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Journal Article

Estimation on the Location of Peak Pressure at Quick Start of HEV Engine Employing Ion Sensing Technology

In this paper an estimation method on location of peak pressure (LPP) employing flame ionization measurement, with the spark plug as a sensor, was discussed to achieve combustion parameters estimation at quick start of HEV engines. Through the cycle-based ion signal analysis, the location of peak pressure can be extracted in individual cylinder for the optimization of engine quick start control of HEV engine. A series of quick start processes with different cranking speed and engine coolant temperature are tested for establishing the relationship between the ion signals and the combustion parameters. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is used in this study for estimating these two combustion parameters. The experiment results show that the location of peak pressure can be well established by this method.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Film Evaporation for Homogeneous Charge Preparation of Typical Fuels

Fuel films of several typical fuels were investigated by means of thermal gravity analysis (TGA). To make diesel homogeneous charge by means of film evaporation, it was concluded that to get 30%∼50% evaporation of film, the wall temperature should be set between 150°C and 180°C for diesel and 40°C∼60°C for gasoline, and to get 95% evaporation of film, the wall temperature should be set between 200°C and 250°C for diesel and 50°C∼100°C for gasoline, when the thickness of the fuel film is about 40 μ m. Based on the properties of fuels, the evaporation characteristics of diesel under 100°C should be improved.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Ethanol Fuel (E100) in a Small SI Engine

An air-cooled, four-stroke, 125 cc electronic gasoline fuel injection SI engine for motorcycles is altered to burn ethanol fuel. The effects of nozzle orifice size, fuel injection duration, spark timing and the excess air/ fuel ratio on engine power output, fuel and energy consumptions and engine exhaust emission levels are studied on an engine test bed. The results show that the maximum engine power output is increased by 5.4% and the maximum torque output is increased by 1.9% with the ethanol fuel in comparison with the baseline. At full load and 7000 r/min, HC emission is decreased by 38% and CO emission is decreased 46% on average over the whole engine speed range. However, NOx levels are increased to meet the maximum power output. The experiments of the spark timing show that the levels of HC and NOx emission are decreased markedly by the delay of spark timing.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Injection Strategies on Particulate Emissions from a Dual-Injection Gasoline Engine

European standards have set stringent PN (particle number) regulation (6×1011 #/km) for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, posing a great challenge for the particulate emission control of GDI engines. Dual-injection, which combines direct-injection (DI) with port-fuel-injection (PFI), is an effective approach to reduce particle emissions of GDI engine while maintaining good efficiency and power output. In order to investigate the PN emission characteristics under different dual-injection strategies, a DMS500 fast particle spectrometer was employed to characterize the effects of injection strategies on particulates emissions from a dual-injection gasoline engine. In this study, the injection strategies include injection timing, injection ratio and injection pressure of direct-injection.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Effects of Coolant Temperature on Particle Emissions from a Dual Injection Gasoline Engine

Euro VI emission standards have set a very strict limitation on particulate matter emissions of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine. It is difficult for GDI engine to meet the Euro VI PN regulation (6×1011#/km) without a series of complicated after-treatment devices such as Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF). Previous research shows that GDI vehicles under cold start condition account for more than 50% of both particle number and mass emissions during the entire NEDC driving cycle. Dual Injection Gasoline engine is based on the GDI engine by adding a set of port fuel injection system. The good mixing characteristics of the port fuel injection system can help to reduce the particulate matter emissions of the GDI engine during the cold start condition.
Technical Paper

Application of the Newly Developed KLSA Model into Optimizing the Compression Ratio of a Turbocharged SI Engine with Cooled EGR

Owing to the stochastic nature of engine knock, determination of the knock limited spark angle (KLSA) is difficult in engine cycle simulation. Therefore, the state-of-the-art knock modeling is mostly limited to either merely predicting knock onset (i.e. auto-ignition of end gas) or combining a simple unburned mass fraction (UMF) model representative of knock intensity (KI). In this study, a newly developed KLSA model, which takes both predictions of knock onset and intensity into account, is firstly introduced. Multiple variables including the excess air ratio, EGR ratio, cylinder pressure and the end gas temperature are included in the knock onset model. Based on the auto-ignition theory of hot spots in end gas, both the energy density and heat release rate in hot spots are taken into consideration in the KI model.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Thermal Efficiency Improvement of a Highly Boosted, High Compression Ratio, Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine with LIVC and EIVC at Partial and Full Loads

