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Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Test Precision in Latest Vehicle Technologies

2018-04-03
2018-01-0640
Demonstrating the cost/benefits of technologies in the automotive sector is becoming very challenging because the benefits from technologies are sometimes of similar magnitude to testing precision. This paper aims to understand vehicle-borne imprecision and the effect of this on the quality of chassis dynamometer (CD) testing. Fuel consumption and NOx emissions precision is analyzed for two diesel vehicles with particulate filter and SCR systems. The two vehicles were tested on a high precision CD facility over the NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) and WLTC (World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle) cycles. The CD base precision of testing was characterized between 0.6-3% depending on the cycle phase. A novel application of multi-variate statistical analysis was used to identify the factors that affected testing precision, allowing isolation of small differences that were not obvious when conducting cycle-averaged or cycle-phase-averaged analysis.
Technical Paper

GTL Fuel Impact on DI Diesel Emissions

2007-07-23
2007-01-2004
Reduction of exhaust emissions was investigated in a modern diesel engine equipped with advanced diesel after treatment system using a Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuel, a cleaner burning alternative diesel fuel. This fuel has near zero sulfur and aromatics and high cetane number. Some specially prepared GTL fuel samples were used to study the effects of GTL fuel distillation characteristics on exhaust emissions before engine modification. Test results indicated that distillation range of GTL fuels has a significant impact on engine out PM. High cetane number also improved HC and CO emissions, while these fuel properties have little effect on NOx emissions. From these results, it was found that low distillation range and high cetane number GTL fuel can provide a favorable potential in NOx/PM emissions trade-off. In order to improve the tail-pipe emissions in the latest diesel engine system, the engine modifications were carried out for the most favorable GTL fuel sample.
Technical Paper

The M111 Engine CCD and Emissions Test: Is it Relevant to Real-World Vehicle Data?

2002-05-06
2002-01-1642
A European test procedure for evaluating engine deposits, using the Mercedes Benz M111 bench engine, has already been approved for inlet valve deposits (IVD) and is under development for combustion chamber deposits (CCD) by the Co-ordinating European Council (CEC). This paper describes CCD effects on emissions using a slightly modified version of this engine test procedure and compares it with CCD/emissions data from road vehicles. The engine used was a modern four valve, four cylinder, 2.0 litre passenger car unit and the bench test procedure used extended the operating time from the specified 60 hours to 180 hours. The road vehicle trial used two Mercedes Benz C200 passenger cars fitted with the M111 engine and two Ford Mondeo 2.0 litre passenger cars. Data was collected up to 11200km, approximately equivalent to 180 hours operation of the bench engine.
Technical Paper

A Critical Road Test Evaluation of a High-Performance Gasoline Additive Package in a Fleet of Modern European and Asian Vehicles

2004-06-08
2004-01-2027
A road test has been conducted to quantify the benefits provided by a high-performance gasoline additive package in a fleet of cars representative of Europe, SE Asia, and South America. The emissions, fuel consumption, and engine cleanliness benefits of additised versus untreated gasoline were compared in 15 pairs of cars. A further 6 cars were operated on a mixture of fuels to show the benefits of additised fuel versus mixed fuelling. The design of the experiment was based on a similar road test conducted in 1991. Through careful test design and execution, it has been possible to assess the performance of the package at a high statistical confidence level. The package provides a high level of inlet system cleanliness, a significant reduction in fuel consumption and reduced HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Demanding Low Temperature Urban Operation on the Real Driving Emissions Performance of Three European Diesel Passenger Cars

2018-09-10
2018-01-1819
In Europe, the development and implementation of new regulatory test procedures including the chassis dynamometer (CD) based World Harmonised Light Duty Test Procedure (WLTP) and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) procedure, has been driven by the close scrutiny that real driving emissions and fuel consumption from passenger cars have come under in recent times. This is due to a divergence between stated certification performance and measured on-road performance, and has been most pointed in the case of NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions from diesel cars. The RDE test is certainly more relevant than CD test cycles, but currently certification RDE cycles will not necessarily include the most extreme low speed congested or low temperature conditions which are likely to be more challenging for NOx after-treatment systems.
Technical Paper

The Application of Telematics to the High-Precision Assessment of Fuel-Borne Fuel Economy Additives

2012-09-10
2012-01-1738
The demonstration benefit from fuel-borne fuel-economy additives to a precision of 1%, or better, traditionally requires very careful experimental design and considerable resource intensity. In practice, the process usually requires the use of well-defined drive cycles (e.g. emission certification cycles HFET, NEDC) in conjunction with environmentally-controlled chassis dynamometer facilities. Against this background, a method has been developed to achieve high-precision fuel economy comparison of gasoline fuels with reduced resource intensity and under arbitrary real-world driving conditions. The method relies upon the inference of instantaneous fuel consumption via the collection of OBD data and the simultaneous estimation of instantaneous engine output from vehicle dynamical behaviour.
Journal Article

