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Technical Paper

Modeling of Unburned Hydrocarbon Oxidation in Engine Conditions using Modified One-step Reaction Model

2007-08-05
2007-01-3536
Modeling of unburned hydrocarbon oxidation in an SI engine was performed in engine condition using modified one-step oxidation model. The new one-step equation was developed by modifying the Arrhenius reaction rate coefficients of the conventional one-step model. The modified model was well matched with the results of detailed chemical reaction mechanism in terms of 90 % oxidation time of the fuel. In this modification, the effect of pressure and intermediate species in the burnt gas on the oxidation rate investigated and included in developed one-step model. The effect of pressure was also investigated and included as an additional multiplying factor in the reaction equation. To simulate the oxidation process of piston crevice hydrocarbons, a computational mesh was constructed with fine mesh density at the piston crevice region and the number of cell layers in cylinder was controlled according to the motion of piston.
Technical Paper

Study of a Stratification Effect on Engine Performance in Gasoline HCCI Combustion by Using the Multi-zone Method and Reduced Kinetic Mechanism

2009-06-15
2009-01-1784
A gasoline homogeneous charged compression ignition (HCCI) called the controlled auto ignition (CAI) engine is an alternative to conventional gasoline engines with higher efficiency and lower emission levels. However, noise and vibration are currently major problems in the CAI engine. The problems result from fast burning speeds during combustion, because in the CAI engine combustion is controlled by auto-ignition rather than the flame. Thus, the ignition delay of the local mixture has to vary according to the location in the combustion chamber to avoid noise and vibration. For making different ignition delays, stratification of temperature or mixing ratio was tested in this study. In charge stratification, which determines the difference between the start of combustion among charges with different properties, two kinds of mixtures with different properties flow into two intake ports.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Cyclic Variation and the Effect of Fuel Stratification on Combustion Stabilityin a Port Fuel Injection (PFI) CAI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0670
CAI engine is well known to be advantageous over conventional SI engines because it facilitates higher engine efficiency and lower emission (NOx and smoke). However, its limited operation range, large cyclic variation, and difficulty in heat release control are still unresolved obstacles. Previous studies showed that a high load range of the CAI engine is limited mainly by the combustion noise caused by a stiff pressure rise (knock), and that a low load range is also limited by the combustion instability caused by the high dilution of residual gas. In this study, the characteristics of each cycle were analyzed to find the cause of the cycle variation at the high load limit of CAI operation. Moreover, to improve combustion stability, we tested the in-cylinder fuel stratification by applying nonsymmetrical fuel injection to the intake port. Experiments were performed on a PFI single cylinder research engine equipped with dual CVVT and low lift (2 mm) cam shaft with NVO strategy.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Refinement of Turbulence Intensity Prediction for the Estimation of In-Cylinder Pressure in a Spark-Ignited Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0525
The role of 1D simulation tool is growing as the engine system is becoming more complex with the adoption of a variety of new technologies. For the reliability of the 1D simulation results, it is necessary to improve the accuracy and applicability of the combustion model implemented in the 1D simulation tool. Since the combustion process in SI engine is mainly determined by the turbulence, many models have been concentrating on the prediction of the evolution of in-cylinder turbulence intensity. In this study, two turbulence models which can resemble the turbulence intensity close to that of 3D CFD tool were utilized. The first model is dedicated to predicting the evolution of turbulence intensity during intake and compression strokes so that the turbulence intensity at the spark timing can be estimated properly. The second model is responsible for predicting the turbulence intensity of burned and unburned zone during the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emission in Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Methanol-Butane Mixture

1988-03-01
871165
To improve the cold startability of methanol, methanol-butane mixed fuel was experimented. Engine performance and exhaust emissions are obtained with methanol-butane mixed fuel. These characteristics are compared with those of methanol and gasoline. The mixing ratios of methanol and butane are 50:50 (M50), 80:20 (M80), and 90:10 (M90) based on the calorific value. As a result, M90 produces more power than gasoline and more or less than methanol depending on the engine speed and the excess air ratio. Brake horse power of M90 is higher than that of gasoline by 5 - 10 %, and brake specific fuel consumption is smaller than that of gasoline by 17 % to the maximum based on the calorific value. NOx emission concentrations for M90 are lower than those for gasoline and higher than those for methanol because of the effect of butane, CO emission concentrations are somewhat lower than those for methanol and gasoline.
Technical Paper

