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Technical Paper

A Research on the Sound Quality Contribution of Vehicle Body Panel

Sound quality of vehicle interior noise affects passenger comfort. In order to improve the sound quality of a micro commercial vehicle, the vehicle interior noise under different conditions such as idle, constant speeds and accelerating is recorded by using artificial head with dual microphones. The sound quality of recorded noise is evaluated in both objective and subjective ways. Physical parameters of interior noise are calculated objectively, and annoyance score is analyzed subjectively using paired-comparison method. According to the regression analyzing of the annoyance score and the physical parameters, an objective evaluation parameter of the sound quality is employed. To analyze the vehicle body panel contribution to interior noise sound quality, the location and spectrum characteristics of major panel emission noise sources are identified based on partial singular valued decomposition (PSVD) method.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions during Start up at Higher Cranking Speed in a PFI Engine for HEV Application

The transient characteristics of combustion and emissions during the engine start up at different higher cranking speeds for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications were presented in this paper. Cycle-by-cycle analysis was done for each start up case. Intake air mass during the first several cycles decrease as the engine was cranked at higher speed. Ignition timing is delayed with higher cranking speed, which leads to an increase of exhaust temperature. For various start up cases, similar quantity of fuel is injected at the first cycle, but the ignition timing is significantly delayed to meet the acceleration requirement when cranking speed enhanced. Because of the deterioration of intake charge, the air-fuel mixture is over-enriched in the first several cycles for the cases at higher cranking speed. With cranking speed is increased, the in-cylinder residual gas fraction rises, which leads to poor combustion and decrease of mass fraction of burned fuel.
Journal Article

Estimation on the Location of Peak Pressure at Quick Start of HEV Engine Employing Ion Sensing Technology

In this paper an estimation method on location of peak pressure (LPP) employing flame ionization measurement, with the spark plug as a sensor, was discussed to achieve combustion parameters estimation at quick start of HEV engines. Through the cycle-based ion signal analysis, the location of peak pressure can be extracted in individual cylinder for the optimization of engine quick start control of HEV engine. A series of quick start processes with different cranking speed and engine coolant temperature are tested for establishing the relationship between the ion signals and the combustion parameters. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is used in this study for estimating these two combustion parameters. The experiment results show that the location of peak pressure can be well established by this method.
Technical Paper

Lateral State Estimation for Lane Keeping Control of Electric Vehicles Considering Sensor Sampling Mismatch Issue

Vehicle lateral states such as lateral distance at a preview point and heading angle are indispensable for lane keeping control systems, and such states are normally estimated by fusing signals from an onboard vision system and inertial sensors. However, the sampling rates and measurement delays are different between the two kinds of sensing devices. Most of the conventional methods simply neglect measurement delay and reduce sampling rate of the estimator to adapt to the slow sensors/devices. However, the estimation accuracy is deteriorated, especially considering the delay of visual signals may not be constant. In case of electric vehicles, the actuators for steering and traction are motors that have high control frequency. Therefore, the frequency of vehicle state feedback may not match the control frequency if the estimator is infrequently updated. In this paper, a multi-rate estimation algorithm based on Kalman filter is proposed to provide lateral states with high frequency.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Effects of Coolant Temperature on Particle Emissions from a Dual Injection Gasoline Engine

Euro VI emission standards have set a very strict limitation on particulate matter emissions of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine. It is difficult for GDI engine to meet the Euro VI PN regulation (6×1011#/km) without a series of complicated after-treatment devices such as Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF). Previous research shows that GDI vehicles under cold start condition account for more than 50% of both particle number and mass emissions during the entire NEDC driving cycle. Dual Injection Gasoline engine is based on the GDI engine by adding a set of port fuel injection system. The good mixing characteristics of the port fuel injection system can help to reduce the particulate matter emissions of the GDI engine during the cold start condition.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Electrothermal De-Icing Process of a Rotor Blade

