in a Single-Cylinder GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1138
As a result of stringent global regulations on fuel economy and CO2 emissions, the development of high-efficiency SI engines is more urgent now than ever before. Along with advanced techniques in friction reduction, many researchers endeavor to decrease the B/S (bore-to-stroke) ratio from 1.0 (square) to a certain value, which is expected to reduce the heat loss and enhance the burning rate of SI engines. In this study, the effects of B/S ratios were investigated in aspects of efficiency and knock characteristics using a single-cylinder LIVC (late intake valve closing) GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine. Three B/S ratios (0.68, 0.83 and 1.00) were tested under the same mechanical compression ratio of 12:1 and the same displacement volume of 0.5 L. The head tumble ratio was maintained at the same level to solely investigate the effects of geometrical changes caused by variations in the B/S ratio.
Technical Paper

Prediction of In-Cylinder Pressure for Light-Duty Diesel Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0943
In recent years, emission regulations have been getting increasingly strict. In the development of engines that comply with these regulations, in-cylinder pressure plays a fundamental role, as it is necessary to analyze combustion characteristics and control combustion-related parameters. The analysis of in-cylinder pressure data enables the modelling of exhaust emissions in which characteristic temperature can be derived from the in-cylinder pressure, and the pressure can be used for other investigations, such as optimizing efficiency and emissions through controlling combustion. Therefore, a piezoelectric pressure sensor to measure in-cylinder pressure is an essential element in the engine research field. However, it is difficult to practice the installation of this pressure sensor on all engines and on-road vehicles owing to cost issues.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of In-Cylinder Flow Motion Effect on Dual-Fuel Premixed Compression Ignition Characteristics

2020-04-14
2020-01-0306
The combustion process using two fuels with different reactivity, known as dual-fuel combustion or RCCI is mainly studied to reduce emissions while maintaining thermal efficiency compared to the conventional diesel combustion. Many studies have proven that dual-fuel combustion has a positive prospect in future combustion to achieve ultra-low engine-out emissions with high indicated thermal efficiency. However, a limitation on high-load expansion due to the higher maximum in-cylinder pressure rise rate (mPRR) is a main problem. Thus, it is important to establish the operating strategy and study the effect of in-cylinder flow motion with dual-fuel combustion to achieve a low mPRR and emissions while maintaining high-efficiency. In this research, the characteristics of gasoline-diesel dual-fuel combustion on different hardware were studied to verify the effect of the in-cylinder flow motion on dual-fuel combustion.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Wall Impingement and Film Formation in Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Condition

2020-04-14
2020-01-1160
Since the amount of emitted CO2 is directly related to car fuel economy, attention is being drawn to DISI (Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition) engines, which have better fuel economy than conventional gasoline engines. However, it has been a problem that the rich air-fuel mixtures associated with fuel films during cold starts due to spray impingement produce particulate matter (PM). In predicting soot formation, it is important to predict the mixture field precisely. Thus, accurate spray and film models are a prerequisite of the soot model. The previous models were well matched with low-speed collision conditions, such as those of diesel engines, which have a relatively high ambient pressure and long traveling distances. Droplets colliding at low velocities have an order of magnitude of kinetic energy similar to that of the sum of the surface tension energy and the critical energy at which the splash occurs.
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