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Technical Paper

Flame Area Correlations with Heat Release at Early Flame Development of Combustion Process in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol and Butanol

As the vehicle emission regulations become stricter worldwide, one way to meet the emission requirements is to engage the use of alternative fuels in engine combustion. In this investigation, the early combustion processes of regular gasoline and alternative fuels, including ethanol and butanol, were studied by simultaneously recording both the in-cylinder pressure and the crank angle-resolved high-speed flame images in a single-cylinder spark-ignition direct-injection engine. The engine was equipped with a quartz insert in the piston which provided an optical access to its cylinder through the piston. The effects of engine coolant & oil temperatures and intake air swirl ratio on the early flame development were also studied. The heat release was derived from the in-cylinder pressure measurements and the corresponding flame area characteristics were extracted from the images.
Technical Paper

One Better Model of Vehicle Turbocharged Diesel Engine than VNT Turbo

In the internal combustion engine, about 25%-40% of the energy released by burned fuel is taken away by the exhaust gas. The part of the usable energy in the exhaust can be used in the turbocharged engine. So, at present, turbocharged diesel engine hasn't made full use of exhaust gas energy. The authors propose a model of the 4-stroke turbocharged diesel engine of split exhausting system. Adding a rapidly on-and-off exhaust control valve between exhaust passage and manifold in the 4-stroke turbocharged diesel engine can improve the utilization rate of the usable energy in the exhaust. By utilizing the mean effective pressure (MEP), this paper is to calculate the maximum usable energy, the energy provided by exhaust and the energy required by intake. The results gets that the new type of exhausting system can help engine to increase usage rate of the exhaust gas energy to around 20% at the rated condition compared to the existing vehicle diesel engines with VNT.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Land Requirement, Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions of Biodiesel Derived from Microalgae and Jatropha curcas Seeds in China

The aim of this study is to evaluate the land requirement, energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions of microalgal biodiesel (M-BD) and Jatropha curcas seeds (J-BD) based biodiesel from the perspective of life cycle assessment (LCA). Mass and energy balance was used through the whole LCA calculation for each process. Two types of biodiesel (100% biodiesel: BD100, and 20% blends of biodiesel: BD20) were assumed to be combusted in the suitable diesel engine. Displacement method was adopted to measure the co-products credits. The results showed that the land requirement of producing 1 kg biodiesel from microalgae was about 1/31 of that from Jatropha curcas seeds. The well to pump (WTP) stage for microalgal biodiesel had higher fossil energy requirement but lower petroleum energy consumption and GHG emissions compared to Jatropha curcas and conventional diesel (CD). The WTP energy efficiency for J-BD100 and M-BD 100 were 26% and 17.4%, respectively.
Technical Paper

Matching Optimum for Low HC and CO Emissions at Warm-up Phase in an LPG EFI Small SI Engine

Based on a 125cm3 single cylinder SI engine, the designated idle speed was controlled by adjusting of cycle ignition advance angle. By analyzing the effects of different idle speed and throttle open position on three way catalyst (TWC) light-off time and conversion efficiency of HC and CO emissions, combined with the corresponding total HC and CO emissions level, the optimum idle speed and throttle open position at engine's warm-up phase were found by the matching optimum. The present method for engine control strategy is helpful to optimize the warm-up phase emission levels in SI engine with LPG fuel.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Preparation of Diesel Fuel by Spray Impingement onto a Hot Surface at Intake Manifold

A segment of steel tube with the inner diameter of 60 mm and length of 100 mm was fixed between the intake manifold and cylinder head in a direct injection natural aspirated diesel engine. The surface of the tube could be heated to be above 400 °C by the heater enwrapped outside within several minutes under the power less than 600 W. The tip of an injector traditionally used for in-cylinder diesel direct injection was extended to the axis of the tube. The diesel sprays could impinge onto the hot inner surface of the tube and atomize quickly if the temperature of the tube was high enough. Then the fuel-air mixture would be sucked into the cylinder, and HCCI combustion could be fulfilled. The vaporization ratio of the impinged diesel sprays was estimated by fuel consumption, intake air flux and excess air coefficient (λ) calculated from the volumetric concentration of O2, CO2 and CO emissions. The NOx emission was always very low.
Technical Paper

Research into Autoignition Characteristics of Diesel Fuel in a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere

A novel method is applied to analysis the autoignition phenomenon. Experiments on the study of autoignition characteristics of diesel fuel were carried out with a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustor. The results show that the method for autoignition studying of liquid fuel is of feasibility. Autoignition delay time and autoignition height from the nozzle increase with the coflow temperature decreasing and autoignition delay time changes sensitively under lower coflow temperature. Liftoff height of diesel spray flame decreases with the increasing of coflow temperature. Lower temperature causes higher variance of liftoff height. It might be speculated that there are two different mechanisms of flame stabilization that the lower lift-off heights flames are related to a balance between the flow velocity and flame speed while the higher lift-off heights flames are stabilized by the mixture autoignition.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Output Performances and Emissions of Diesel Engine Employed Common Rail Fueled with Biodiesel Blends from Wasted Cooking Oil