The numerical simulation of ice melting process on an iced helicopter rotor blade is presented. The ice melting model uses an enthalpy-porosity formulation, and treats the liquid-solid mushy zone as a porous zone with porosity equal to the liquid fraction. The ice shape on the blade section is obtained by the icing code with a dynamic mesh module. Both of the temperature change and the ice-melting process on the rotor blade section surface are analyzed. The phenomenon of ice melting is analyzed through the change of temperature and liquid fraction on the abrasion/ice interface. The liquid fraction change as with time on the abrasion/ice surface is observed, which describes the ice-melting process well. The numerical results show that the ice melting process can be simulated effectively by the melting model. The de-icing process can be monitored by observing the change of the liquid fraction of the area around the abrasion/ice interface.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurement of the Flame Lift-Off Length on Direct Injection Diesel Sprays Using High Speed Schlieren Imaging and OH Chemiluminescence

Lift-off length is defined as the distance from injector hole to the location where flame stabilized on a high injection pressure direct injection (DI) diesel spray. In this paper we used the high-speed (40 kHz) Schlieren and time-averaged OH chemiluminescence imaging technique to simultaneously measure the flame lift-off locations on a DI diesel spray in an optically accessible and constant-volume combustion vessel. The time-resolved development of the diesel spray acquired from the high-speed Schlieren imaging system enabled us to observe the instantaneous spray structure details of the spray flames. The OH chemiluminescence image obtained from a gated, intensified CCD video camera with different delay and width settings was used to determine the quiescent lift-off length. Experiments were conducted under various ambient temperatures, ambient gas densities, injection pressures and oxygen concentrations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Spark Timing with Other Engine Operating Parameters on the Particulate Emissions of a Dualinjection Gasoline Engine During Warm-up Conditions

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has been a mainstream technology due to its higher thermal efficiency and better power output. However, with increasingly stringent emission regulations introduced (EURO VI PN limits: 6 x l011#/km), high particulate matter (PM) emission of GDI engine has been a serious problem that limits its further development. Previous studies have found that cold-start and warm-up operation conditions play the dominant role in engine-out particulate emissions. In this paper, emission characteristics during the cold-start were first studied by controlling the coolant temperature. A Cambustion DMS500 fast particle spectrometer was employed to analyze the PM emissions. In order to reduce the engine-out emissions of cold-start, a dual injection system which combines port-fuel-injection (PFI) and direct-injection (DI) was applied in a four-cylinder gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Research of the High Altitude Control Strategy of the Piston Aero-engine Using Two-stage Turbocharger Coupled with single Supercharging System

Aiming at the high altitude operation problems for piston-type aero-engines and to improve the practical ceiling and high altitude dynamic performance, this thesis analyzes a controllable three-stage composite supercharging system, using a two-stage turbocharger coupled supercharger method. The GT-Power simulation model of a four-cylinder boxer engine was established, and the control strategy of variable flight height was obtained. The simulation research of engine performance from 0 to 20,000 meters above sea level has been carried out, which shows that the engine power is at the same level as the plain condition, and it could still maintain 85.28 percent of power even at the height of 20,000 meters, which meets the flight requirements of the aircraft.
Technical Paper

A New Positioning Device Designed for Aircraft Automated Alignment System

Accurate and fast positioning of large aircraft component is of great importance for Automated Alignment System. The Ball joint is a widely-used mechanical device connecting the aircraft component and positioners. However, there are some shortcomings for the device in man-machine engineering, such as the entry state of the ball-head still needs to be confirmed by the workers and then switched to the locking state manually. To solve above problems, a new positioning mechanism is present in this paper, which consists of a ball-head and a ball-socket. The new device is equipped with a monocular vision system, in which a calibrated industrial camera is used to collect the images of the ball-head. And then, the 3-D coordinate of the ball-head center is calculated by a designed algorithm, guiding the positioner to capture the ball-head. Once the ball-head gets into the ball-socket, the pneumatic system will drive the pistons to move to the specified location.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of a Novel Magnetorheological Fluid Dual Clutch for Electric Vehicle Transmission

