Understanding the disintegration process and geometric effects on spray characteristics are of importance in the design of a high quality injector, because improving fuel atomization and targeting has been proved to be an effective way to reduce the exhaust hydrocarbon emissions for gasoline engines. To reveal the relationship between the internal flow and the spray characteristics, particle size measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were combined to analyze a set of orifices. The flow field inside the nozzle, as well as the direction and shape of the liquid jet in the vicinity of the nozzle exit, was numerically predicted. Spray droplet sizes were then measured for the same orifices. Interesting links were discovered between nozzle geometry and spray characteristics. The results indicate that the secondary flow inside the orifice hole, due to Vena Contracta phenomena, contributes greatly to the atomization and shape of the liquid jets.
The air entrainment in a transient diesel spray was studied using laser Doppler anemometry to provide information on the effect of gas density and temperature. The spray was injected vertically into a confined quiescent atmosphere and the entrained mass flow rate was evaluated by measuring the air velocity component normal to a cylindrical geometric surface surrounding the spray, and extending to about 200 nozzle diameters (50 mm). The experimental results, relative to a density range from 0.84 to 7.02 kg/m3 and a temperature range from 293 to 473 K, indicate that the non dimensional entrainment rate, averaged in time over the main injection period, depends on the distance from the nozzle and both gas density and temperature. A first analysis, based on the available data, allowed to quantify the dependence and provided a correlation with such variables.
The potential of dielectric barrier discharges for the reduction of NO emitted from Diesel cars has been investigated. Without additional measures the non-thermal plasma induced oxidation of NO to NO2 is favored over reduction to N2 and O2. Therefore a combination of plasma and a catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ammonia as reducing agent has been tested: An NO conversion of about 70 % was achieved at a temperature as low as 100 °C, which cannot be explained by simply adding the reduction rates obtained by plasma and by selective catalytic reduction.
The individual development process for distributed, communicating electronic control units hinders the integration of Automotive systems and increases the overall costs. In order to facilitate such applications, services and protocols for Communication, Network Management, and Operating System must be standardized. The aim of the OSEK project is to work out a respective specification proposal in cooperation with several car manufacturers and suppliers. This will permit a cost-effective system integration and support the portation of system functions between different electronic control units.
For the development of complex Man Machine Interfaces (MMI) we created an innovative development tool. With this system we gain significantly higher certainty in concept by earlier integration of the customer. Additional advantages are the reduction of development time and costs and an improvement of the MMI quality with regard to self-explaining operation for complex information systems.
In comparison to a standard dual airbag system as of today, future restraint systems will introduce a variety of new and additional actuator devices which help to improve the overall restraint performance. Furthermore, sensors and sensor-subsystems will be added to improve and extend the range of crash detection and to enable an automatic adaptation of the restraint system to a given status of the vehicle, its occupants and the crash severity. The implementation and control of these new functions require an appropriate design of the overall restraint system electronics. Two approaches are described in greater detail: the modular design based on functional building blocks, and the implementation as a distributed system including communication links.
Electronic control modules for engine control applications have an increasing number of power drivers. Most of them are switching in a PWM mode or synchronously with engine speed. Fast switching of load currents and voltages generates a noise in the lower AM band (150 kHz … 10 MHz) exceeding given limits for radiated emissions. The objective was to determine how the switching noise could be reduced by means of controlled current and/or voltage slopes. Finally ways were identified to implement appropriate voltage slope controls into a fully integrated quad low side driver ASIC. The paper will show results from practical measurements in the time and frequency domain as well as theoretical data to describe the switching behavior before and after implementation of the improvements A major result was that both current and voltage slope control are necessary to achieve best results. A special method of wave shaping was identified as the optimum.
Dynamic tests have been performed on carbon fiber racing seats following the FIA regulations. The tests have shown, in rear impact tests, a relatively strong rebound leading to large forward bending of neck, and, in side impact tests, very large lateral displacement of the head, the latter protruding dangerously towards hard portions of the car structure. Stiffening the seat back by steel struts results in reducing strongly both the motion and the acceleration of the head. Simulations of the dynamics of the tests have been done with multi-body models, including the Hybrid III dummy and seat deflection, by means of the program VEDYAC. It has been found that computer simulation can predict very accurately the result of a test, provided the numerical models have been carefully calibrated to match the dummy tolerance bands. Once they have been calibrated and validated with a number of tests, the computer models can be very useful to extend the test results to different test conditions.
The replacement with plastic of an important component, formerly in steel, in the timing drive of a heavily duty diesel engine has been studied and realized. The substituted part is the toothed coupling connecting the injection pump to the timing drive. Torque that stresses the coupling has been measured with laboratory tests. The tooth stresses have been calculated with FEM analysis. Finally, fatigue tests have been carried out directly on the engine at different loadings. The test results are consistent with the predicted behavior of this component.
The design of recovery steam generators for incineration plants encounters certain specific problems, related to the nature of the exhausted gases, which, if not properly faced, can strongly condition the conduction of the whole system. Two problems, namely, demand for particular attention: the corrosion at high temperature and the formation of organochlorine compounds, in presence of ashes and/or deposits for definite temperature intervals. These phenomena can be controlled and minimized, whenever possible, by limiting to the greatest extent the regions where the temperatures of the metallic walls and of the ashes and/or deposits are within the critical interval.
The influence of spray-wall interaction on air entrainment in an unsteady non-evaporating diesel spray was studied using laser Doppler anemometry. The spray was injected into confined quiescent air at ambient pressure and temperature and made to impact on a flat wall. The air velocity component normal to a cylindrical surface surrounding the spray was measured during the entire injection period, allowing to evaluate the time history of the entrained air mass flow rate. The influence of wall distance and spray impingement angle on air entrainment characteristics has been investigated and the results indicate that the presence of a wall increases the entrained mass flow rate in the region close to the surface, during the main injection period. Normal impingement appears to produce stronger effects than oblique incidence at 30 and 45 deg. A qualitative explanation of the results is also proposed, based on the drop-gas momentum exchange mechanism.