Radiative Heat Transfer in Non-Gray Finite Cylindrical Media with Internal Heat Generations

1989-11-01
891332
Radiative heat transfer analysis in a finite cylindrical enclosure with non-gray media and internal heat generations have been conducted. Solutions are generated by a recently developed spherical harmonics method for a finite cylindrical configuration with the weighted sum of gray gases model. Numerical solutions are obtained for temperature and heat flux distributions with the variations of optical thickness and wall emissivity. The results show that with an increase in the absorption coefficient, the heat flux distribution along the lateral wall becomes symmetric regardless of the source distributions. The dependence of heat flux on the wall emissivity is reduced as well. The present solution technique seems to be easily extended to the coupled mode of heat transfer with convection in an engine cylinder.
Technical Paper

Knock Prediction of Two-Stage Ignition Fuels with Modified Livengood-Wu Integration Model by Cool Flame Elimination Method

2016-10-17
2016-01-2294
Livengood-Wu integration model is acknowledged as a relatively simple but fairly accurate autoignition prediction method which has been widely recognized as a methodology predicting knock occurrence of a spark-ignition (SI) engine over years. Fundamental idea of the model is that the chemical reactivity of fuel under a certain thermodynamic test condition can be represented by inverse of the acquired ignition delay. However, recent studies show that the predictability of the model seems to deteriorate if the tested fuel exhibits negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior which is primarily caused by two-stage ignition characteristics. It is convincing that the cool flame exothermicity during the first ignition stage is a major cause that limits the prediction capability of the integration model, therefore a new ignition delay concept based on cool flame elimination is introduced in order to minimize the thermal effect of the cool flame.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Knock Mitigation Effect of Coolant and Thermal Boundary Temperatures in Spark Ignited Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0213
Increasing compression ratio is essential for developing future high-efficiency engines due to the intrinsic characteristics of spark-ignited engines. However, it also causes the unfavorable, abnormal knocking phenomena which is the auto-ignition in the unburned end-gas region. To cope with regulations, many researchers have been experimenting with various methods to suppress knock occurrence. In this paper, it is shown that cooling the combustion chamber using coolants, which is one of the most practical methods, has a strong effect on knock mitigation. Furthermore, the relationship between thermal boundary and coolant temperatures is shown. In the beginning of this paper, knock metrics using an in-cylinder pressure sensor are explained for readers, even though entire research studies cannot be listed due to the innumerableness. The coolant passages for the cylinder head and the liner were separated to examine independent cooling strategies.
Journal Article

Understanding the Effect of Inhomogeneous Mixing on Knocking Characteristics of Iso-Octane by Using Rapid Compression Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0212
As fuel injection strategies in spark-ignition (SI) engines have been diversified, inhomogeneous mixing of the fuel-air mixture can occur to varying extents during mixture preparation. In this study, we analyzed the effect of inhomogeneous mixing on the knocking characteristics of iso-octane and air mixture under a standardized fuel testing condition for research octane number (RON), based on ASTM D2699. For this purpose, we assumed that both lean spots and rich spots existed in unburned gas during compression stroke and flame propagation and calculated the thermodynamic state of the spots by using an in-house multi-zone, zero-dimensional SI engine model. Then, the ignition delay was measured over the derived thermodynamic profiles by using rapid compression machine (RCM), and we calculated ξ, the ratio of sound speed to auto-ignition propagation speed, based on Zel’dovich and Bradley’s ξ − ε theory to estimate knock intensity.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Stroke-to-Bore Ratio of Atkinson DISI Engines with Variable Valve Timing