The Effect of Engine, Axle and Transmission Lubricant, and Operating Conditions on Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Economy. Part 1: Measurements

2011-08-30
2011-01-2129
It is expected that the world's energy demand will double by 2050, which requires energy-efficient technologies to be readily available. With the increasing number of vehicles on our roads the demand for energy is increasing rapidly, and with this there is an associated increase in CO₂ emissions. Through the careful use of optimized lubricants it is possible to significantly reduce vehicle fuel consumption and hence CO₂. This paper evaluates the effects on fuel economy of high quality, low viscosity heavy-duty diesel engine type lubricants against mainstream type products for all elements of the vehicle driveline. Testing was performed on Shell's driveline test facility for the evaluation of fuel consumption effects due to engine, gearbox and axle oils and the variation with engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

The Effect of Engine, Axle and Transmission Lubricant, and Operating Conditions on Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Economy: Part 2: Predictions

2011-08-30
2011-01-2130
A predictive model for estimating the fuel saving of “top tier” engine, axle and transmission lubricants (compared to “mainstream” lubricants), in a heavy duty truck, operating on a realistic driving cycle, is described. Simulations have been performed for different truck weights (10, 20 and 40 tonnes) and it was found that the model predicts percentage fuel economy benefits that are of a similar magnitude to those measured in well controlled field trials1. The model predicts the percentage fuel saving from the engine oil should decrease as the vehicle load increases (which is in agreement with field trial results). The percentage fuel saving from the axle and gearbox oils initially decreases with load and then stays more or less constant. This behaviour is due to the detailed way in which axle and gearbox efficiency varies with speed/load and lubricant type.
Journal Article

Ultra Boost for Economy: Extending the Limits of Extreme Engine Downsizing

2014-04-01
2014-01-1185
The paper discusses the concept, design and final results from the ‘Ultra Boost for Economy’ collaborative project, which was part-funded by the Technology Strategy Board, the UK's innovation agency. The project comprised industry- and academia-wide expertise to demonstrate that it is possible to reduce engine capacity by 60% and still achieve the torque curve of a modern, large-capacity naturally-aspirated engine, while encompassing the attributes necessary to employ such a concept in premium vehicles. In addition to achieving the torque curve of the Jaguar Land Rover naturally-aspirated 5.0 litre V8 engine (which included generating 25 bar BMEP at 1000 rpm), the main project target was to show that such a downsized engine could, in itself, provide a major proportion of a route towards a 35% reduction in vehicle tailpipe CO2 on the New European Drive Cycle, together with some vehicle-based modifications and the assumption of stop-start technology being used instead of hybridization.
Journal Article

Formation and Removal of Injector Nozzle Deposits in Modern Diesel Cars

2013-04-08
2013-01-1684
Deposits forming in the injector nozzle holes of modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the fuel injected into the combustion chamber, causing reduced or less efficient combustion, resulting in power loss and increased fuel consumption. A study of the factors affecting injector nozzle tip temperature, a parameter critical to nozzle deposit formation, has been conducted in a Peugeot DW10 passenger car bench engine, as used in the industry standard CEC F-098 injector nozzle deposit test, [1]. The findings of the bench engine study were applied in the development of a Chassis Dynamometer (CD) based vehicle test method using Euro 5 compliant vehicles. The developed test method was refined to tune the conditions as far as practicable towards a realistic driving pattern whilst maintaining sufficient deposit forming tendency to enable test duration to be limited to a reasonable period.
Journal Article

Dedicated GTL Vehicle: A Calibration Optimization Study

2010-04-12
2010-01-0737
GTL (Gas-To-Liquid) fuel is well known to improve tailpipe emissions when fuelling a conventional diesel vehicle, that is, one optimized to conventional fuel. This investigation assesses the additional potential for GTL fuel in a GTL-dedicated vehicle. This potential for GTL fuel was quantified in an EU 4 6-cylinder serial production engine. In the first stage, a comparison of engine performance was made of GTL fuel against conventional diesel, using identical engine calibrations. Next, adaptations enabled the full potential of GTL fuel within a dedicated calibration to be assessed. For this stage, two optimization goals were investigated: - Minimization of NOx emissions and - Minimization of fuel consumption. For each optimization the boundary condition was that emissions should be within the EU5 level. An additional constraint on the latter strategy required noise levels to remain within the baseline reference.
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