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Technical Paper

Performance Design of Low Temperature Condenser for Waste Heat Recovery System

2013-03-25
2013-01-0046
The optimum design process of the low-temperature condenser of a dual-loop waste heat recovery system with Rankine steam cycles for improving the fuel efficiency of gasoline automobiles has been investigated. The waste heat recovery system consists of a high-temperature (HT) loop in which water as the HT working fluid recovers waste heat only from the exhaust gas of about 700°C and a low-temperature (LT) loop in which a refrigerant as the LT working fluid recovers heat dissipation from the HT loop, and waste heat from the engine coolant of relatively low temperature. The low temperature condenser plays a role to dissipate heat from the system by condensing the low temperature loop working fluid sufficiently.
Journal Article

Lateral Control for Automated Vehicle Following System in Urban Environments

2014-04-01
2014-01-0161
In contrast to highway, there are some sections not well maintained in urban roads. In these sections, there may be faint lane marks or static obstacles due to construction or some other reasons. Therefore, an automated vehicle following system such as traffic jam assistant should consider these sections to guarantee the safety of the system. In order to achieve this purpose, a model predictive control (MPC) scheme has been developed. The objectives of MPC are to compute the sequence of optimal steering input for vehicle following with obstacle avoidance. For this, the MPC uses the lead vehicle's state and obstacle's position obtained by lidars. For this purpose, a simplified nonlinear model of the vehicle was used to predict the future evolution of the system. Based on this prediction, performance index is optimized under operating constraints at each time step. A test vehicle equipped with two lidars on left and right corner of the front bumper has been developed.
Technical Paper

A Study of an Active Rear Diffuser Device for Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of Automobiles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0173
The goal of this study is to develop an actively translating rear diffuser device to reduce the aerodynamic drag experienced by passenger cars. The feature of this device is hidden under the rear bumper ordinarily not to ruin the external design of the car and slips out backward under the high-speed driving condition. By this study, a movable arc-shaped semi-diffuser device is designed to maintain the streamlined automobile rear underbody configuration. It's installed under the rear bumper of a passenger car. Seven types of rear diffuser devices whose positions, slid out lengths and widths are differing with the basic shape installed in the rear bumper section of a passenger car and performed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses under rotating wheel and moving ground conditions. The main purpose of this study is that explains the aerodynamic drag reduction mechanism of a passenger car via an actively translating rear diffuser device at a high speed driving condition.
Technical Paper

The Study on the Optimization of Attachment Stiffness in Vehicle Body

2007-05-15
2007-01-2346
The achievement of improved NVH performance with light weighted body and low cost is very important, but difficult job to be accomplished in vehicle development. One of the various methods for the accomplishment of this goal is the optimization of the stiffness attached to a vehicle body and chassis. It is known that sufficient stiffness at the body attachments improves the flexibility of bushing rate tuning. In this paper, the theoretical consideration and analysis tool to estimate local stiffness value quantitatively are introduced. Also, the local stiffness values at various attachment locations in trimmed body are measured. The operational forces at body attachments are estimated through the TPA (Transfer Path Analysis). The suitability of attachment stiffness is judged based on the required NVH target to attain the optimal attachment stiffness in vehicle body.
Journal Article

Developing Mode Shift Strategies for a Two-Mode Hybrid Powertrain with Fixed Gears

2008-04-14
2008-01-0307
Two-mode hybrid architectures with three planetary gear sets and four clutches will bring both flexibility and complexity to energy management of powertrains. In order to take full advantage of the increased degrees of freedom, highly delicate operation strategies are needed. We develop transmission efficiency models for power-split modes, and present a mode shift strategy assuming no battery power. When battery load leveling is additionally considered, the respective optimal operation set for each mode can be obtained and compared to yield a mode shift algorithm for general hybrid operation situations. The investigation of the strategies shows how frequently each mode is used, and verifies the effectiveness of fixed gear operations. We check the validity of the strategies by applying the algorithm to dynamic optimization and by predicting how it works during an actual driving simulation.
Technical Paper

Wire Segment Error Locating Algorithm for Wiring Connection Verification Tool

2008-04-14
2008-01-0408
Due to increasing amount of modules and customized options in commercial vehicles, it becomes more and more difficult to verify the circuit design. In this paper, a wire segment error locating algorithm is proposed to automate the exact wire segment error locating process. When a wrong connection is found by existing tool, guided by the exact description of wire segment error, this algorithm can locate exact wire segment error in the connection by searching for the one that has at least one neighboring segment from a correct connection.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Analysis of Automotive V-belt Pulley

2007-08-05
2007-01-3729
Fatigue life of a V-belt pulley, which is commonly used in automotive powertrain to transfer power to other parts, is predicted based on damage analysis by finite element analysis (FEA). Load conditions on pulley are analyzed by considering interactions among the pulley, V belt, bracket and bolts. Both normal force and traction force on the contact surfaces between the pulley and V belt were calculated. Assembly load due to the tightening of the bolts as well as operation load was considered to describe the actual load conditions in durability test. Static analysis at initial position of the pulley after assembly was performed with given load conditions. As the pulley rotated every ten degrees, consecutive static analyses were followed to find out the stress history of the pulley during operation. Using stress history data calculated from FE analysis, damage over one rotation of pulley was calculated and fatigue life, number of rotation to failure, was estimated.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Unburned Hydrocarbon Oxidation in Engine Conditions using Modified One-step Reaction Model