A novel magnetorheological fluid dual clutch (MRFDC) for electric vehicle transmission is proposed in this article. The structure was based on the MR fluid clutch and traditional dual clutch equipped on internal combustion engine vehicle. Therefore the MRFDC combines the advantages of MR fluid clutch and dual clutch transmission (DCT) to achieve high control accuracy and fast response. The structure of MRFDC was designed by Unigraphics (UG) three-dimensional (3D) modeling software. Then, finite element analysis (FEA) for magnetic field was conducted by ANSYS under different applied currents from 0.1A to 1A with 0.1A space to obtain the relation between the applied current and magnetic field. In this article, Herschel-Bulkley model is used to predict the MR fluid behavior because of the high shear rate of MR fluid.
Technical Paper

Optimization-Based Control Strategy for Large Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Electric vehicles (EVs) have become a hot research topic due to the petroleum crisis and air pollution issues, and Hybrid EVs (HEVs) equipped with engines and motors are popular nowadays due to their advantage over Pure EVs. The energy distribution between the engine and the motor is the major task of the control strategy or energy management for HEVs. Rule-based and optimization-based approaches are developed in this area, but not much work has been done for large-size super-capacitor (SC) equipped HEVs, like Hybrid buses. In this paper, a new optimization-based control strategy for a hybrid bus equipped with SCs as the energy regeneration system is presented. Considering the driving patterns of a bus that is of frequent accelerations and decelerations, it is proposed to characterize each time instant by its speed and acceleration, and the energy distribution is optimized based on these two state variables.
Technical Paper

Energy Management Optimization for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Real-World Driving Data

Excellent energy consumption performance of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is usually attributed to its hybrid drive mode. However, the factors including vehicle performance, driver behavior and traffic status have been shown to cause unsatisfactory performance. This phenomenon leads to a necessity of study on energy consumption control strategies under real-world driving conditions. This paper proposes a new approach for energy management optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on real-world driving data for two purposes. One is for improving the energy consumption of PHEV under real-world driving conditions and the other is for reducing the computational complexity of optimization methods in simulation models. In this process, the paper collected real-world driving record data from 180 drivers within 6 months. Then the principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to extract and define the hidden factors from the initial real-world driving data.
Technical Paper

Robust Speed Synchronization Control for an Integrated Motor-Transmission Powertrain System with Feedback Delay

Motor speed synchronization is important in gear shifting of emerging clutchless automated manual transmissions for battery electric vehicles (BEV) and other kinds of parallel shaft-based powertrains for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Difficulties of the problem mainly come from random delay induced by network communication and unknown load torques from air drag, oil drag, and friction torques, etc. To deal with these two factors, this paper proposes a robust speed synchronization controller based on act-and-wait control and disturbance observer. The former is a kind of periodical controller specially for regulating problems with feedback delay while the latter is a technique for active disturbance rejection. Firstly, the dynamic model of the motor shaft is formulated, and the system parameters are offline identified. The speed tracking problem is then transformed into a regulating one.
Technical Paper

A High Reliable Automated Percussive Riveting System for Aircraft Assembly

Percussive riveting is a widely used way of fastening in the field of aircraft assembly, which used to be done manually. Nowadays, replacing the traditional percussive riveting with automated percussive riveting becomes a trend worldwide, which improves the quality of riveting significantly. For the automated riveting system used in aircraft assembly, reliability is of great importance, deserving to be deeply researched and fully enhanced. In this paper, a high reliable automated percussive riveting system integrated into a dual robot drilling and riveting system is proposed. The riveting system consists of the hammer part and the bucking bar part. And both parts have been optimized to enhance the reliability. In the hammer side, proximity switches are fully used to detect the state of rivet insertion.
Technical Paper

System Characteristics of Direct and Secondary Loop Heat Pump for Electrical Vehicles