2018-04-03
2018-01-1419
In this study, fundamental questions in improving thermal efficiency of spark-ignition engine were revisited, regarding two principal factors, that is, stroke-to-bore (S/B) ratio and valve timings. In our experiment, late intake valve closing (LIVC) camshaft and variable valve timing (VVT) module for valve timing control were equipped in the single-cylinder, direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine with three different S/B ratios (1.00, 1.20, and 1.47). In these three setups, displacement volume and compression ratio (CR) were fixed. In addition, the tumble ratio for cylinder head was also kept the same to minimize the flow effect on the flame propagation caused by cylinder head while focusing on the sole effect of changing the S/B ratio.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Influences of Intake Port Geometry on the Tumble Generation and Turbulence Characteristics by Zero-Dimensional Spark Ignition Engine Model

2018-09-10
2018-01-1660
The flame propagation characteristic is one of the greatest factor that determines the performance of spark ignition (SI) engines. The in-cylinder flow dynamics is very significant in terms of flame propagation because of its direct influence on the flame shape, turbulent flame speed, and the ignition quality. A number of different techniques are available to optimize the in-cylinder flow and maximize the utilization of turbulence for faster combustion, and tumble enhancement by intake port geometry is one of them. It requires excessive computational expenses to evaluate multiple designs under wide range of operating conditions by 3D-CFD, therefore, a low-dimensional model would be more competitive in such design optimization process. This work suggests a new modification approach for typical 0D turbulence model to take account for the tumble generation during the intake process as well as the turbulence characteristics associated with it.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional Model for Prediction of In-Cylinder Turbulence and Tumble Flow in a Spark-Ignited Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0852
Improving fuel efficiency and emission characteristics are significant issues in engine research. Because the engine has complex systems and various operating parameters, the experimental research is limited by cost and time. One-dimensional (1D) simulation has attracted the attention of researchers because of its effectiveness and relatively high accuracy. In a 1D simulation, the applied model must be accurate for the reliability of the simulation results. Because in-cylinder turbulence mainly determines the combustion characteristics, and mean flow velocity affects the in-cylinder heat transfer and efficiency in a spark-ignited (SI) engine, a number of sophisticated models have been developed to predict in-cylinder turbulence and mean flow velocity. In particular, tumble is a significant factor of in-cylinder turbulence in SI engine.
Technical Paper

Effects of Bore-to-Stroke Ratio on the Efficiency and Knock Characteristics in a Single-Cylinder GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1138
As a result of stringent global regulations on fuel economy and CO2 emissions, the development of high-efficiency SI engines is more urgent now than ever before. Along with advanced techniques in friction reduction, many researchers endeavor to decrease the B/S (bore-to-stroke) ratio from 1.0 (square) to a certain value, which is expected to reduce the heat loss and enhance the burning rate of SI engines. In this study, the effects of B/S ratios were investigated in aspects of efficiency and knock characteristics using a single-cylinder LIVC (late intake valve closing) GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine. Three B/S ratios (0.68, 0.83 and 1.00) were tested under the same mechanical compression ratio of 12:1 and the same displacement volume of 0.5 L. The head tumble ratio was maintained at the same level to solely investigate the effects of geometrical changes caused by variations in the B/S ratio.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Wall Impingement and Film Formation in Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Condition

2020-04-14
2020-01-1160
Since the amount of emitted CO2 is directly related to car fuel economy, attention is being drawn to DISI (Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition) engines, which have better fuel economy than conventional gasoline engines. However, it has been a problem that the rich air-fuel mixtures associated with fuel films during cold starts due to spray impingement produce particulate matter (PM). In predicting soot formation, it is important to predict the mixture field precisely. Thus, accurate spray and film models are a prerequisite of the soot model. The previous models were well matched with low-speed collision conditions, such as those of diesel engines, which have a relatively high ambient pressure and long traveling distances. Droplets colliding at low velocities have an order of magnitude of kinetic energy similar to that of the sum of the surface tension energy and the critical energy at which the splash occurs.
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