In this paper, the characteristics of performance and emissions of diesel and biodiesel blends are studied in a four-cylinder DI engine employing common rail injection system. The results show that engine output power is further reduced and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increased with the increase of the blend concentration. B100 provides average reduction by 8.6% in power and increase by 11% in BSFC. With respect to the emissions, although NOx emissions were increased with increasing the blend concentration, the increase depends on the load. Filter smoke number is reduced with increasing the blend concentration. At the same time, NO, NO2 and other specific emissions are also investigated. In addition, difference of performance and emission between standard parameters of ECU and modified parameters of ECU is investigated for B10 and B20 based on same output power. The results show that NOx emission and FSN are still lower than baseline diesel.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions in a DI Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends from Soybean Oil

Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel and biodiesel blends (soybean methyl ester) were studied in a single-cylinder Direct Injection (DI) engine at different loads and a constant speed. The results show that NOx emission and fuel consumption are increased with increasing biodiesel percentage. Reduction of smoke opacity is significant at higher loads with a higher biodiesel ratio. Compared with the baseline diesel fuel, B20 (20% biodiesel) has a slight increase of NOx emission and similar fuel consumption. Smoke emission of B20 is close to that of diesel fuel. Results of combustion analysis indicate that start of combustion (SOC) for biodiesel blends is earlier than that for diesel. Higher biodiesel percentage results in earlier SOC. Earlier SOC for biodiesel blends is due to advanced injection timing from higher density and bulk modulus and lower ignition delay from higher cetane number.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Particulates and Exhaust Gases Emissions of DI Diesel Engine Employing Common Rail Fuel System Fueled with Bio-diesel Blends

In this paper, characteristics of gas emission and particle size distribution are investigated in a common rail diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends. Gas emission and particle size distribution are measured by AVL FTIR - SESAM and SMPS respectively. The results show that although biodiesel blends would result in higher NOx emissions, characteristics of NOx emissions were also dependent on the engine load for waste cooking oil methyl ester. Higher blend concentration results in higher NO2 emission after two diesel oxidation catalyst s (DOC). A higher blend concentration leads to lower CO and SO2 emissions. No significant difference of Alkene emission is found among biodiesel blends. The particle size distributions of diesel exhaust aerosol consist of a nucleation mode (NM) with a peak below 50N• m and an accumulation mode with a peak above 50N • m. B100 will result in lower particulates with the absence of NM.
Journal Article

Estimation on the Location of Peak Pressure at Quick Start of HEV Engine Employing Ion Sensing Technology

In this paper an estimation method on location of peak pressure (LPP) employing flame ionization measurement, with the spark plug as a sensor, was discussed to achieve combustion parameters estimation at quick start of HEV engines. Through the cycle-based ion signal analysis, the location of peak pressure can be extracted in individual cylinder for the optimization of engine quick start control of HEV engine. A series of quick start processes with different cranking speed and engine coolant temperature are tested for establishing the relationship between the ion signals and the combustion parameters. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is used in this study for estimating these two combustion parameters. The experiment results show that the location of peak pressure can be well established by this method.
Journal Article

Pitch Control for a Semi-track Air-cushion Vehicle Based on Optimal Power Consumption

A new kind of integrated semi-track air-cushion pitch controller is proposed in this paper. The controller first compute the target working point based on a weighed function, which is the combination of optimal power consumption and pitch angle control demand. Then the sequential quadratic programming algorithm distributes the general target values to specific control values. The performance of the controller is verified through co-simulation between Matlab/Simulink and ADAMS/View. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the control algorithm and the correctness of the choice in physical configuration with two air cushions for vehicle body pitch control.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Film Evaporation for Homogeneous Charge Preparation of Typical Fuels

Fuel films of several typical fuels were investigated by means of thermal gravity analysis (TGA). To make diesel homogeneous charge by means of film evaporation, it was concluded that to get 30%∼50% evaporation of film, the wall temperature should be set between 150°C and 180°C for diesel and 40°C∼60°C for gasoline, and to get 95% evaporation of film, the wall temperature should be set between 200°C and 250°C for diesel and 50°C∼100°C for gasoline, when the thickness of the fuel film is about 40 μ m. Based on the properties of fuels, the evaporation characteristics of diesel under 100°C should be improved.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Ethanol Fuel (E100) in a Small SI Engine

An air-cooled, four-stroke, 125 cc electronic gasoline fuel injection SI engine for motorcycles is altered to burn ethanol fuel. The effects of nozzle orifice size, fuel injection duration, spark timing and the excess air/ fuel ratio on engine power output, fuel and energy consumptions and engine exhaust emission levels are studied on an engine test bed. The results show that the maximum engine power output is increased by 5.4% and the maximum torque output is increased by 1.9% with the ethanol fuel in comparison with the baseline. At full load and 7000 r/min, HC emission is decreased by 38% and CO emission is decreased 46% on average over the whole engine speed range. However, NOx levels are increased to meet the maximum power output. The experiments of the spark timing show that the levels of HC and NOx emission are decreased markedly by the delay of spark timing.
Technical Paper