The electricity energy consumption for passenger cabin heating can drastically shorten the driving range for electric vehicles in cold climates. Mobile heat pump system is considered as an effective method to improve heating efficiency. This study investigates the system characteristics of mobile heat pump systems for electrical vehicle application. Based on KULI thermal management software, simulation models including HFC-R134a direct heat pump (DHP) and secondary loop heat pump (SLHP) were developed. The secondary loop employed in the SLHP includes a coolant pump, an indoor heater core and a plate heat exchanger, instead of an indoor condenser in the DHP. The use of a secondary loop has advantages to improve air outlet temperature uniformity. The simulation models were verified by measured data obtained from calorimeter experiments. By adopting simulation models, the effects of indoor and outdoor temperatures on system performance and cycle characteristics were discussed.
Technical Paper

Improved Potential Field-Based Collision Avoidance Control for Autonomous Vehicles

Limiting factors for autonomous vehicle (AV) to be widely used are not only technical, but also psychological. Considering the psychological feelings of drivers during switching manned to unmanned driving status, this paper proposes an algorithm about avoiding collisions combining driver psychological feelings for AVs. The confidence-limit-distance of the driver is experimentally obtained by many real track tests which require the test driver to approach the obstacle as close as possible. The confidence-limit-distance from driver is defined as the distance between the obstacle and the last steering point allowed for the psychological limit of the driver to avoid collisions. Based on Artificial Potential Field (APF), a road potential field is accordingly established to characterize the characteristics and boundary constraints of the real road.
Technical Paper

Internal Model Control during Mode Transition Subject to Time Delay for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

With the rapid development of series-parallel hybrid electric vehicles (SPHEVs), mode transition from pure electrical drive to hybrid drive has attracted considerable attention. The presence of time delay due to response capacity of actuators and signal transmission of communication may cause decrease of speed tracking accuracy, even instable dynamics. Consequently, drivability of the SPHEV is unacceptable, and durability of the components is reduced. So far, plenty of control strategies have been proposed for mode transition, however, no previous research has been reported to deal with the time delay during mode transition. In this paper, a dynamic model with time delay of hybrid electric system is established. Next, a mode transition time-delay controller is proposed based on a two degree of freedom internal model controller (2-DOF-IMC).
Technical Paper

Gearshift Control Based on Fuzzy Logic of a Novel Two-Speed Transmission for Electric Vehicles

Using highly efficient powertrain is one of the most important and effective approaches to increase the driving distance of electric vehicles (EVs). In this paper, a novel two-speed dual-clutch transmission (DCT) is proposed. The transmission is comprised of two traditional friction clutches and two-stage planetary gear sets. One clutch connects the input sun gear and the other connects the input carrier. The Simulink models including an electric motor and two-speed DCT are established. Gearshift schedule based on fuzzy logic which reflects the driver’s intensions is adopted to improve the dynamic and economic performance of the novel transmission. The simulation model is built using MATLAB/Simulink® to validate the effectiveness of the proposed gearshift schedule compared with the conventional two-parameter gearshift schedule. Simulation results show that both the dynamic and economic performance of the novel DCT for EVs are improved with the proposed fuzzy logic gearshift schedule.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Optimal Management Strategy for Hybrid Vehicles Based on Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle

The energy management strategies (EMS) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have a great impact on the fuel economy (FE). The Pontryagin's minimum principle (PMP) has been proved to be a viable control strategy for HEV. The optimal costate of the PMP control can be determined by the given information of the driving conditions. Since the full knowledge of future driving conditions is not available, this paper proposed a dynamic optimization method for PMP costate without the prediction of the driving cycle. It is known that the lower fuel consumption the method yields, the more efficiently the engine works. The selection of costate is designed to make the engine work in the high efficiency range. Compared with the rule-based control, the proposed method by the principle of Hamiltonian, can make engine working points have more opportunities locating in the middle of high efficiency range, instead of on the boundary of high efficiency range.