The improvement mechanism of fuel consumption at partial and full loads of a boosted direction-injection gasoline engine with the elevated geometrical compression ratio and Miller cycle by either early or late intake valve closing (EIVC or LIVC) are analyzed based on the first law of thermodynamics and one dimensional engine simulation. An increase in geometric compression ratio increases the theoretical thermal efficiency for all the operating loads, but deteriorates the fuel economy at full loads, owing primarily to the full-load knock limit. Use of Miller cycle improves the fuel economy for both the partial and full load operations by reducing the pumping loss and optimizing the combustion phasing, respectively. A comparison between EIVC and LIVC on the influencing factors on the thermal efficiency at the partial load shows that EIVC leads to higher mechanical efficiency and less heat transfer loss than LIVC, and hence its efficiency improvement is superior over LIVC.
Technical Paper

Effects of Spark Timing with Other Engine Operating Parameters on the Particulate Emissions of a Dualinjection Gasoline Engine During Warm-up Conditions

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has been a mainstream technology due to its higher thermal efficiency and better power output. However, with increasingly stringent emission regulations introduced (EURO VI PN limits: 6 x l011#/km), high particulate matter (PM) emission of GDI engine has been a serious problem that limits its further development. Previous studies have found that cold-start and warm-up operation conditions play the dominant role in engine-out particulate emissions. In this paper, emission characteristics during the cold-start were first studied by controlling the coolant temperature. A Cambustion DMS500 fast particle spectrometer was employed to analyze the PM emissions. In order to reduce the engine-out emissions of cold-start, a dual injection system which combines port-fuel-injection (PFI) and direct-injection (DI) was applied in a four-cylinder gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

System Characteristics of Direct and Secondary Loop Heat Pump for Electrical Vehicles

The electricity energy consumption for passenger cabin heating can drastically shorten the driving range for electric vehicles in cold climates. Mobile heat pump system is considered as an effective method to improve heating efficiency. This study investigates the system characteristics of mobile heat pump systems for electrical vehicle application. Based on KULI thermal management software, simulation models including HFC-R134a direct heat pump (DHP) and secondary loop heat pump (SLHP) were developed. The secondary loop employed in the SLHP includes a coolant pump, an indoor heater core and a plate heat exchanger, instead of an indoor condenser in the DHP. The use of a secondary loop has advantages to improve air outlet temperature uniformity. The simulation models were verified by measured data obtained from calorimeter experiments. By adopting simulation models, the effects of indoor and outdoor temperatures on system performance and cycle characteristics were discussed.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Effects of the Key Multi-Injection Parameters on Combustion and Emissions in Intelligent Charge Compression Ignition (ICCI) Mode

Developing advanced combustion mode has been the active area for high efficiency and ultra-low emissions of the next-generation internal combustion engines. In this paper, a series of experiments were conducted in a modified single-cylinder compression ignition engine for operating a brand-new combustion mode denoted as intelligent charge compression ignition (ICCI) mode. By using two common-rail systems, commercial gasoline and diesel were alternately directly injected into the cylinder through multi-injection strategies in the injection timing range of 50~320 °CA BTDC. Thus, the in-cylinder stratified condition can be flexibly and accurately adjusted in this unique combustion mode. The key injection parameters, such as gasoline injection timing and diesel split ratio, were investigated to explore their effects on engine combustion, emissions, and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Influence of Port Water Injection on the Combustion Characteristics and Exhaust Emissions in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

It is well known that engine downsizing is still the main energy-saving technology for spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. However, with the continuous increase of the boosting ratio, the gasoline engine is often accompanied by the occurrence of knocking, which has the drawback to run the engine at retarded combustion phasing. Besides, in order to protect the turbine blades from being sintered by high exhaust temperature, the strategies of fuel enrichment are often taken to reduce the combustion temperature, which ultimately leads to a high level of particulate number emission. Therefore, to address the issues discussed above, the port water injection (PWI) techniques on a 1.2-L turbocharged, three-cylinder, SIDI engine were investigated. Measurements indicate that the optimization of spark timing has a significant impact on its performance.