2007-08-05
2007-01-3536
Modeling of unburned hydrocarbon oxidation in an SI engine was performed in engine condition using modified one-step oxidation model. The new one-step equation was developed by modifying the Arrhenius reaction rate coefficients of the conventional one-step model. The modified model was well matched with the results of detailed chemical reaction mechanism in terms of 90 % oxidation time of the fuel. In this modification, the effect of pressure and intermediate species in the burnt gas on the oxidation rate investigated and included in developed one-step model. The effect of pressure was also investigated and included as an additional multiplying factor in the reaction equation. To simulate the oxidation process of piston crevice hydrocarbons, a computational mesh was constructed with fine mesh density at the piston crevice region and the number of cell layers in cylinder was controlled according to the motion of piston.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Simulation and Experimental Analysis of Needle Response and Controlled Injection Rate Shape Characteristics in a Piezo-driven Diesel Injector

2006-04-03
2006-01-1119
The More precise control of the multiple-injection is required in common-rail injection system of direct injection diesel engine to meet the low NOx emission and optimal PM filter system. The main parameter for obtaining the multiple-injections is the mechanism controlling the injector needle energizing and movement. In this study, a piezo-driven diesel injector, as a new method driven by piezoelectric energy, has been applied with a purpose to develop the analysis model of the piezo actuator to predict the dynamics characteristics of the hydraulic component (injector) by using the AMESim code and to evaluate the effect of this control capability on spray formation processes. Aimed at simulating the hydraulic behavior of the piezo-driven injector, the circuit model has been developed and verified by comparison with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Discomfort Factors in Egress of Older Drivers

2009-06-09
2009-01-2283
Discomfort models play a significant role in ergonomic simulation. More detailed and specific discomfort models are required for older drivers who represent the fastest-growing segment of the driving population. Owing to the physical degradation, various biomechanical discomfort factors should be incorporated into the model to properly evaluate discomfort for the older population group. In this experimental study we attempted to identify and quantify biomechanical factors that affect the older drivers' discomfort ratings. Different egress motion strategies (e.g., with and without using assist devices) were designed to induce various physical activities. The corresponding discomfort ratings were then produced. From the kinematic analysis using a digital human body model with reconstructed egress motion, the hip abduction was found to have the most statistically significant effect on the discomfort rating.
Technical Paper

Study of a Stratification Effect on Engine Performance in Gasoline HCCI Combustion by Using the Multi-zone Method and Reduced Kinetic Mechanism

2009-06-15
2009-01-1784
A gasoline homogeneous charged compression ignition (HCCI) called the controlled auto ignition (CAI) engine is an alternative to conventional gasoline engines with higher efficiency and lower emission levels. However, noise and vibration are currently major problems in the CAI engine. The problems result from fast burning speeds during combustion, because in the CAI engine combustion is controlled by auto-ignition rather than the flame. Thus, the ignition delay of the local mixture has to vary according to the location in the combustion chamber to avoid noise and vibration. For making different ignition delays, stratification of temperature or mixing ratio was tested in this study. In charge stratification, which determines the difference between the start of combustion among charges with different properties, two kinds of mixtures with different properties flow into two intake ports.
Technical Paper

Three Types of Simulation Algorithms for Evaluating the HEV Fuel Efficiency

2007-04-16
2007-01-1771
In regard to the evaluation of the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), there are as many simulation methods as there are developers or researchers. They adopt different operational algorithms and they use diverse techniques to realize their logic. However, the relation among the various simulation methods has not been clearly defined. Thus, it is not easy to choose a method that would bring the best consequences in the most efficient way. Here, we present three types of backward-looking simulation algorithms for evaluating the fuel efficiency of a power-split HEV. Then the results and cost-effectiveness of each algorithm are analyzed using various component ratings over a representative driving mode. Based on the comparative analysis, the algorithm that uses equivalent fuel consumption is shown to be highly cost-effective. Also, an inductive or empirical base is set up with the results for a component sizing methodology using the recommended simulation.
Technical Paper

An Effective Logical Wire Connection Verification Algorithm for Automotive Wiring System

2008-04-14
2008-01-1274
As the number of user selectable electrical modules increases for passenger car, the number of cars with different combinations of option can easily exceed 100,000 cars. It results to a situation where we can not manually verify all the logical connection by making wiring combinations for each car. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that can reduce verification time for all possible wiring with available option combinations. The algorithm separates the whole wiring circuits into independent circuits and verifies the logical connections for each independent circuit with all possible options. The algorithm is time effective so the required time to verify the connections increases logarithmically as the number of possible car increases. The algorithm was implemented as software verification tool and its effectiveness was proved to be feasible.
Technical Paper