This paper describes the experimental activity carried out at Aerospace Engineering Department of Politecnico di Milano about energy absorption capability of glass-epoxy RTM specimens, representative of automotive crash front structure sub-components. After the analysis of some automotive crashworthiness aspects, especially relevant to the structural adoption of composite materials, the specimen used and the technological route to produce them are described. Then experimental arrangements, test procedure and measurement technique, relevant to static and crash test are presented. Finally test results, reported in the form of numerical values, diagrams and high-velocity films are shown and critically commented.
Apollo is the name of a solar prototype vehicle of Politecnico di Milano (Technical University of Milan) that has been conceived and employed for the Shell Eco-marathon® Europe competition (SEM). The paper introduces the concept design, the detailed design, the construction, the indoor tests, the successful employment at SEM and the end-of-life of the prototype. Apollo is a three-wheeler with a single driving and steering wheel at the rear. A wing with solar cells provides part of the electric energy required for running. The conceptual design started from the accommodation of the driver inside the vehicle. A number of iterations focusing on CFD (computation fluid dynamics) and wind-tunnel tests allowed to refine the total drag to less than 2N at 35 km/h. The tyre characteristic was measured on a drum. The camber of front wheels was set to 4 deg which provided the least rolling resistance.
The ride comfort of three Alfa Romeo cars, namely Giulietta (1955), Alfetta (1972) and 159 (2005) has been assessed both objectively and subjectively. The three cars belong to the same market segment. The aim is to let young engineers or graduate students understand how technology has evolved and eventually learn a lesson from the assessed trend. A number of cleats have been fixed at the ground and the three cars have traversed such uneven surface. The objective assessment of the ride comfort has been performed by means of accelerometers fixed at the seat rails, additionally a special dummy developed at Politecnico di Milano has been employed. The subjective assessment has been performed by a panel of passengers. The match between objective and subjective ratings is very good. Simple mathematical models have been employed to establish a (successful) comparison between experimental and computational results. The ride comfort differs substantially among the cars.
The paper presents some new and unreferenced analytical formulae describing the dynamic behaviour of the suspension system of road or off-road vehicles. The quarter car model (2 degrees of freedom) is considered, the suspension can be either passive or active. Passive suspensions can be simplified as the spring-damper combination or the spring-damper combination with an additional in series spring (representing, e.g., the rubber bushing at the top of a McPherson strut or the rubber bushing at the end joints of the damper). The mathematical system is linear and the excitation is given by a random stationary and ergodic process. The standard deviations in analytical form are given referring to, respectively, the vehicle body acceleration, the relative displacement between sprung and unsprung mass, and the force at the ground. The so called invariant points of the frequency response functions are derived for both active and passive suspension.
A contemporary approach for improving and developing the understanding of heavy-duty Diesel engine combustion processes is to use a concerted effort between experiments at well-characterized boundary conditions and detailed, high-fidelity models. In this paper, combustion processes of n-dodecane fuel sprays under heavy-duty Diesel engine conditions are investigated using this approach. Reacting fuel sprays are studied in a constant-volume pre-burn vessel at an ambient temperature of 900 K with three reference cases having specific combinations of injection pressure, ambient density and ambient oxygen concentration (80, 150 & 160 MPa - 22.8 & 40 kg/m3-15 & 20.5% O2). In addition to a free jet, two different walls were placed inside the combustion vessel to study flame-wall interaction.
In the most elementary treatment of plane-wave reflection at the open end of a duct system, it is often assumed that the ends are pressure nodes. This implies that pressure is assumed as a constant at the open end termination and that steady flow boundary condition is supposed as instantaneously established. While this simplifying assumption seems reasonable, it does not consider any radiation of acoustic energy from the duct into the surrounding free space; hence, an error in the estimation of the effects of the flow on the acoustical response of an open-end duct occurs. If radiation is accounted, a complicated three-dimensional wave pattern near the duct end is established, which tends to readjust the exit pressure to its steady-flow level. This adjustment process is continually modified by further incident waves, so that the effective instantaneous boundary conditions which determine the reflected waves depend on the flow history.
The acoustic simulation of internal combustion engine exhaust systems is an important aspect to meet customer expectations and legislation targets. One dimensional gas dynamic simulation tools are used for the calculation of the exhaust orifice noise in the early stages of the engine development process. This includes the prediction of the acoustic performance of individual components in the exhaust line. One common element used in exhaust systems to increase the acoustic damping is the plug flow muffler. This study looks at the prediction of acoustic performance of various plug mufflers at different flow velocities. These include a single plug muffler, a double plug muffler and an eccentric plug muffler with different porosities for the perforated sections. To this purpose a generic 3D cell approach was developed and applied.
Tires will be protagonists in the new European regulations for safety and fuel economy: in 2012 a tire pressure monitoring system will be mandatory for all new vehicles, enabling as natural consequence the development of the so called “intelligent tire”, able to capture all the relevant information of the contact between the road surface and the rubber, a starting point for new functions development to improve safety and reduce fuel consumption of all vehicles. A description of the methodologies that can be used to extract features from the tires, based on the experience of the development of Cyber Tyre, a high performance sensorized tire, is included in this work; comparison with the same information gained thorough ordinary sensors are provided too. The paper also presents some interesting examples of how data, coming from Cyber Tyres, can be exploited to improve the safety margins of a vehicle, preventing the critical operating condition represented by hydroplaning.