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Technical Paper

The Response of a Closed Loop Controlled Diesel Engine on Fuel Variation

An investigation was conducted to elucidate, how the latest turbocharged, direct injection Volkswagen diesel engine generation with cylinder pressure based closed loop control, to be launched in the US in 2008, reacts to fuel variability. A de-correlated fuels matrix was designed to bracket the range of US market fuel properties, which allowed a clear correlation of individual fuel properties with engine response. The test program consisting of steady state operating points showed that cylinder pressure based closed loop control successfully levels out the influence of fuel ignition quality, showing the effectiveness of this new technology for markets with a wide range of fuel qualities. However, it also showed that within the cetane range tested (39 to 55), despite the constant combustion mid-point, cetane number still has an influence on particulate and gaseous emissions. Volatility and energy density also influence the engine's behavior, but less strongly.
Technical Paper

An Optical Characterization of the Effect of High-Pressure Hydrodynamic Cavitation on Diesel

Most modern high-pressure common rail diesel fuel injection systems employ an internal pressure equalization system in order to support needle lift, enabling precise control of the injected fuel mass. This results in the return of a fraction of the high-pressure diesel back to the fuel tank. The diesel fuel flow occurring in the injector spill passages is expected to be a cavitating flow, which is known to promote fuel ageing. The cavitation of diesel promotes nano-particle formation through induced pyrolysis and oxidation, which may result in deposits in the vehicle fuel system. A purpose-built high-pressure cavitation flow rig has been employed to investigate the stability of unadditised crude-oil derived diesel and paraffin-blend model diesel, which were subjected to continuous hydrodynamic cavitation flow across a single-hole research diesel nozzle.
Technical Paper

An Optical Characterization of Atomization in Non-Evaporating Diesel Sprays

High-speed planar laser Mie scattering and Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) were employed for the determination of Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) distribution in non-evaporating diesel sprays. The effect of rail pressure, distillation profile, and consequent fuel viscosity on the drop size distribution developing during primary and secondary atomization was investigated. Samples of conventional crude-oil derived middle-distillate diesel and light distillate kerosene were delivered into an optically accessible mini-sac injector, using a customized high-pressure common rail diesel fuel injection system. Two optical channels were employed to capture images of elastic Mie and inelastic LIF scattering simultaneously on a high-speed video camera at 10 kHz. Results are presented for sprays obtained at maximum needle lift during the injection. These reveal that the emergent sprays exhibit axial asymmetry and vorticity.
Technical Paper

Combustion Imaging and Analysis in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

A single cylinder Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine with optical access has been used for combustion studies with both early injection and late injection for stratified charge operation. Cylinder pressure records have been used for combustion analysis that has been synchronised with the imaging. A high speed cine camera has been used for imaging combustion within a cycle, while a CCD camera has been used for imaging at fixed crank angles, so as to obtain information on cycle-by-cycle variations. The CCD images have also been analysed to give information on the quantity of soot present during combustion. Tests have been conducted with a reference unleaded gasoline (ULG), and pure fuel components: iso-octane (a representative alkane), and toluene (a representative aromatic). The results show diffusion-controlled combustion occurring in so-called homogeneous combustion with early injection.
Technical Paper

Amplified Pressure Waves During Autoignition: Relevance to CAI Engines

Controlled autoignition (CAI) engines ideally operate at very lean stoichiometries to achieve low NOx emissions. But at high loads, when combustion approaches stoichiometric, they become noisy and severe engine knock develops. A possible cause is the development of amplifying pressure waves near the hot spots that inevitably occur in the autoigniting gas. This paper presents the results from numerical solutions at realistic engine conditions of the detailed chemical kinetic equations with acoustic wave propagation. Those calculations that involve hot spots must include a spatial dimension. Because of this, they are much more time-consuming than for the homogeneous case. A model system of mixtures of 0.5 H2-0.5 CO with air for equivalence ratios, ϕ, between 0.45 and 1.0 has been used at engine-like temperatures and pressures. These calculations investigate the behaviour for various values of ϕ, hot spot size and temperature elevation.
Technical Paper

Fuel Anti-Knock Quality - Part I. Engine Studies

This is the first part of a two-part study on how to define the anti-knock quality of practical fuels. Knock intensity is measured in two single-cylinder research engines using different fuels at different mixture strengths, throttle settings and two compression ratios. The anti-knock quality of a fuel in a given engine operating condition is defined by its octane index OI = RON - KS where K is a constant for that condition and S is the sensitivity, (RON-MON), and RON and MON are the Research and Motor Octane numbers respectively. The higher the octane index, the better the anti-knock quality of the fuel. K is often assumed to be 0.5 so that OI=(RON+MON)/2. However, it is found that K depends on engine operating conditions and in some cases, K is negative so that for a given RON, a fuel with higher sensitivity (lower MON) has better anti-knock quality. The value of K decreases as the engine becomes more prone to knock i.e. as its octane requirement increases.
Technical Paper

Relevance of Research and Motor Octane Numbers to the Prediction of Engine Autoignition

Links between the RON, MON and Octane Index (OI) of a gasoline are explored and factors influencing knock severity are discussed. The OI was calculated by considering how the autoignition delay time changes with temperature and pressure. Three fuels were examined: a 65/35% toluene/heptane test fuel, and two primary reference fuels (PRF), one with the RON value of the test fuel and the other with the MON value. PRF autoignition times were taken from Adomeit et al and test fuel autoignition times were generated from mathematical models of RON/MON tests plus two experimental sets of engine autoignition data. The toluene/heptane OI depended strongly on engine conditions and could easily exceed the RON. With a lean mixture at high pressure it was 100.2 whereas the RON was only 83.9. Knock severity is governed by the nature of localized “hot spots”. Severe knock is associated with developing detonations towards the end of the delay time.
Journal Article

Understanding the Octane Appetite of Modern Vehicles

Octane appetite of modern engines has changed as engine designs have evolved to meet performance, emissions, fuel economy and other demands. The octane appetite of seven modern vehicles was studied in accordance with the octane index equation OI=RON-KS, where K is an operating condition specific constant and S is the fuel sensitivity (RONMON). Engines with a displacement of 2.0L and below and different combinations of boosting, fuel injection, and compression ratios were tested using a decorrelated RONMON matrix of eight fuels. Power and acceleration performance were used to determine the K values for corresponding operating points. Previous studies have shown that vehicles manufactured up to 20 years ago mostly exhibited negative K values and the fuels with higher RON and higher sensitivity tended to perform better.