Development of Ground Level Simulation Tool for Automotive Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0371
This paper describes the ground system model and algorithm for a ground level simulation tool. First, the modeling of an automotive ground system will be discussed and the algorithm for a simulation tool will be explained. We divided the model into a ground tree and a ground body. The ground tree model consists of resistance formed by the wires that connect the load to ground point with various structures and the ground body model consists of resistance between ground points in the car body. The wires with large current, such as engine ground cable, was modeled in detail by dividing the resistance into wire, bolt, and clamping resistance, in order to simulate the effect of increased contact resistance after durability test. The algorithm of the ground level simulation tool was designed to adjust the currents of the alternator, battery, and ground points in order to evaluate the various driving and load conditions.
Technical Paper

Application of Functional Design Method to Road Vehicle Aerodynamic Optimization in Initial Design Stage

2009-04-20
2009-01-1166
Exterior shape of automobile can be represented by shape function through this study so that aerodynamic shape parameters can be easily controlled and changed. Also ordinary geometric information can be extracted easily from shape function model by simple calculations. It is possible to predict the aerodynamic performance of functional virtual car models which are transformed continually by developing automated program in initial design stage that includes all of above process. Innovative vehicle design process with exterior design guide will be proposed for stylist, engineer and packaging department in order to achieve low aerodynamic drag and high fuel efficiency targets.
Journal Article

Skid Steering Based Maneuvering of Robotic Vehicle with Articulated Suspension

2009-04-20
2009-01-0437
This paper describes a driving control algorithm based on skid steering for a Robotic Vehicle with Articulated Suspension (RVAS). The driving control algorithm consists of four parts; speed controller for tracking of the desired speeds, yaw rate controller which computes a yaw moment input to track desired yaw rates, longitudinal tire force distribution which determines an optimal desired longitudinal tire force and wheel torque controller which determines a wheel torque command at each wheel to keep slip ratio at each wheel below a limit value as well as track the desired tire force. Longitudinal and vertical tire force estimators are designed for optimal tire force distribution and wheel slip control. The dynamic model of RVAS for simulation study is validated using vehicle test data.
Journal Article

Adaptive Cruise Control with Collision Avoidance in Multi-Vehicle Traffic Situations

2009-04-20
2009-01-0439
This paper presents a longitudinal control algorithm for an adaptive cruise control (ACC) with collision avoidance (CA) in multiple vehicle traffic situations. The proposed algorithm consists of a multi-target tracking filter, a primary target selection algorithm and an integrated ACC/CA system. The multi-target tracking filter is used to smooth the sensor signal, and makes it possible to apply to a control system. The primary target selection algorithm decides an in-lane target and provides the information to an integrated ACC/CA system in order to drive a subject vehicle smoothly and improve safety in complex traffic situations. Finally, the integrated ACC/CA system computes the desired acceleration. The performance and safety benefits of the multi-vehicle ACC/CA system is investigated via simulations using real data on driving. Simulation results show that the response of multi-vehicle ACC/CA system is more smooth and safer at a change of traffic situations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of an Automotive Ground System Based on a Ground Model and Current Distribution in it

2004-03-08
2004-01-1598
Ground systems in automobiles become more important as more electric devices are installed and the amount of currents flowing increases. The performance of the devices depends on the ground voltage, which is generated between ground points by I-R voltage drops. Therefore, low ground voltages are required for the reduction of the unnecessary power dissipation as well as the reliable performance of the devices. In this paper, we propose an automotive ground system model to analyze ground structure and reveal the main cause of ground voltages. The equivalent resistor network model is presented to describe the relationship between ground points. Then, we validate the model by comparing the simulation results with the measurements in a real car. The presented analysis can provide guidance on designing a reliable ground system such as how to reduce the ground voltages for the proper operation of devices.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Refinement of Turbulence Intensity Prediction for the Estimation of In-Cylinder Pressure in a Spark-Ignited Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0525
The role of 1D simulation tool is growing as the engine system is becoming more complex with the adoption of a variety of new technologies. For the reliability of the 1D simulation results, it is necessary to improve the accuracy and applicability of the combustion model implemented in the 1D simulation tool. Since the combustion process in SI engine is mainly determined by the turbulence, many models have been concentrating on the prediction of the evolution of in-cylinder turbulence intensity. In this study, two turbulence models which can resemble the turbulence intensity close to that of 3D CFD tool were utilized. The first model is dedicated to predicting the evolution of turbulence intensity during intake and compression strokes so that the turbulence intensity at the spark timing can be estimated properly. The second model is responsible for predicting the turbulence intensity of burned and unburned zone during the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Study of LES Quality Criteria in a Motored Internal Combustion Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0549
In recent years, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is spotlighted as an engineering tool and severe research efforts are carried out on its applicability to Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). However, there is a general lack of definitive conclusions on LES quality criteria for ICE. This paper focuses on the application of LES quality criteria to ICE and to their correlation, in order to draw a solid background on future LES quality assessments for ICE. In this paper, TCC-III single-cylinder optical engine from University of Michigan is investigated and the analysis is conducted under motored condition. LES quality is mainly affected by grid size and type, sub-grid scale (SGS) model, numeric schemes. In this study, the same grid size and type are used in order to focus on the effect on LES quality of SGS models and blending factors of numeric scheme only.
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