Diesel Spray Characterization at Ultra-High Injection Pressure of DENSO 250 MPa Common Rail Fuel Injection System

High fuel injection pressure has been regarded as a key controlling factor for internal combustion engines to achieve good combustion performance with reduced emissions and improved fuel efficiency. For common-rail injection system (CRS) used in advanced diesel engines, fuel injection pressure can often be raised to beyond 200 MPa. Although characteristics of diesel spray has been thoroughly studied, little work has been done at ultra-high injection pressures. In this work, the characteristics of CRS diesel spray under ultra-high injection pressure up to 250 MPa was investigated. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume chamber. The injection pressure varied from 50 MPa to up to 250 MPa. Both non-evaporating condition and evaporating condition were studied. A single-hole injector was specially designed for this investigation.
Technical Paper

Study on the Optimal Control Strategy of Transient Process for Diesel Engine with Sequential Turbocharging System

Three-phase sequential turbocharging system with two unequal-size turbochargers is developed to improve fuel economy performance and reduce emission of the automotive diesel engine, which satisfies wide range of intake flow demand. However, it results in complicated transient control strategies under frequently changing operating conditions. The present work aims to optimize the control scheme of boost system and fuel injection and evaluate their contributions to the improvement of transient performance. A mean value model for diesel engine was built up in SIMULINK environment and verified by experiment for transient study. Then a mathematical model of optimization issue was established. Strategies of control valves and fuel injection for typical acceleration and loading processes are obtained by coupled calculating of the simulation model and optimization algorithm.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Temperature and Soot (KL) Distributions in Spray Flames of Diesel-Butanol Blends by Two-Color Method Using High-Speed RGB Video Camera

Taking advantages of high speed RGB video cameras, the two-color method can be implemented with a relatively simple setup to obtain the temporal development of the two dimensional temperature and soot (KL) distributions in a reacting diesel jet. However, several issues such as the selection of the two wavelengths, the role of bandpass filters, and the proper optical settings, etc. should be known to obtain a reliable measurement. This paper, at first, discusses about the uncertainties in the measurement of temperature and KL distributions in the diesel flame by the two-color method using the high speed RGB video camera. Since n-butanol, as an alternative renewable fuel, has the potential application in diesel engines, the characteristic of spray combustion of diesel-butanol blends under the diesel-like ambient conditions in a pre-burning constant-volume combustion chamber is studied.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Rate Profiles on Auto-Ignition in Ignition Quality Tester

Ignition quality tester (IQT) is a standard experimental device to determine ignition delay time of liquid fuels in a controlled environment in the absence of gas exchange. The process involves fuel injection, spray breakup, evaporation and mixing, which is followed by auto-ignition. In this study, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used for prediction of auto-ignition characteristics of diethyl ether (DEE) and ethanol. In particular, the sensitivity of the ignition behavior to different injection rate profiles is investigated. Fluctuant rate profile derived from needle lift data from experiments performs better than square rate profile in ignition delay predictions. DEE, when used with fluctuant injection rate profile resulted in faster ignition, while for ethanol the situation was reversed. The contrasting results are attributed to the difference in local mixing.
Technical Paper

Study of Load Distribution for a Semi - Tracked Air - Cushion Vehicle

A new design method is proposed for a semi-tracked air-cushion vehicle for soft terrain by using a flexible bind, which offers more flexibility in designing. This paper describes the design principle focusing on optimizing the total power consumption of the vehicle. The relationships of load distribution and power consumption are analyzed. The prototype experiments showed that the proposed design can meet the demand of tractive and transport efficiency with its optimal state of using minimum total power consumption and meanwhile maintaining ride comfort.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Injection Strategies on Particulate Emissions from a Dual-Injection Gasoline Engine

European standards have set stringent PN (particle number) regulation (6×1011 #/km) for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, posing a great challenge for the particulate emission control of GDI engines. Dual-injection, which combines direct-injection (DI) with port-fuel-injection (PFI), is an effective approach to reduce particle emissions of GDI engine while maintaining good efficiency and power output. In order to investigate the PN emission characteristics under different dual-injection strategies, a DMS500 fast particle spectrometer was employed to characterize the effects of injection strategies on particulates emissions from a dual-injection gasoline engine. In this study, the injection strategies include injection timing, injection ratio and injection pressure of direct-injection.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Effects of Coolant Temperature on Particle Emissions from a Dual Injection Gasoline Engine

Euro VI emission standards have set a very strict limitation on particulate matter emissions of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine. It is difficult for GDI engine to meet the Euro VI PN regulation (6×1011#/km) without a series of complicated after-treatment devices such as Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF). Previous research shows that GDI vehicles under cold start condition account for more than 50% of both particle number and mass emissions during the entire NEDC driving cycle. Dual Injection Gasoline engine is based on the GDI engine by adding a set of port fuel injection system. The good mixing characteristics of the port fuel injection system can help to reduce the particulate matter emissions of the GDI engine during the cold start condition.